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Jennifer Zhu Amity High School, Woodbridge, CT Exploring the Association between Stress & Stress Coping Mechanisms on Self-Esteem in AAPI Youth Society.

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Presentation on theme: "Jennifer Zhu Amity High School, Woodbridge, CT Exploring the Association between Stress & Stress Coping Mechanisms on Self-Esteem in AAPI Youth Society."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jennifer Zhu Amity High School, Woodbridge, CT Exploring the Association between Stress & Stress Coping Mechanisms on Self-Esteem in AAPI Youth Society for Applied Anthropology, 74th Annual Meeting Albuquerque, March 18-22, 204

2  Eric Zhu University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT  Alan Zhao Columbia University, New York, NY  Pauravi Chhaya Clark University, Worcester, MA  Heather Mosher, Ph.D Institute for Community Research  Vanessa Lam Robert Fitch Senior High School, Groton CT  JiangHong Li, MD., Msc Institute for Community Research  Irene Shaver, PhD candidate Institute for Community Research  Darius Mostaghimi Daniel Hand High School, Madison, CT  Victoria Xie Glastonbury High School, Glastonbury, CT  Angel Wu William Hall High School, West Hartford, CT Co-Authors of this paper Other internship program team members

3  Self esteem is a combination of self-confidence and self-respect (Branden, 1969)  Types of Stress Coping Mechanisms (Throits, 1995) :  problem focused, perception focused, emotion focused (Throits, 1995)  Positive personal perception  prevent negative perceptions of daily stresses  capability to pass over (Dumont & Provost, 1989)  Resilient adolescents use problem focused coping mechanism significantly more than other two groups (Dumont & Provost, 1989) Background

4  “No coping strategy or mode is efficacious across all situations” (Throits, 1995)  Stress related to being a minority ( Bruckmuller, 2013)  Ineffective stress coping mechanism can lead to choking effect (Cheryan & Bodenhausen, 2000)  Need to understand stress of AAPI youth – not much information Background

5  Compile data concerning different sources of stress, specifically from expectations  Record specific coping mechanisms and effects  Understand relationship between coping mechanisms and self-esteem in AAPI Youth  Observational Study – Qualitative Purpose

6  Hypothesis:  Individuals with problem-focused coping mechanisms will demonstrate higher levels of self-esteem  Analysis:  Parental: Academic achievement, career choice, keep up with cultural traditions, parenting style  Social: Keep up with friends, completion of academic and extracurricular  Academics: Always do well, math and technology Hypothesis and Variables

7 Procedure Recruit Participants Free Lists (Focus Groups) Optimal Workshop SPSS In-Depth Interview Coding Participant Profile

8 Demographics

9 Results – Part I

10  “I do feel like I have to live up to the expectations, yes, but I'm not sure if I can sometimes it's like a confidence boost like ‘Aw, people think I'm smart‘ but then after a while it just turns into this fear that I'll disappoint all of them and end up failing them the expectations just make me more sensitive to failure, I guess impact of other’s expectations on perception of own ability. ”  “in my freshman year, I wasn't accustomed to this kind of competition, and i was already having issues that started in 8th grade my coping mechanism took the form of self harm, specifically cutting and burning, and starving myself in freshman year, I also became involved with drug use, and sometimes even lack of sleep would be my way to deal with it. ”  Status: High School Student  Ethnicity: Chinese  Birth: American Born  Gender: Female  Competitive  coping mechanisms: Self harm, drug use, eating disorder  Drugs used: alcohol, marijuana, study drugs & meth  Normal  Leader – many people rely on  receives little emotional support from friends, family & school  Girlfriend  Parents stress “image” in society IDI001 Results – Part II

11  “ Although I do take anytime I don’t do well pretty personally, I know it’s just part of the process, and I know I’ve already made a lot of improvements. So I don’t…I don’t ever really get down about academics or about my performance, maybe not in academics.”  “My expectations largely have come out of, not my parents, not my school, not anyone else, but, it’s because in like high school, I didn’t do as well as I could of? I could of – I could of gone to, I could of done a lot better academically. And now that I see, what I want to achieve, a PHD, that kind of stuff, do research, I see how far, or how far away that not focusing in high school has like, brought me? So now is kind of, my time to or my last chance to, kind of get to that place where I can do this stuff.”  “I’ll probably do better, number one you know there’s a lot side effects, I’ve briefly consider it, I don’t think it will make me any better, it’s better to learn without it, because I know if I started using it, I would just be dependent on it. So now I am not dependent on it, I definitely don’t want to try it.”  Status: College  Ethnicity: Chinese & Japanese  Birth: American Born (4 th Generation)  Gender: Male  Ambitious, strong work ethic; leader  High achiever with high personal goals – catch up to peers  Lack of social support due to “not understanding”  Parents – lenient, non-traditional Asians  High exposure to drugs, chooses not to use  Predominantly Caucasian friends IDI002 Results – Part II

