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University of Ghana Chet May 2012. 2 Different approaches to HE and Economic Development (Chicken problem) Impact ◦ Land Grant Universities (understudied)

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Presentation on theme: "University of Ghana Chet May 2012. 2 Different approaches to HE and Economic Development (Chicken problem) Impact ◦ Land Grant Universities (understudied)"— Presentation transcript:

1 University of Ghana Chet May 2012

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3 Different approaches to HE and Economic Development (Chicken problem) Impact ◦ Land Grant Universities (understudied) ◦ Multiple variable impacts (CHEPS) ◦ Counterfactual comparisons (Siegfried, 2007) – University of Beau, Cameroon (Fongwa) Rate of Return ◦ Psacharopoulos (1986) – social returns to HE 10.8%, primary 19%. Private return to HE 19%, primary 27%, but (2006) trend was reversing HE increasing by 1.7 percentage points, primary education decreasing by 2 percentage points. Contribution to GDP ◦ Bloom (2006) In Sub Sahara Africa the addition of 1 year of tertiary education, GDP increased by 0.25 % points and 0.40% in terms of productivity. African Development Bank reported even greater gains. 3

4 Connectivity contexts ◦ University–industry interactions ◦ Innovation hubs – California, Boston, Cambridge, Finland Market – State steering? (Castells & Himanen) ◦ Regional development – stimulus to a variety of regional industries, education, local government and promoting regional urban, equity (OECD, Goddard) Knowledge ◦ Basic- applied – strategic – innovation ◦ Modes/types of knowledge (Mode 1 & 2) Causality ◦ what is the ‘direction’ between HE and Growth? Incontrovertible that in the “knowledge economy” the “knowledge institution” is being regarded as a “development driver” – empirically and ideologically 4

5 5 Data source: Thomson Reuters InCites TM (21 September 2010); The World Bank Group (2010) (R = 0.714, P = 0.218) (R = 0.961, P = 0.002)*

6 Country Stage of development (2009-2010) Gross tertiary education enrolment rate (2008) Quality of education system ranking (2009-2010) Overall global competitive ranking (2010-2011) Ghana Stage 1: Factor-driven 671114 Kenya432106 Mozambique281131 Tanzania299113 Uganda472118 Botswana Transition from 1 to 2 204876 Mauritius Stage 2: Efficiency-driven 265055 South Africa17 (8.5)13054 Finland Stage 3: Innovation-driven 9467 South Korea985722 United States82264

7 A substantial body of academic and technical literature provides evidence of the relationship between informationalism, productivity and competitiveness for countries, regions and business firms. But, this relationship only operates under three conditions: information connectedness, organizational change in the form of networking; and enhancement of the quality of human labour, itself dependent on education and quality of life. (Castells and Cloete, 2011) The structural basis for the growing inequality, in spite of high GDP growth rates in many parts of the world, is the growth of a highly dynamic, knowledge-producing, technologically advanced sector that is connected to other similar sectors in a global network, but it excludes a significant segment of the economy and of the society in its own country. The lack of human development prevents what Manuel Castells calls the ‘virtuous cycle’, which constrains the dynamic economy. (Castells and Cloete, 2011) Connecting growth to human development – trickle down doesn’t work Key connectors are education (Higher Education) and ICT 7

8 Country GDP per capita (PPP, $US) 2007 GDP ranking HDI Ranking (2007) GDP ranking per capita minus HDI ranking Botswana13 60460125-65 Mauritius11 2966881-13 South Africa9 75778129-51 Chile13 8805944+15 Costa Rica10 8427354+19 Taiwan (China) Ghana1 3341531521 Kenya1 5421491472 Mozambique802169172-3 Uganda1 0591631576 Tanzania1 2081571516 Finland34 256231211 South Korea24 80135269 USA45 592913-4

9 To use a set of analytical concepts to try and better understand the complex interactions between national economic/education policies and higher education system development To learn from some OECD countries who had been successful in linking HE and economic growth To use 8 African countries as contexts for the study To develop an empirical methodology to operationalise the concepts Do not assert that the primary/only role for higher education is development 9

