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John Hawkins Born 1532 Born 1532 Learned sailing skills working with his father and later fighting the French Learned sailing skills working with his father.

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Presentation on theme: "John Hawkins Born 1532 Born 1532 Learned sailing skills working with his father and later fighting the French Learned sailing skills working with his father."— Presentation transcript:

1 John Hawkins Born 1532 Born 1532 Learned sailing skills working with his father and later fighting the French Learned sailing skills working with his father and later fighting the French 30 began first slave trading expedition 30 began first slave trading expedition

2 Through friendships and family ties Hawkins able to secure backers from the centre of power Through friendships and family ties Hawkins able to secure backers from the centre of power –Treasurer of the Navy – Benjamin Gonson –Traders such as William Garrad First journey conceived as purely commercial First journey conceived as purely commercial Allowed Elizabeth I to claim that it contravened no treaty Allowed Elizabeth I to claim that it contravened no treaty –still freedom on the High Seas

3 Next problem navigation Next problem navigation Hawkins proficient in techniques of 16 th C Navigation Hawkins proficient in techniques of 16 th C Navigation But without But without –maps –longitude calculations –familiarity of the region voyage was potentially disastrous voyage was potentially disastrous Here Hawkins experience paid off Here Hawkins experience paid off

4 Over the years developed a partnership with a trader on the Canaries Over the years developed a partnership with a trader on the Canaries Juan Martinez Juan Martinez –A Spanish Pilot form Cadiz Knowledge and expertise of both sides of the Spanish Atlantic Knowledge and expertise of both sides of the Spanish Atlantic –profit overcoming loyalty Hawkins was also meticulous Hawkins was also meticulous

5 Journey was long and unhealthy Journey was long and unhealthy Offered higher wages than anyone else Offered higher wages than anyone else He also held out an additional carrot He also held out an additional carrot –Possibility to supplement pay through pillage and private trade Also not be afraid to use the stick Also not be afraid to use the stick –Crew new that discipline would be firm

6 They also knew that Hawkins would look after them he loaded prodigious supplies They also knew that Hawkins would look after them he loaded prodigious supplies –Adequate water –Beer –Biscuit –Fresh beef & salt beef –Fresh and salted fish –Salt, butter, cheese Also live pets, that later could be used as food Also live pets, that later could be used as food

7 Alongside food Hawkins provided other necessities Alongside food Hawkins provided other necessities –Broad cloth and cotton for trade –items to replace broken and lost items and repair the ship As well as As well as –carpenters –cooks –barber-surgeon And a company of musicians And a company of musicians

8 Three ships Three ships –Salomon, Jonas And Swallow Spent four moths in Africa Spent four moths in Africa Guinea was a huge area of 2000 miles Guinea was a huge area of 2000 miles –Guinea “the land of the black men” in Berber Initially attempted to gain cargo by capturing slaves Initially attempted to gain cargo by capturing slaves –With the help of competing nations However, this was to change However, this was to change

9 Hawkins soon worked out how to gain profit more easily Hawkins soon worked out how to gain profit more easily –British ships better armed and more maneuverable than Spanish and Portuguese ships Easier to coast along the coast and find other Europeans Easier to coast along the coast and find other Europeans Hawkins began attacking ships as they were leaving port Hawkins began attacking ships as they were leaving port

10 As one recorder noted Hawkins As one recorder noted Hawkins “stayed some good time, and got into his possessions, partly by the sword and partly by other means, to the number of 300 Negroes at the least, besides other merchandise, which the country yields” Gained so much smallest ship Gained so much smallest ship –the Swallow sent back to England with goods sent back to England with goods –Francis Drake on board

11 April 1563 Hawkins left Africa and headed across the Atlantic April 1563 Hawkins left Africa and headed across the Atlantic Only half slaves survived the journey Only half slaves survived the journey –In poor condition Despite this Hawkins initially had no trouble selling his cargo Despite this Hawkins initially had no trouble selling his cargo Merchandise was untaxed and therefore cheap Merchandise was untaxed and therefore cheap

