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Business Communication: Process and Product, 8e Mary Ellen Guffey and Dana Loewy Instructor PowerPoint Library, 8e 9 Negative Messages © 2015 Cengage Learning.

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Presentation on theme: "Business Communication: Process and Product, 8e Mary Ellen Guffey and Dana Loewy Instructor PowerPoint Library, 8e 9 Negative Messages © 2015 Cengage Learning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Business Communication: Process and Product, 8e Mary Ellen Guffey and Dana Loewy Instructor PowerPoint Library, 8e 9 Negative Messages © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 1

2 Learning Objective 1 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 2 Understand the strategies of business communicators in conveying negative news, apply the bad-news writing process, and avoid legal liabilities.

3 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © MelisendeVector.com/Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 3 Goals in Conveying Unfavorable News Explaining clearly and completely Projecting a professional image Conveying empathy and sensitivity Being fair Maintaining friendly relations

4 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 4 Applying the 3-x-3 Writing Process Phase 1 Analysis, Anticipation, and Adaptation Analyze the bad news. Anticipate its effect on the receiver. Announce the bad news directly if the disappoint- ment will be mild. Use techniques to reduce the pain if the bad news is serious.

5 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 5 Applying the 3-x-3 Writing Process Phase 2 Research, Organization, and Drafting Gather information. Jot down all reasons you have to explain the bad news. Brainstorm for ideas.

6 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 6 Applying the 3-x-3 Writing Process Phase 2 Research, Organization, and Drafting Present only the strongest and safest reasons. Avoid fixing blame. Include ample explanation of the negative situation.

7 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 7 Applying the 3-x-3 Writing Process Phase 3 Revision, Proofreading, and Evaluation Read the message carefully to ensure that it says what you intend. Read the sentences to see if they sound like conversation and flow smoothly. Check the wording to be sure you are concise without being abrupt.

8 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 8 Applying the 3-x-3 Writing Process Phase 3 Revision, Proofreading, and Evaluation Make sure the tone is friendly and respectful. Evaluate the message: Is it too blunt? Too subtle? Is it clear, but professional? Check format, grammar, and mechanics.

9 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © Yury Shchipakin/Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 9 Avoiding Legal Liability in Conveying Negative News Abusive language Including abusive language on social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter $%#@!

10 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © Ogerepus/Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 10 Avoiding Legal Liability in Conveying Negative News Careless language Statements that are potentially damaging or subject to misinterpretation The factory is too hazardous for tour groups.

11 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © Ogerepus/Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 11 Avoiding Legal Liability in Conveying Negative News The good-guy syndrome Dangerous statements that ease your conscience or make you look good I thought you were an excellent candidate, but we had to hire…

12 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 12 Avoiding Legal Liability in Conveying Negative News Express only the views of your organization when acting as agent of the organization. Use plain paper for your personal matters. Avoid supplying information that could be misused. Don’t admit or imply responsibility without checking with legal counsel.

13 Learning Objective 2 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 13 Distinguish between the direct or indirect strategy in conveying unfavorable news.

14 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 14 Analyzing Negative News Strategies Direct Strategy Indirect Strategy Indirect Strategy

15 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 15 When to Use the Direct Strategy When the bad news is not damaging. When receiver may overlook the bad news When the organization or receiver prefers directness When firmness is necessary Direct Strategy

16 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 16 When to Use the Indirect Strategy When the bad news is personally upsetting When the bad news will provoke a hostile reaction When the bad news threatens the customer relationship When the bad news is unexpected Indirect Strategy Indirect Strategy

17 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 17 Comparing Strategies for Delivering Negative News Direct Strategy Indirect Strategy Indirect Strategy Bad News Reasons Pleasant Close Buffer Reasons Bad News Pleasant Close

18 Learning Objective 3 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 18 Explain the components of effective negative messages, including opening with a buffer, apologizing, showing empathy, presenting the reasons, cushioning the bad news, and closing pleasantly.

19 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 19 What Is a Buffer? a device to reduce shock or pain a neutral, but meaningful statement that makes the reader continue reading a concise, relevant first paragraph providing a natural transition to the explanation that follows

20 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 20 Various Buffer Types Best news Compliment Appreciation Agreement Facts Understanding BUFFERS

21 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © helen cingisiz/Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 21 Presenting the Reasons for the Negative News Explain the reasons leading up to the no clearly. Cite reader benefit or benefits to others, if plausible. Explain the rationale behind your company’s policy. Choose positive words to keep the reader in a receptive mood. Show fairness and serious intent.