10 10 HERANA Higher Education Research & Advocacy Network in Africa RESEARCHADVOCACY Higher Education and Development Investigating the complex relationships between higher education and economic development, and student democratic attitudes in Africa The Research-Policy Nexus Investigating the relationship between research evidence and policy-making in selected public policy sectors in South Africa University World News (Africa) Current news and in-depth investigations into higher education in Africa The HERANA Gateway An internet portal to research on higher education in Africa Nordic Masters in Africa (NOMA) Collaborative research training by the Universities of Oslo, Makerere, Western Cape, and CHET FUNDERS Carnegie, Ford, Rockefeller, Kresge, DFID, Norad

11 Three successful (OECD) systems investigated: ◦ Finland (Europe), South Korea (Asia), North Carolina (US) Africa ◦ Botswana – University of Botswana ◦ Ghana – University of Ghana ◦ Kenya – University of Nairobi ◦ Mauritius – University of Mauritius ◦ Mozambique – Eduardo Mondlane ◦ South Africa – Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University ◦ Tanzania – University of Dar es Salaam ◦ Uganda – Makerere University 11

12 Higher Education Studies – Peter Maassen and Nico Cloete Development Economist – Pundy Pillay (UWC) Sociology of Knowledge – Jo Muller (UCT), Johann Mouton (US) Data analysis - Ian Bunting (DoE), Charles Sheppard (NMMU) Researchers – Tracey Bailey (CHET), Gerald Ouma (Kenya & UWC), Rumolo Pinhiero (Oslo), Patricia Langa (Mozambique & UCT), Samuel Fongwa (Cameroon, UWC) External Commentators Manuel Castells (USC, Open University, Barcelona) John Douglas (CHES, Berkeley) Ghana contributors Prof Ben Ahunu (Provost College of Agriculture) Mr Alfred Quartey (Director Planning) Dr Joseph Budu (Registrar) Dr Prof Esi Suthterland-Addey (Institute of African Studies) 12

13 Finland, South Korea, North Carolina (USA) As part of reorganising their ‘mode of production’, they developed a (pact) around a knowledge economy model (high skills training, research and innovation) Close links between economic and education planning High participation rates with differentiation Strong ‘state’ steering (different methods) Higher education linked to regional development Responsive to the labour market Strong coordination and networks Pundy Pillay (2010): Linking higher education to economic development: Implications for Africa from three successful systems. (CHET) 13

14 Higher education’s role in / contribution to development is influenced by three inter-related factors: The nature of the pact between the university leadership, political authorities, and society at large The nature, size and continuity of the academic core The connectedness and coordination of national and institutional knowledge policies to the academic core and to development projects is crucial 14

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16 A ‘pact’ is defined as a fairly long-term cultural, socio-economic and political understanding and commitment between universities, university leadership, political authorities and society at large of the identity or vision of universities, what is expected of universities, and what the rules and values of the universities are. Pacts are not only between society and higher education, but also important within the institution. 16

17 17 Government External Groupings University Pact Academic Core Connectedness

18 1.Narrative, intent and structures for the Role of HE in development 2.Visions and plans, i.e. Development Visions (2025-2035) 3.Policies – development, science and technology, higher education 4.Methods and structures for co-ordination 18

19 19 Indicators3 Strong2 Weak1 Absent 1. The concept of a knowledge economy features in the national development plan Appears in a number of policies Only mentioned occasionally 2. A role for higher education in development in national policies and plans Prevalent Clearly mentioned in development policies Weak Only mentioned in higher education policy / plan Not stated directly 3. Concept of KE features in institutional polices and plans Systematic Policy Framework Formal structures Headed by senior minister Sporadic Clusters / forums Hardly mentioned 4. Link between universities and national authorities Some formal structures but no meaningful co- ordination Political rather than professional networks 5. Co-ordination and consensus building of government agencies involved in higher education Intermittent interaction with ineffective forums Higher education issues limited mainly to one ministry or directorate MauritiusGhana Key:

20 20 INDICATORS Max. scoreBotswana Ghana KenyaMauritiusMoz. South Africa TanzaniaUganda NATIONAL LEVEL 93 3 674643 Economic development and higher education planning are linked 31 1 231211 Coordination and consensus building of government agencies involved in higher education 31 1 221211 Link between universities and national authorities 31 1 222221