12 Eventually local authorities began to take notice Eventually local authorities began to take notice Lorenzo Bernáldez Lorenzo Bernáldez –young officer dispatched to confront Hawkins Facing a much better armed vessel, Bernáldez quickly granted Hawkins a license Facing a much better armed vessel, Bernáldez quickly granted Hawkins a license –Something he had no authority to do

13 Hawkins quickly off loaded his goods Hawkins quickly off loaded his goods –Profit was huge Ships were so loaded with Ships were so loaded with –Pearls, gold, silver, hides, ginger and other goods had too much to sail had too much to sail Rented two Spanish ships Rented two Spanish ships loaded them up and sent them back to Spain loaded them up and sent them back to Spain –with instruction to report to an English merchant there

14 Ships confiscated by the Spanish Ships confiscated by the Spanish –Hawkins lost the profit confiscated because of letters from the Caribbean confiscated because of letters from the Caribbean One ended with the statement that One ended with the statement that “Tomorrow all this land could be come part of England if steps are not taken” This is the only indication of the value of the trip This is the only indication of the value of the trip Confiscated goods had value of £2000 Confiscated goods had value of £2000 –$701,372 in today’s money

15 Upon return to England welcomed as a hero Upon return to England welcomed as a hero Despite the loss of the Spanish ships he brought huge profits Despite the loss of the Spanish ships he brought huge profits –for his backers and the men who had sailed with him Also granted an audience with the Queen Also granted an audience with the Queen With new support and fame easily able to gain support for a second voyage With new support and fame easily able to gain support for a second voyage

16 Hawkins not only problem for the Spanish Hawkins not only problem for the Spanish Confiscated ships and news of his trip alarmed the Spanish Confiscated ships and news of his trip alarmed the Spanish Both Both –piracy of the coast of Africa –trading and undercutting of Spanish authority in the Caribbean Fellow former Channel pirate, Thomas Stucley was also causing problems Fellow former Channel pirate, Thomas Stucley was also causing problems

17 Stucly had been working together with French pirate Ribault Stucly had been working together with French pirate Ribault –Who had founded the failed French settlement in Florida In Caribbean with fleet of six ships and over three hundred men In Caribbean with fleet of six ships and over three hundred men Less well known about because his acts were more provocative Less well known about because his acts were more provocative

18 Stucly wrought havoc all over the Caribbean attacking merchants and colonist equally Stucly wrought havoc all over the Caribbean attacking merchants and colonist equally Elizabeth I had no choice but to issue a warrant for his arrest Elizabeth I had no choice but to issue a warrant for his arrest She also disowned Stucly She also disowned Stucly –However, she hesitated for a long time before issuing the order Acts of adventurers were proving very useful to Elizabeth's plans for the rebuilding of England Acts of adventurers were proving very useful to Elizabeth's plans for the rebuilding of England

19 Actions of Hawkins and Spanish reaction to it Actions of Hawkins and Spanish reaction to it Symptomatic of the worsening relationship of Catholic Spain and Protestant England Symptomatic of the worsening relationship of Catholic Spain and Protestant England The situation came to a head on February 25, 1570 with the publication, by Pope Pius V, of The situation came to a head on February 25, 1570 with the publication, by Pope Pius V, of Regnana in Excelsis Regnana in Excelsis

20 We declare the said Elizabeth heretic and fautress of heretics, and her servants to have fallen under the sentence of anathema, and to be cut of from the unity of the Body of Christ, and her, Elizabeth, to be deprived of her pretended right to the said realm and of all and every dominion, dignity and privilege…

21 In effect an act of Religious Imperialism In effect an act of Religious Imperialism By the time the document had been nailed to the door of Lambeth Palace By the time the document had been nailed to the door of Lambeth Palace –Archbishop of Cantebury’s residence in London It had become an open invitation to assassinate Queen Elizabeth It had become an open invitation to assassinate Queen Elizabeth

22 Declaration of War in the eyes of Elizabeth’s Sea Dogs Declaration of War in the eyes of Elizabeth’s Sea Dogs The age of hostile commerce The age of hostile commerce –As seen with Hawkins Was over Was over –now it was time for War Enter Francis Drake Enter Francis Drake But First…… But First……

