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1. Session 1 – Understanding the Appalachian Church An overview of Appalachian culture and values 2.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Session 1 – Understanding the Appalachian Church An overview of Appalachian culture and values 2."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Session 1 – Understanding the Appalachian Church An overview of Appalachian culture and values 2

3 Why Study Appalachia Culture and Values I planted, Apollos watered, but God gave the growth. (1 Corinthians 3:6 HCSB) 3

4 Jesus and Culture A little later some of the other bystanders came over to Peter and said, “You must be one of them; we can tell by your Galilean accent.” (Matthew 26:73 NLT) “Men of Galilee,” the angels said … (Acts 1:11) 4

5 Appalachia “Dorothy, you’re not in Kansas (or Louisville) anymore.” 5

6 Our Culture Identifies Us And they were astounded and amazed, saying, “Look, aren’t all these who are speaking Galileans? (Acts 2:7 HCSB) 6

7 Appalachian Imagine Image Was Developed By 1.Media – to sell books, magazines, and newspapers 2.Government – to sell programs 3.Missionaries – to raise support and funds 7

8 Appalachian Imagine Various Views 1.Popular National Image 2.Official Government Image 3.Industry’s Longstanding Image 4.Church’s Image 5.Self Image of Appalachian’s 8

9 Appalachian Culture and Values Those who are sensitive to and utilized Appalachian Values are more successful than those who are less sensitive or fail to recognize the values. (Conclusion of a study conducted by WVU) 9

10 10 The Appalachian Region Appalachia lies along the Appalachian mountains, which extend from Mississippi to New York, and includes three sub-regions.

11 11 The Appalachian Region  The region was originally inhabited by Native Americans  The name Appalachia comes from the Appalachee tribe of Northern Florida  The geographical region known as Appalachia is named after the mountain chain which serves as a barrier from the outside world  The isolation that the mountains bring has preserved many traditions

12 12 Pronouncing the Word Late 17th century. Formed from Apalachee, the name of a Native American people of what is now the southeastern United States. Ap·pa·la·chi·an [àpp láychee n, àpp lách n] adjective Ap·pal·a·chi·ans [àpp láychee nz, àpp lách nz] Ap·pa·la·chi·a [àpp láychee, àpp lách] noun


14 Appalachian Mountain Range Appalachians in North Carolina 14

15 Appalachian Mountain Range  The Appalachians, about 1,500 miles in length, extend from central Alabama in the U.S. up through the New England states and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Quebec.  Significant ranges include the Cumberland Mts. in Tennessee, the Blue Ridge Mts. in Virginia, the Alleghenies in Pennsylvania, the Catskills Mts. in New York, the Green Mts. in Vermont and the White Mts. of New Hampshire.  The highest point is Mt. Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 ft (2,037 meters). 15

16 Appalachian Regional Ministry A partnership ministry of the  North American Mission Board  Woman’s Missionary Union  11 State Conventions in the 10 State Region of Appalachia. For mission opportunities go to GA SC NC TN KY OH VA MD WV PA 16

17 Appalachian Regional Ministry GA SC NC TN KY OH VA MD WV PA  19 million people  13 million unchurched  Poverty  Spiritual darkness – some areas over 90% unchurched  Mission Opportunities 17

18 18 Early History  During the colonial era, Appalachia was claimed by Europeans in search of independence  Much of the Civil War was fought in Appalachia  Land was settled by veterans, immigrants, and adventurers

19 19 Geography and Economy  Geography makes farming and industry difficult  Local economy cannot support the population for most of Appalachia

20 20 Geography and Economy  Despite the natural beauty of the region, tourism fails to generate enough profit to offset negative economic trends  The region’s traditional economy is based on agriculture, extractive industries (coal mining), and blue-collar manufacturing jobs

21 21

22 22 Northern Section  Extends from New York into West Virginia and Ohio  Economic base in steel, coal, and railroad transportation  Reduction in employment has occurred in this region

23 23 Central Region  Includes sixty contiguous counties in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee  History of the most grinding poverty in America  Where War on Poverty started and failed  3 rd. World conditions  Entitlement mentality