21 21 Connectedness University not part of national development model/strategy University part of national development model/strategy Knowledge No or marginal role for new knowledge in development model LuxuryInstrument Central role for new knowledge in development model Self-governanceEngine

22 1.Higher education is an ancillary: Assumes that there is no need for an (active or direct) role for the university in national development. 2.Higher education as self-governing institutions: University is important in national development, but there is no need for a direct role in national development – academics must decide who is trained and with what skills. 3.Higher education as instrument for development agendas: University important for national development by providing expertise to reduce poverty, improve agriculture and assist business, particularly SMEs. 4.Higher education is the engine for development: The university is a core institution in national development; it can provide an adequate foundation for the complexities of the emerging knowledge economy in terms of relevant skills, competencies, research and innovation. 22

23 23 University not part of development strategy University part of development strategy No or marginal role for new knowledge in development strategy Central role for new knowledge in development strategy AncillarySelf-governing InstrumentEngine

24 24 ANCILLARYSELF-GOVERNINGINSTRUMENTENGINE COUNTRY GovUniGovUniGovUniGovUni Botswana ●●  Ghana  ●●  ● Kenya ●●  Mauritius ●●  Mozambique ●●  ● South Africa ●  Tanzania  ●  ● Uganda ●●  ●   = Strong  = Present ● = Absent

25 1.At both national and Intuitional levels only sporadic mention of knowledge economy 2.No broad agreement (pact) about a development model 3.No general agreement that, and by implication higher education, is key to development (as is case in across the continent, HE is mainly for mobility and a job 4.Regarding notions of the role of university in development, at national level considerable ambiguity, at institutional, strong leaning towards self governance (traditional teaching, research ‘outreach’ model) 5.Surprisingly low support (mention) for knowledge economy (engine of development) 25

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27 Burton Clarke refers to the ‘academic heartland’ and a ‘stronger steering core’ The universities in the HERANA sample are public and ‘flagship’ universities which claim in mission statements that they: ◦ have high academic ratings, ◦ are centres of academic excellence engaged in high quality research and teaching ◦ and contribute to development These are the key “knowledge institutions” in these countries Assumption: For a university to contribute to development it needs a strong academic core 27

28 1.Increased enrolments in science, engineering and technology (SET) – AU regards SET as a development driver 2.Increased postgraduate (PG) enrolments – knowledge economy requires increasing numbers of workers with PG qualifications 3.Favourable academic staff to student ratio – workload should allow for research and PhD supervision 4.High proportion of academic staff with PhDs – high correlation (0.82 in South Africa) between doctorates and research output 5.Adequate research funding per academic – and from multiple sources 28

29 1.High graduation rates in SET fields – not only must enrolments increase, but also graduate output 2.Increased knowledge production (doctoral graduates) – for reproduction of academic core, to produce academics for other universities and for demand in other fields 3.Increased knowledge production – research publications in ISI peer- reviewed journals 29

30 30 Cape Town Mauritius Ghana Dar es Salaam INPUT INDICATORSOUTPUT INDICATORS Averages for 2005 to 2007 2007 only 2007 research funding Averages for 2005 to 2007 % SET majors % Masters + doctorates Staff-student ratio % academics with doctorates Research income per permanent academic ppp$ SET graduation rate Doctoral graduates as % of permanent academic Research publications per academic University of Cape Town 41%19%1358%47 70021%15.000.95 Dar es Salaam University 40%9%1450%6 40019%2.18%0.08 University of Ghana 19%7%2247%3 40016%0.17%0.11 University of Mauritius 48%13%1745%3 00026%2.80%0.13

31 Indicator 4: Qualification level of permanent academic staff members

32 Indicator 5: Research Funding Research funding resources (in US$) available in 2007 to the academic staff members of each university.