23 In response to the Papal Bull In response to the Papal Bull Drake went to war Drake went to war –To Protect his Queen –To Enrich Himself –Spread the Glory of the English Decided to hit directly at source of Spanish power Decided to hit directly at source of Spanish power $$Wealth of the Americas $$Wealth of the Americas

24 Question: Question: –How had the Spanish brought that wealth home without trouble for so long? Answer Answer –people had attacked at the wrong place Rather than attacking the Flota Rather than attacking the Flota Attack the Treasure house at Nombre de Díos and the treasure Train Attack the Treasure house at Nombre de Díos and the treasure Train

25 Feb 1571 Drake returned to the Caribbean Feb 1571 Drake returned to the Caribbean –knowledge of how to get there as sailed with Hawkins But no intimate knowledge of the region But no intimate knowledge of the region Through capture and interrogation of Spanish vessels and their crew Through capture and interrogation of Spanish vessels and their crew And importantly the help of Cimaroons And importantly the help of Cimaroons Gained the missing knowledg e Gained the missing knowledg e

26 Drake spent three month on the River Charges and surrounding region attacking shipping Drake spent three month on the River Charges and surrounding region attacking shipping –Gained increasing knowledge from each attack 3 expeditions sent out to capture him 3 expeditions sent out to capture him –cost of 4000 pesos (approx. $470,000) Drake’s private/public war netted £66,000 ($23.22 Million) Drake’s private/public war netted £66,000 ($23.22 Million)

27 Drake returned to England Drake returned to England May 24, 1572 he left again for the treasure house of Spain May 24, 1572 he left again for the treasure house of Spain With explicit blessing of Elisabeth With explicit blessing of Elisabeth Beginning of Privateers Beginning of Privateers –state sponsored piracy

28 Returning to the location from his previous journey, Returning to the location from his previous journey, –Which had been found by the Spanish Drake constructed a base to began his new attacks Drake constructed a base to began his new attacks After meeting up with a fellow privateer After meeting up with a fellow privateer –Raunce Drake advanced on Nombre de Díos Drake advanced on Nombre de Díos

29 Nombre de Díos 1909

30 Drake took 73 men aboard three small boats Drake took 73 men aboard three small boats –made his way to the “Treasure house of the World” Between 2-3am clouds parted revealing a full moon Between 2-3am clouds parted revealing a full moon Drake ordered the attack Drake ordered the attack

31 Advantage of surprise Drakes attack was successful Advantage of surprise Drakes attack was successful –To a degree Drake hurt Drake hurt they collected some silver they collected some silver failed to get into the treasure house failed to get into the treasure house –(which they would later find was empty) Alcalde of Nombre de Díos counted his losses Alcalde of Nombre de Díos counted his losses

32 Sent an envoy to drake Sent an envoy to drake Drake Advised the governor to Drake Advised the governor to hold open his eyes, before he departed, if God lent him life and leave, he meant to reap some of their harvest, which they get out of the earth

33 While recovering from wounds became friendly with Diego While recovering from wounds became friendly with Diego –former slave Hatched plan to hit treasure train before it got to Nombre de Díos Hatched plan to hit treasure train before it got to Nombre de Díos Spent time attacking in the region waiting for the next train Spent time attacking in the region waiting for the next train Lost some men to Spanish attack Lost some men to Spanish attack –Including his Brother

34 Moral beginning to drop Moral beginning to drop –Running out of supplies Recovered somewhat when they captured a 90 ton Spanish supply vessel Recovered somewhat when they captured a 90 ton Spanish supply vessel Shortly after Drake and remaining men Shortly after Drake and remaining men –With 30 cimaroones headed out again in to the forest headed out again in to the forest

35 Leader of Cimaroons, Pedro, asked Drake to climb a tree Leader of Cimaroons, Pedro, asked Drake to climb a tree Puzzled but OK Puzzled but OK Sees both sides of the Panama Isthmus Sees both sides of the Panama Isthmus –both Atlantic and Pacific Oceans Spanish get news that Drake is on move Spanish get news that Drake is on move –Separate the wealth Drake stuck made off with limited goods Drake stuck made off with limited goods