22 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © helen cingisiz/Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 22 Other Techniques for Cushioning the Bad News Position the bad news strategically. Use the passive voice. Highlight the positive, if plausible. Imply the refusal. Suggest a compromise or an alternative.

23 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © Ogerepus/Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 23 Closing Pleasantly FORWARD LOOK Anticipate future relations or business. ALTERNA- TIVE Give follow-through advice or offer an alternative, if available. GOOD WISHES Express sincere feelings, e.g., thank the reader, if applicable. FREEBIES Send a coupon, sample, or gift, if available, to restore confidence. RESALE OR SALES PROMOTION Invite the reader to consider your other products or services.

24 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 24 Apologizing Effectively in the Digital Age: The 5Rs RECOGNITION Acknowledge the specific offense. REMORSE Embrace “I apologize” and “I’m sorry.” REPEATING Promise it won’t happen again and mean it. RESTITUTION Explain what exactly you will do about it. RESPONSIBILITY Be personally accountable.

25 Learning Objective 4 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 25 Apply effective techniques for refusing typical requests or claims as well as for bad news with customers in print or online.

26 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © helen cingisiz/Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 26 Saying No to Typical Requests and Claims Requests for favors, money, information, and action Invitations Claims from disappointed customers Serious problems with orders Rate increases and price hikes Credit refusals

27 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 27 “Before” – Ineffective Customer Request Refusal Dear Ms. Trumbo: We regret to inform you that we cannot allow you to convert the lease payments you have been making on your Canon X1000 color copier toward its purchase, much as we would love to do so. We understand that you have been making regular payments for the past 16 months. Our established company policy prohibits such conversion of leasing monies. Perhaps you have noticed that we offer extremely low leasing and purchase prices. Obviously, these low prices would never be possible if we agreed to many proposals such as yours. Because we are striving to stay in business, we cannot agree to your request asking us to convert all 16 months of rental payments toward the purchase of our popular new equipment. It is our understanding, Ms. Trumbo, that you have had the Canon X1000 color copier for 16 months, and you claim that it has been reliable and versatile. We would like to tell you about another Canon model—one that is perhaps closer to your limited budget. Sincerely, Dear Ms. Trumbo: We regret to inform you that we cannot allow you to convert the lease payments you have been making on your Canon X1000 color copier toward its purchase, much as we would love to do so. We understand that you have been making regular payments for the past 16 months. Our established company policy prohibits such conversion of leasing monies. Perhaps you have noticed that we offer extremely low leasing and purchase prices. Obviously, these low prices would never be possible if we agreed to many proposals such as yours. Because we are striving to stay in business, we cannot agree to your request asking us to convert all 16 months of rental payments toward the purchase of our popular new equipment. It is our understanding, Ms. Trumbo, that you have had the Canon X1000 color copier for 16 months, and you claim that it has been reliable and versatile. We would like to tell you about another Canon model—one that is perhaps closer to your limited budget. Sincerely,

28 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 28 “After” – Improved Refusal of Request Dear Ms. Trumbo: We’re happy to learn that you are enjoying the use of the Canon X1000 color copier you’ve been leasing for the past 16 months. Like our many other customers, Ms. Trumbo, you have discovered that Canon copiers supply remarkable versatility and reliability. One of the reasons we’re able to offer these outstanding copiers at such low leasing rates and equally low purchase prices is that we maintain a slim profit margin. If our program included a provision for applying lease payments toward purchase prices, our overall prices would have to be higher. Although lease payments cannot be credited toward purchase price, we can offer you other Canon models that are within your price range. The Canon 600 delivers the same reliability with nearly as many features as the top-of-the- line Canon X1000. Please let us demonstrate the Canon 600 to your staff in your office, Ms. Trumbo. Our representative, Seth Simmons, will call you during the week of May 5 to arrange an appointment. Sincerely, Dear Ms. Trumbo: We’re happy to learn that you are enjoying the use of the Canon X1000 color copier you’ve been leasing for the past 16 months. Like our many other customers, Ms. Trumbo, you have discovered that Canon copiers supply remarkable versatility and reliability. One of the reasons we’re able to offer these outstanding copiers at such low leasing rates and equally low purchase prices is that we maintain a slim profit margin. If our program included a provision for applying lease payments toward purchase prices, our overall prices would have to be higher. Although lease payments cannot be credited toward purchase price, we can offer you other Canon models that are within your price range. The Canon 600 delivers the same reliability with nearly as many features as the top-of-the- line Canon X1000. Please let us demonstrate the Canon 600 to your staff in your office, Ms. Trumbo. Our representative, Seth Simmons, will call you during the week of May 5 to arrange an appointment. Sincerely,

29 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © Yury Shchipakin/Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 29 Dealing With Unhappy Customers in Print and Online Call or e-mail the individual or reply to his or her online post within 24 hours. Describe the problem and apologize.