12  “D uring high school, a lot of it was just competing, knowing where my self- worth was at, where I stood with all my classmates, friends, knowing that I was, that I had to be somewhat better. And I always knew I couldn’t be the best. There’s always gonna be that other student in the school…There’s always going to be that one person that’s going to be better at this than I am. But among the people I could compare myself with, I wanted to know that I was better than them. ”  Status: Incoming Freshman in College  Ethnicity: Chinese & Vietnamese  Birth: American Born  Gender: Male  Religious Support – older friends serve as mentors  Recently self-identity developed  Tense family life – history of abuse from father  still disrespects  Good open relationship with much communication with Mom  Animosity with brother due to lack of support  Engaged in alcohol use, will be responsible now on  Little exposure to drugs IDI003 Results – Part II

13  “Somewhere there’s the parental expectation to succeed. There’s some for me and there’s some from like the kids in my class, so like if they did well on something that I didn’t, that would be like stressful. Like I really dislike situations where I’m not of like equal intellect of those around me.”  “It’s um I dunno it will kind of affect my whole day. It’s just a sense of “why didn’t I do better on that’. I should have studied for that. I should have prepared more for it. ”  Status: High School  Ethnicity: Indian  Birth: American Born  Gender: Female  Parents = controlling  limited social and free time  Diabetic – believes plays a role in strict control  Principle source of stress, high standards – incorporated expectations  Lack of social flexibility  shy  Easily influenced  Little exposure to drugs, willing to try alcohol when older IDI004 Results – Part II

14  “ Failure is failure and [I am] me. And I’m still confident because I know that I could achieve if I try my best. I have hardly ever encountered any [situation] that I can’t do if I try my best. It’s really hard to think about an exception. ”  “ I have plenty of freedom because all of the [parties] I would go to my family would agree with because they know that I would tell them beforehand or what kind of party or what kind of convention I am going to…I would let them know what I am going to do there. I need to make them to know I am safe there …They wouldn’t interfere with me because I would never go to somewhere unsuitable.”  Status: Freshman in College  Ethnicity: Chinese  Birth: Born in China  Gender: Female  Traveled to US to study abroad  Hardworking, associates only with people who are similar to her  No social support, strong sense of image among her peers  High self-expectations  when failure occurs, relies on past achievements in order move past failure  Incorporates many of parent’s expectations into her own – good communication with parents  No drug/alcohol abuse IDI005 Results – Part II

15  3 types of coping with Stress of Expectations:  Focus on negative emotions{Emotional-focused}  Acceptance – Realizes, chooses own route {Perception-focused}  Incorporation – meets and achieves expectations {Problem-focused}  High self-confidence tend to look forwards and long term after immediate failure  High self-confidence distance themselves from others in terms of social support – “can’t understand” or “I don’t want them to see me that way”  Coping mechanism of setting lower expectations found in AAPI youth who are sensitive to failure  Finding social support can aid in identity development and self-esteem changes Conclusions

16  Limitations:  Conducted in Internship, summer 2013  Perceptions  Future Work:  Expand to other ethnic groups  Develop a positive program aiming to prevent development of low self- esteem by promoting positive coping mechanisms  Determine which coping mechanisms work best when applied to students  Look into using self-control as a mediator for alcohol use based on group assimilation Limitations & Future Work

17  Branden, Nathaniel. The Psychology of Self-esteem; a New Concept of Man's Psychological Nature. Los Angeles: Nash Pub., Print.  Throits, Peggy A. "Stress, Coping, and Social Support Processes: Where Are We? What Next?" American Sociological Association 35 (1995): JSTOR. Web. 29 Aug  Dumont, Michelle, and Marc A. Provost. "Resilience in Adolescents: Protective Role of Social Support, Coping Strategies, Self-Esteem, and Social Activities on Experience of Stress and Depression." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 28.3 (1999): Web. 28 July  Cheryan, Sapna, and Galen V. Bodenhausen. "When Positive Stereotypes Threaten Intellectual Performance: The Psychological Hazards of 'Model Minority' Status." Psychological Science 11.5 (2000): Print.  Phinney, J. S. "Ethnic Identity and Self-Esteem: A Review and Integration." Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 13.2 (1991): Print. Works Cited


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