36 March 31, 1573 headed back out March 31, 1573 headed back out This time successful This time successful Adding $23 Million to their haul Adding $23 Million to their haul Of which $2.13 million belonged personally to Philip Of which $2.13 million belonged personally to Philip

37 Returning to ships headed back to England Returning to ships headed back to England Returning in Plymouth Harbor on Aug 9, 1574 Returning in Plymouth Harbor on Aug 9, 1574 Drake had now made two successful and profitable journeys Drake had now made two successful and profitable journeys “Singeing the King of Spain’s Beard” “Singeing the King of Spain’s Beard”

38 Upon Drakes return to England following his second voyage Upon Drakes return to England following his second voyage Was praised by many Was praised by many But his deeds had been privately motivated But his deeds had been privately motivated In order to prove his loyalty without question he was sent to help in the “pacification” of Ireland In order to prove his loyalty without question he was sent to help in the “pacification” of Ireland

39 Having worked in Ireland for several years Having worked in Ireland for several years –Or he may have been in prison –Or he may have met and married wife Drake returned to England for his next venture Drake returned to England for his next venture –Conceived while at the top of a tree in America Perfectly timed Perfectly timed Several factors came together to make his next voyage not only possible but probable Several factors came together to make his next voyage not only possible but probable

40 Second cousin and man who had first taken him to America Second cousin and man who had first taken him to America John Hawkins John Hawkins On November 18, 1577 On November 18, 1577 Was appointed as “treasurer for marine courses” Was appointed as “treasurer for marine courses” Basically head of Navy and naval affairs Basically head of Navy and naval affairs

41 In addition Martin Frobisher and his promoter Michael Lok In addition Martin Frobisher and his promoter Michael Lok pushing the (false) news that during trip to North America pushing the (false) news that during trip to North America Frobisher had discovered Gold Frobisher had discovered Gold Spain’s wealth may now be countered by gold for England? Spain’s wealth may now be countered by gold for England? International exploration was booming International exploration was booming

42 In addition British trade into the region known as the Barbary coast had grown from 1572 In addition British trade into the region known as the Barbary coast had grown from 1572 Elizabeth was promoting the trade and encouraging voyages to the region Elizabeth was promoting the trade and encouraging voyages to the region And in 1576 an important and influential book was to be published by Dr. John Dee And in 1576 an important and influential book was to be published by Dr. John Dee

43 Within book was a shorter piece called Within book was a shorter piece called “A Petty Royal Navy” “A Petty Royal Navy” Dee laid out a 13 point plan for a standing navy to act as Britain’s defense Dee laid out a 13 point plan for a standing navy to act as Britain’s defense –also first to refer to the British Empire Planned for a fleet of 75 ships Planned for a fleet of 75 ships Claiming that pirates of good character would be happy to join this fleet Claiming that pirates of good character would be happy to join this fleet It would also provide work for vagrants It would also provide work for vagrants Dee went on to write that Dee went on to write that

44 “This Petty Navy Royal is thought to be the only Master Key wherewith to open all the locals that keep or hinder this incomparable British Empire from enjoying... such a yearly revenue of Treasure... with so great ease” All things seaborne were in favor at this time All things seaborne were in favor at this time A third voyage for, the already successful, Drake was assured A third voyage for, the already successful, Drake was assured

45 All things seaborne were in favor at this time All things seaborne were in favor at this time A third voyage for, the already successful, Drake was assured A third voyage for, the already successful, Drake was assured

46 Drake permitted audience with the Queen Drake permitted audience with the Queen She permitted him the use of a ship and supplied a cash investment She permitted him the use of a ship and supplied a cash investment –That is she invested personal not government funds Also agreed to his terms that included that Also agreed to his terms that included that “the Queen’s Majesty may be made privy to the truth of the voyage, and yet the color [cover] to be given out to Alexandria”