30 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © Yury Shchipakin/Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 30 Dealing With Unhappy Customers in Print and Online Explain the following: Why the problem occurred How you will prevent it from happening again What you are doing to resolve it

31 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © Yury Shchipakin/Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 31 Dealing With Unhappy Customers in Print and Online Promote goodwill by following up with a message that documents the phone call or acknowledges the online exchange of posts.

32 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 32 Responding by E-mail and in Hard Copy Written messages are important in these situations: When you cannot reach the customer personally. When you need to establish a record of the incident. When you wish to confirm follow-up procedures. When you want to promote good relations.

33 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © Yury Shchipakin/Fotolia, © nattstudio/Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 33 Why Consumers Complain Online Internet sites such as Complaints.com or Ripoff Report enable customers to quickly share peeves about stores, products, and services. Consumers may air their complaints on social networking sites (Facebook, Twitter, Angie’s List, Yelp, and more) rather than calling customer service departments.

34 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © Yury Shchipakin/Fotolia, © nattstudio/Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 34 Why Consumers Complain Online Customers may receive faster responses to tweets than to customer service calls. Griping in public may help other consumers avoid the same problems. Public complaints can improve the complainer’s leverage in solving a problem. Sending a 140-character tweet is much easier than writing a complaint e-mail.

35 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © Marina Zlochin/Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 35 Managing Negative News Online What smart businesses do: Recognize social networks as an important communication channel. Become proactive and join the fun. Monitor and embrace comments.

36 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © grgroup /Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 36 Handling Problems With Orders Use the direct strategy if the message has some good- news elements. The indirect strategy may be more appropriate when the message is disappointing.

37 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 37 Announcing Rate Increases and Price Hikes Explain the reason for the price increase, such as higher material costs or rising taxes. Convey how the increase will add new value or better features, make use more efficient, or make customers’ lives easier. Give (advance) warning of rate increases.

38 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 38 Denying Claims Adopt the proper tone. You should have known that cash refunds are impossible if you had read your contract. Avoid you statements that sound preachy. Don’t blame customers, even if they are at fault.

39 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 39 Denying Claims Use neutral, objective language to explain why the claim must be refused. Consider resale information to rebuild the customer’s confidence in your products or organization.

40 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 40 Refusing Credit Prepare for possible future credit without raising false expecta- tions. Avoid language that causes hard feelings. Retain customers on a cash basis. Avoid disclosures that could cause a lawsuit.

41 Learning Objective 5 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 41 Describe and apply effective techniques for delivering bad news within organizations.

42 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © denis_pc /Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 42 Managing Bad News Within Organizations Telling the boss that something went wrong. Confronting an employee about poor performance. Announcing declining profits, lost contracts, harmful lawsuits, public relations controversies, and changes in policy.

43 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ch. 9, Slide 43 Delivering Bad News in Person Decide whether the negative information is newsworthy: Use the indirect strategy if you know the news will upset the receiver. Leave trivial, noncriminal mistakes and one-time bad behaviors alone. BUT: Report fraudulent travel claims, consistent hostile behavior, or failing projects.

44 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © denis_pc /Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 44 Delivering Bad News to Individuals or Groups Gather all the information. Prepare and rehearse Explain past, present, and future. Consider taking a partner. Think about timing. Be patient with the reaction.

45 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © denis_pc /Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 45 Delivering Bad News to Employees and the Public Organizations deliver bad news through multiple channels, print and digital. Morale can be destroyed when employees learn bad news through the grapevine or from media. Smart organizations involved in a crisis usually communicate the news openly. Managers explain the organization’s side of the story honestly and promptly. Whenever possible, management may want to deliver bad news personally.

46 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © denis_pc /Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 46 Saying No to Job Applicants To reduce the receiver’s disappointment, employers use the indirect strategy but keep the reasons intentionally vague. To avoid charges of discrimination or wrongful actions, organizations keep employment rejection messages general, simple, and short.

47 © 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. © denis_pc /Fotolia Ch. 9, Slide 47 END


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