33 None of the universities (except Cape Town) seem to have moved from their traditional undergraduate teaching role Considerable diversity amongst input indicators, with postgraduate enrolments and inadequate research funds the weakest The strongest input indicators are manageable student-staff ratios (Except Ghana) and staff with doctorates On the output side, SET graduation rates are positive, but all institutions (except Cape Town) have low knowledge production From the weak knowledge production output indicators it seems the academic cores are not strong enough to make a sustainable contribution to development 33

34 Despite dramatic increases in masters enrolments and graduations, PhD enrolment is growing very slowly (Nairobi – masters grew 3900 to 6100; doctorates decreased 190-62) Some institutions like Makerere have doubled PhD graduates and research output, but from a low base Incentive structure (double and triple teaching, consultancies) may not reward knowledge production Urgent need to improve data definition, systematic institution-wide capturing and processing, and strengthen evidence-based strategic planning and leadership 34

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36 ‘Connectedness’ operationalised along two dimensions: 1.‘Articulation’: ◦ Extent to which aims and objectives articulate with national development priorities and the university’s strategic objectives ◦ Linkages with government and external stakeholders ◦ Number of funding sources and financial sustainability ◦ Link to implementation agency 2.‘Strengthening the academic core’ – development activities: ◦ Feed into teaching, curriculum development and the formal training of students ◦ Generate new knowledge ◦ Result in academic publications ◦ Link to international academic networks 36

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38 Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research West African Centre for International Parasite Control (WACIPAC) Gates Institute Partnership Projects for Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health West Africa Centre for Crop Improvement (WACCI), Faculty of Agriculture Enhancing child nutrition through animal source food management Food Science Institute of Statistical Social & Economic Research (ISSER) 38

39 Six selected development projects/activities: 39

40 In none of the countries is there a coordinated effort between government, external stakeholders and the university to systematically strengthen the contribution the university can make to development. At each of the universities there are exemplary development projects that connect strongly to external stakeholders and strengthen the academic core – the challenge is to increase the number and scale of these projects. 40

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42 University leadership seminars are bound to continue to disappoint as long as there is not more agreement about the role of higher education in development, and relevant government officials and key members of higher education governance structures are not part of the discussion and capacity building It is important to clarify the roles and functions of higher education commissions/councils, and to consider how they can play a role in promoting greater agreement (pact formation) and coordination 42

43 A focus should be to strengthen the academic cores of the ‘flagship’ universities Key areas to improve are: ◦ masters throughput to PhDs ◦ doctoral enrolments and graduation, with scholarships and post docs ◦ research funding and the conditionality's around research funding Examine incentives and address perverse incentives Consider an Africa Research Fund with some of the features of the European Research Fund Funders and governments must build conditions into consultancies that strengthen rather than weaken the academic core 43

44 There is a clearly identified need to improve and strengthen the definition of performance indicators, as well as the systematic, institution-wide capturing and processing (institutionalisation) of key indicators Capacity needs to be built about the analysis of data at planning, management and leadership levels, and linking these analyses to planned reforms – at institutional and national levels Revitalising African higher education is, amongst other things, going to require more comparative, evidence-based approaches than declarative missions and intentions 44

45 Books and reports 1.Linking Higher Education and Economic Development: Implications for Africa from three successful systems (Pillay) 2.Universities and Economic Development in Africa: Pact, academic core and coordination (Cloete, Bailey, Maassen) 3.Universities and Economic Development in Africa: Key findings (Cloete, Bailey, Bunting & Maassen) 4.Country and University Case Studies: Botswana (Bailey, Cloete, Pillay) 5.Country and University Case Studies: Ghana (Bailey, Cloete, Pillay) 6.Country and University Case Studies: Kenya (Bailey, Cloete, Pillay) 7.Country and University Case Studies: Mauritius (Bailey, Cloete, Pillay) 8.Country and University Case Studies: Mozambique (Bailey, Cloete, Pillay) 9.Country and University Case Studies: South Africa (Bailey, Cloete, Pillay) 10.Country and University Case Studies: Tanzania (Bailey, Cloete, Pillay) 11.Country and University Case Studies: Uganda (Bailey, Cloete, Pillay)

46 > There is a clearly identified need to improve and strengthen the definition of performance indicators, as well as the systematic, institution wide capturing and processing (institutionalisation) of key indicators > Capacity needs to be built about the analysis of data at both planning, management and leadership levels, and linking these analyses to planned reforms – at institutional and national levels > Revitalising African higher education is amongst other things going to require more comparative, evidence based approaches than declarative missions and intentions > Important role of National Commissions > Role of Incentives in Knowledge Production 46

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