47 True intent of Drake’s voyage True intent of Drake’s voyage Attack the Spanish in what was known as the “Spanish Sea” Attack the Spanish in what was known as the “Spanish Sea” –Pacific July 1577, Elizabeth decided that Drake would be allowed to go to Alexandria July 1577, Elizabeth decided that Drake would be allowed to go to Alexandria

48 Drake set sail with five ships Drake set sail with five ships –Pelican –Elizabeth –Marigold –Swan –Christopher Leaving Plymouth he headed south for Africa Leaving Plymouth he headed south for Africa

49 Captured Portuguese ship Captured Portuguese ship –Santa Maria – renamed the Mary Took navigator, Nuño de Silva to aid his voyage Took navigator, Nuño de Silva to aid his voyage Worked his way down coast of Africa Worked his way down coast of Africa –instead of heading east he headed west Course was clear and crew now knew for certain what they may have only suspected before Course was clear and crew now knew for certain what they may have only suspected before They were not heading for Alexandria They were not heading for Alexandria On April 5, 1578 they reached Brazil On April 5, 1578 they reached Brazil

50 En route he renamed the Pelican the Golden Hind En route he renamed the Pelican the Golden Hind In honor of his main benefactor Sir Christopher Hatton In honor of his main benefactor Sir Christopher Hatton –His Coat of Arms was topped by the image of a Golden Hind

51 With aide of Portuguese maps worked his way south and headed for the With aide of Portuguese maps worked his way south and headed for the Strait of Magellan Strait of Magellan

52 First European ship to pass through captained by Magellen First European ship to pass through captained by Magellen Magellan, had died during a battle in the Philippines Magellan, had died during a battle in the Philippines But ship returned to Europe But ship returned to Europe The journey through the straits is notoriously rough and dangerous The journey through the straits is notoriously rough and dangerous It did not disappoint on this occasion It did not disappoint on this occasion

53 Pen Gwiins – White Shirt

54 As he headed down the coast to the Straits As he headed down the coast to the Straits Two boats abandoned Two boats abandoned –Swan and Christopher Caught in storms for two months at entrance to Straits Caught in storms for two months at entrance to Straits –Marigold went down with all on board Elizabeth got caught up in storms and headed back to England Elizabeth got caught up in storms and headed back to England

55 Golden Hind limped on alone Golden Hind limped on alone After entering the Pacific After entering the Pacific Drake landed and made necessary repairs Drake landed and made necessary repairs A short time later came across a native canoe A short time later came across a native canoe –“persuaded” its occupant to become his new Navigator Using small boats Using small boats –brought with him for the purpose attacked and plundered cities and ships along the coast attacked and plundered cities and ships along the coast

56 However the big prize was the However the big prize was the Señora de la Concepcion Señora de la Concepcion Commonly know as Commonly know as CacaFuego CacaFuego A Peruvian treasure ship A Peruvian treasure ship Capture told by captain Capture told by captain

57 When they heard this, a whistle sounded in the English ship and a trumpet responded. At once, they discharged what seemed to be about sixty arquebuses, and then many arrows which struck the side of my ship. Shortly, a heavy gun was fired with chainballs which carried away the mizzen- mast into the sea with the sail and the yard. Another heavy gun was fired, someone saying that I should strike. At this point, the launch came alongside on the portside with a matter of some forty arquebusiers, who climbed up the channels to which the shrouds are fas­tened and came aboard my ship. The English ship lay alongside on the starboard and thus they made me strike sail.

58 the English ship crossed the stern of my ship, and shortly came along­side, abreast of the tack. I hailed her, but the Corsair did not answer. On asking what ship it was, the answer came that it was a ship from Chile, and believing this, I went to the side, the English ship having al­ready run foul of me [taken the wind from his sails]. Some one said "Englishmen—strike sail," and another said "Strike sail, Senor San Juan de Anton! If not, see that we will send you to the bottom." I said, "What old tub is that to order me to strike sail? Come on board and do so yourself."

