Presentation on theme: "HEALTH EDUCATION. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT Mid- 1800’s –nursing was recognized as unique discipline. Teaching has been recognized as an important health."— Presentation transcript:
Mid- 1800’s –nursing was recognized as unique discipline. Teaching has been recognized as an important health care initiative assumed by the nurses.
Focus is not only on the care of the sick but also on education other nurses for professional practice. Florence nightingale is the ultimate educator because she dedicated a large portion of her career in educating those who are involve in the delivery of health care (Physicians, nurses, health officials) Teaching today is now within the scope of nursing practice responsibilities.
Nurses are expected to provide instruction to assist the consumers in: Maintaining optimal level of wellness Prevention of diseases, manage illness, and Develop skills to give supportive care to family members.
From disease oriented... we now focus on prevention-oriented patient education to ultimately become health-oriented patient education. The role of nurse educator evolved from healer to expert advisor/teacher to facilitator of change. Another role of nurses educator is training the trainer.
Early 1900 – public health nurses in the US began to understood the importance of education in the prevention of disease and maintenance of health 1918 – NLNE (National League for Nursing Education) observed the importance of health teaching as a function within the scope of nursing practice.
1950 – NLNE identified the course content dealing with teaching skills, developmental and educational psychology, and principles of educational process of teaching and learning as areas in the curriculum common to all nursing schools.
Today – state nurse practice acts (NPAs) universally include teaching within the scope of nursing practice.
Nurse Educator’s role evolved from: Disease-oriented approach to Prevention-oriented approach Wise healer to expert advisor/teacher to facilitator of change.
SOCIO-ECO-POLITICAL FACTORS AFFECTING NURSING PRACTICE AND HEALTH CARE SYSTEM
Growth of managed care, shifts in payer coverage, & reimbursement issues for provision of health care Health providers are beginning to recognize the economic and social values in practicing preventive medicine through health education.
Political emphasis is on productivity, competitiveness in the marketplace, and cost- containment measures to restrain health services expenses. The focus of nursing practice is now on patient education. Consumers are demanding increased knowledge and skills about how to care for themselves and how to prevent disease.
Demographic trends are requiring an emphasis to be placed on self-reliance and maintenance of a healthy status over an extended lifespan. Causes of morbidity and mortality are now recognized as lifestyle-related and preventable through educational intervention.
Increase in the incidence of chronic and incurable conditions leads the people to become informed participants to manage their own illnesses. Advanced technology Earlier hospital discharge Increased number of self-help groups
RESEARCH Research must be conducted on the benefits of patient education as it relates to: Potential of increasing the quality of life Leading a disability-free life Decreasing the costs of healthcare; and Managing independently at home through anticipatory teaching approach.
Research must be conducted on the benefits of teaching methods & tools using the ff.: Computer-assisted instruction Distance learning Video and audiotapes for home use Internet access to health education
Autonomy - it refers to the capacity of a rational individual to make an informed, un- coerced decision. Veracity - the state of being in accord with a particular fact or reality, or being in accord with the body of real things, real events or actualities
Beneficence - is action that is done for the benefit of others. Beneficent actions can be taken to help prevent or remove harms or to simply improve the situation of others.
Nonmaleficence - means to “do no harm.” Physicians must refrain from providing ineffective treatments or acting with malice toward patients. This principle, however, offers little useful guidance to physicians since many beneficial therapies also have serious risks. The pertinent ethical issue is whether the benefits outweigh the burdens.
Confidentiality - means keeping information given by or about an individual in the course of a professional relationship secure and secret from others.
Justice - fair treatment of individuals to the equitable allocation of healthcare
LEGALITY OF PATIENT EDUCATION AND INFORMATION The patient’s right to adequate information regarding his or her physical condition, medications, risks, and access to information regarding alternative treatments is specifically spelled out in the Patient’s bill of Rights.
DOCUMENTATION Health teaching should be properly documented in the patient’s record. Unfortunately, this is probably the most undocumented skill because nurses do not recognize the scope and depth of the teaching they do.
DEFINITION OF TERMS Education process – is a systematic, sequential, planned course of action consisting of two major interdependent operations; Teaching and Learning. TEACHING - is a deliberate intervention that involves the planning and implementation of instructional activities and experiences to meet intended learner outcomes according to a teaching plan.
DEFINITION OF TERMS Instruction –is a component of teaching that involves the communicating of information about a specific skill in the cognitive, psychomotor, or affective domain
DEFINITION OF TERMS Learning - is defined as a change in behaviour (knowledge, skills, attitudes) that can occur at any time or in any place as a result of exposure to environmental stimuli.
DEFINITION OF TERMS Patient Education – is a process of assisting people to learn health related behaviours (knowledge, skills, attitudes, values) so that they can incorporate those behaviours into everyday life. Staff Education –is a process of influencing the behavior of nurses by producing changes in their skills, attitudes, knowledge, and values