59 The haul was huge The haul was huge It took three full days to transfer goods It took three full days to transfer goods “Our ship shall no more be called the Cacafuego but the Cacaplata” Drake continued up the coast Drake continued up the coast

60 On July 23, 1759 Drake struck out West On July 23, 1759 Drake struck out West Why? Why? No one knows for sure as his orders were kept secret No one knows for sure as his orders were kept secret Was this his initial plan or did he head that way to avoid the Spanish who were now hunting him Was this his initial plan or did he head that way to avoid the Spanish who were now hunting him Either way he and crew spent 68 days out of sight of land before hitting Micronesia on Sept 30, 1579 Either way he and crew spent 68 days out of sight of land before hitting Micronesia on Sept 30, 1579

61 September 26, 1580 September 26, 1580 The Golden Hind, weather worn but loaded, limped into Plymouth The Golden Hind, weather worn but loaded, limped into Plymouth On the way in a few local fishermen heard a voice from the ship On the way in a few local fishermen heard a voice from the ship “Is Elizabeth still Queen” “Is Elizabeth still Queen” An odd question they thought but they answered in the affirmative An odd question they thought but they answered in the affirmative These few men were the welcome party for one of the world’s greatest adventures These few men were the welcome party for one of the world’s greatest adventures

62 Unsure of his welcome Unsure of his welcome Would his actions be treason or patriotism? Would his actions be treason or patriotism? But Drake need not have worried But Drake need not have worried The money he brought back smoothed any doubts The money he brought back smoothed any doubts Elizabeth Knighted Drake on Board the Golden Hind, calling him Elizabeth Knighted Drake on Board the Golden Hind, calling him “the master pirate of the known world” “the master pirate of the known world” The money also dispersed quickly The money also dispersed quickly No full accounting was taken but nobody complained No full accounting was taken but nobody complained

63 Drake received at least £10,000 ($3.43 Mill) Drake received at least £10,000 ($3.43 Mill) The Queen’s personal take exceeded more than a full years expenditure for the whole country The Queen’s personal take exceeded more than a full years expenditure for the whole country This was Piracy on a grand scale This was Piracy on a grand scale

64 And now back to Tortuga

65 When we left Tortuga the buccaneers had just moved in When we left Tortuga the buccaneers had just moved in Over the next few years the island swapped hands frequently Over the next few years the island swapped hands frequently Finally in 1640 a group of French Calvinist's arrived on the island Finally in 1640 a group of French Calvinist's arrived on the island They had arrived from St Kitts, and were led by an engineer They had arrived from St Kitts, and were led by an engineer

66 Led by the engineer the group built a strong hold Led by the engineer the group built a strong hold Cutting steps into a cliff face until to steep for steps they then affixed an iron ladder Cutting steps into a cliff face until to steep for steps they then affixed an iron ladder On the top of the cliff they built a strong fort and armed it with cannon On the top of the cliff they built a strong fort and armed it with cannon When a Spanish fleet returned, the cannon opened fire When a Spanish fleet returned, the cannon opened fire Sank several ships and forced the Spanish to retreat Sank several ships and forced the Spanish to retreat The settlement would prosper for almost a century The settlement would prosper for almost a century

67 The fort became a depot for trade The fort became a depot for trade Meat, hides, tobacco, sugar, brandy and rum, gunpowder and guns, cloth for sails Meat, hides, tobacco, sugar, brandy and rum, gunpowder and guns, cloth for sails All of which could be purchased or bartered by anyone All of which could be purchased or bartered by anyone Plundered goods were welcome Plundered goods were welcome

68 The strength of the fort attracted not only the buccaneers trade The strength of the fort attracted not only the buccaneers trade But also the buccaneers themselves But also the buccaneers themselves It became a base for many It became a base for many The society formed was unusual The society formed was unusual Egalitarian Egalitarian Two men would form a compact and work together until death Two men would form a compact and work together until death At death all good would pass to the second who would have support the wife of the dead partner At death all good would pass to the second who would have support the wife of the dead partner

69 Once the agreement was made Once the agreement was made –one partner headed out to sea to plunder –second remained on the island to hunt and provide for the group Gradually the community grew attracting more members Gradually the community grew attracting more members Both buccaneers, farmers and merchants Both buccaneers, farmers and merchants And gradually became more powerful And gradually became more powerful

70 Francois Lolonois Francois Lolonois Indentured servant Indentured servant Reputation for courage and cruelty Reputation for courage and cruelty “expect no quarter give no quarter” “expect no quarter give no quarter” Recruited 500 men and planed to raid the Spanish settlement of Maracaibo Recruited 500 men and planed to raid the Spanish settlement of Maracaibo Fleet able to take Maracaibo and Gibraltar Fleet able to take Maracaibo and Gibraltar

71 Next plan was for attack on settlements on Lake Nicaragua Next plan was for attack on settlements on Lake Nicaragua –sacked the town, little money was taken This is where Lolonois reputation for violence was secured This is where Lolonois reputation for violence was secured When one of the captives showed defiance When one of the captives showed defiance Lolonois cut open his chest, ripped out his heart Lolonois cut open his chest, ripped out his heart Taking a bite he held the blooded heart in front of a second captive Taking a bite he held the blooded heart in front of a second captive

72 After failed attack buccaneers split up After failed attack buccaneers split up Lolonois left with a number in one ship Lolonois left with a number in one ship –Ran aground Took lots to see who would go for help in a small row boat Took lots to see who would go for help in a small row boat –Lolonois was one to leave Local natives captured Lolonois, they knew of his violent reputation Local natives captured Lolonois, they knew of his violent reputation He was roasted and eaten He was roasted and eaten

73 Over the years Spanish wore down Buccaneers Over the years Spanish wore down Buccaneers Additionally religious and national disputes weaken the cohesiveness of the group Additionally religious and national disputes weaken the cohesiveness of the group 1655 the British took control of Jamaica 1655 the British took control of Jamaica Fearful of a Spanish counter attack Fearful of a Spanish counter attack The British welcome the Buccaneers for the protection they offered The British welcome the Buccaneers for the protection they offered

74 Well known Port Royal Buccaneers Rock Brasilliano Rock Brasilliano –unpredictable, feared when drunk, Governor of Jamaica moved to avoid him Bartholomew the Portuguese Bartholomew the Portuguese –unlucky in keeping treasure but, good at escape Red Leg Greaves Red Leg Greaves Scottish, Scottish, –grew up a slave, known to be humane to captives And now a little visit to Port Royal…… And now a little visit to Port Royal……

75 And now over to Christopher Wood Graduate Student studying Pirates And now over to Christopher Wood Graduate Student studying Pirates

76 Henry Morgan More popularly known as……..

77 Meanwhile….Back in England… The English Civil War, 1641–1649 (1651) The English Civil War, 1641–1649 (1651) The Commonwealth, under Cromwell, from 1649 to 1660 The Commonwealth, under Cromwell, from 1649 to 1660 The Restoration, Charles II, in 1660 The Restoration, Charles II, in 1660 The Glorious Revolution, in 1688 The Glorious Revolution, in 1688 –Henry Morgan’s Death

78 Pirates of the Caribbean After the capture of Jamaica by the English, Port Royal became the centre for a new stage of Piracy After the capture of Jamaica by the English, Port Royal became the centre for a new stage of Piracy No longer would the Spanish have to face sporadic attacks by individuals No longer would the Spanish have to face sporadic attacks by individuals Now it had to face organized large scale government sponsored attacks Now it had to face organized large scale government sponsored attacks And the big man, the big name, in this phase of Privateers was Henry Morgan And the big man, the big name, in this phase of Privateers was Henry Morgan

79 Henry Morgan Born in Wales in 1635 Born in Wales in 1635 –Grew up in a country torn by war and strife 1654 sailed with British expeditionary force to capture Hispaniola 1654 sailed with British expeditionary force to capture Hispaniola –Failed Took Jamaica instead Took Jamaica instead After cashing out of service stayed on as buccaneer After cashing out of service stayed on as buccaneer 1662 purchased own ship 1662 purchased own ship

80 Came under the tutelage of Commodore Sir Christopher Myngs Came under the tutelage of Commodore Sir Christopher Myngs Joined him in attack on Santiago Cuba Joined him in attack on Santiago Cuba However- Attempting to secure peace with Spain However- Attempting to secure peace with Spain 1663 King Charles II recalled warships from region 1663 King Charles II recalled warships from region

81 Governor Modyford of Jamaica Governor Modyford of Jamaica Fearful of attack began issuing letters of marque Fearful of attack began issuing letters of marque –For a fee and a percentage With Myngs recalled, Captain Edward Mansfield became de facto Naval leader With Myngs recalled, Captain Edward Mansfield became de facto Naval leader Morgan bought a commission and headed out with four other captains Morgan bought a commission and headed out with four other captains Raided numerous cities and town along the coast of the mainland Raided numerous cities and town along the coast of the mainland

82 HispaniolaJamaicaVillahermosa Gran Granada PortobelloMaracaiboPanama

83 Due to his capabilities Morgan became leader of the expedition Due to his capabilities Morgan became leader of the expedition After several successful attacks he led the group to Gran Granada After several successful attacks he led the group to Gran Granada Persuading local Indian guides he headed into Nicaragua Persuading local Indian guides he headed into Nicaragua Only to come out on a city much larger than expected Only to come out on a city much larger than expected With a bold move Morgan attacked in broad daylight With a bold move Morgan attacked in broad daylight Taken by surprise the city quickly fell Taken by surprise the city quickly fell –He then proceeded to torture people to learn the whereabouts of their personal wealth

84 Morgan returned to Jamaica in 1665 a hero Morgan returned to Jamaica in 1665 a hero Upon return Morgan discovered his Uncle Edward Morgan had become Lieutenant Governor Upon return Morgan discovered his Uncle Edward Morgan had become Lieutenant Governor –He married Edward Morgan’s daughter –Purchased the first of several plantations Captain Mansfield died in 1668 at the hands of the Spanish Captain Mansfield died in 1668 at the hands of the Spanish Morgan was elected Morgan was elected Leader of the Brethren Leader of the Brethren –At 30 he had wealth, property and power

85 Attack on Portobello-1668 After his successful attack at Gran Granada After his successful attack at Gran Granada Morgan planed his next mission Morgan planed his next mission Initial idea Havana Initial idea Havana To big and to well defended To big and to well defended Second choice Portobello Second choice Portobello

86 Portobello

87 ALSO Well defended- ALSO Well defended- –BUT mainly by badly trained garrison troops 460 buccaneers 460 buccaneers Attacked using captives as human shields Attacked using captives as human shields –Nuns and Priests, carrying ladders Allowed his men to sack the city but not burn it Allowed his men to sack the city but not burn it Threatened Spanish that he would destroy it Threatened Spanish that he would destroy it –Eventually received large ransom

88 Maracaibo Next Attack: Maracaibo

89 People had fled Maracaibo People had fled Maracaibo –They didn’t want to be “eaten alive” –Morgan attacked Gibraltar instead Spanish turned up and defended the narrow straits out Spanish turned up and defended the narrow straits out Overwhelming forces Overwhelming forces Demanded surrender Demanded surrender Morgan’s Crews: “We’ll meet you in battle” Morgan’s Crews: “We’ll meet you in battle” Spies reported to Spanish : Spies reported to Spanish : –Captured ship was being made into flagship –A small sloop was to be used as a fire ship

90 Morgan and his crew headed into battle Morgan and his crew headed into battle The flagship leading the way The flagship leading the way But Morgan had tricked them But Morgan had tricked them Flag ship was a fake – it was the fire ship Flag ship was a fake – it was the fire ship Defeated Spanish fleet, but Fort still held Defeated Spanish fleet, but Fort still held –Split the treasure between ships, ready to flee –Prepared for a secret attack of the fort by land Ferried men to shore in canoes, leaving ships unmanned Ferried men to shore in canoes, leaving ships unmanned But the Spanish saw this, turned their cannon inland But the Spanish saw this, turned their cannon inland But Morgan had tricked the Spanish again But Morgan had tricked the Spanish again –Men simply laid down in canoes Fully manned ship sailed away Fully manned ship sailed away

91 Morgan at Maracaibo


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