24 24 Southern Region  Extends from Virginia through the Carolinas and into Alabama  Includes many unique regional folklore traditions (Foxfire Series

25 25 Significant influences to the Appalachian Culture  Northern Labor Unions Decline of the major industries (steel, chemical) Education  Central Migration Labor Unions Unemployment/Poverty Decline of the coal and timber industry  Southern Tennessee Valley Authority Anti labor union Education Textile industry

26 26 Appalachian out-migration  7 -8 million people migrated from Appalachia between 1940-1990  Most have moved toward industrial centers, auto assembly factories in Michigan and Ohio, textile mills, banking or high tech jobs in the South  “Brain drain”  Since 1980 Appalachian migration has decreased but not stopped

27 27 Traditional Appalachian Identity  Regional folklore shared with younger generations  Arts and crafts highlight the region’s beauty  No other large geographic region in the United States has so many family members who live their lives in proximity to their birthplaces

28 28 Traditional Appalachian Identity  Extended kinship networks  Children learn from parents and clan  Family surname can identify persons and link them to a kinship network

29 Types of Appalachians 1.Native – holding on to the past 2.Modern – changing with the times 3.Electronic – in touch with the world (www.) 4.Displaced – lives outside of Appalachia, heart still back home 5.Returned – one who moves back home at retirement or job lost 6.Adopted – moved to the region and now calls it home 7.Hidden – from Appalachia, relocated out of the region and keeps their roots a secret 29

30 30 1960’s: War on Poverty  Attitude toward poverty was simplistic: if a region is destitute, give it goods, services and infrastructure  JFK initiated War on Poverty in 1963  LBJ implemented the program

31 31 War on Poverty  The Community Action Program sent volunteers into the region  The Federal Government poured money into the region  Social programs such as welfare relief, public works projects and subsidies to industries were implemented

32 32 Poverty Wins the War  Rather than investing in education, businesses, and other income- generating concerns, federal aid was used to finance more consumption and more children  Welfare and state aid become dominant source of income  Despite efforts the region lacked entrepreneurship and education

33 Poverty Wins the War Today 37 of the 100 poorest counties in the USA are in Central Appalachia. 27 of the counties are in Eastern Kentucky which has the poorest of the poor. 33

34 34 The “10 Minute Window” When you travel the Interstate system through Appalachia you see one world, progressive Appalachia – travel 10 minutes on either side of the Interstate and you often see the other side of Appalachia.

35 Effective ministry means:  Know the area you will be serving: The history Demographics Economy Poverty/Literacy Religious history and background  Make a long-term commitment 35

36 Questions and Answers Discussion 36

37 Session 2 – Ministering within the Context of Appalachian Culture How Understanding the culture will enable one to more effectively minister in Appalachia 37

38 38 Education  Many schools often lack basic supplies  Because much of the population is poor, Appalachian states have lower tax revenues  This results in less funding for schools and substandard education

39 39

40 Literacy  Level I & II estimates of literacy: Kentucky 54%; Georgia 54%; Ohio 45%; North Carolina 52%; South Carolina 56%; Tennessee 53%; Virginia 47%; and West Virginia 56%. The national average is 47%.  In the heart of Central Appalachia, some areas are over 80% of Level I & II.  Level I estimate of literacy: Kentucky 19%; Georgia 23%; Ohio 18%; North Carolina 22%; South Carolina 25%; Tennessee 21%; Virginia 19%; and West Virginia 20%. 40

41 41 Religion  Key feature: autonomous, regionalized sub-denominations of Christian religions  Regional churches tend not to be involved with centralized religions  They often follow a literal interpretation of the Bible  The King James Version is still the translation of choice for the majority

42 42 Religion  Most churches place a great importance on religious experience, especially in relation to conversion  Life extremely hard - the sense of independence carries over into their religious experience Works Emotional “Spirit lead” Lay lead

43 Religion  Wesleyan-Armenian/Pentecostal influence  Roman Catholic influence  Church of Christ influence  “Baptist” in Appalachia may not mean the same thing that it means in the “Bible Belt” states. In parts of Appalachia, many SBC churches are Southern Baptist for convenience or tradition not out of conviction. Be careful about talking negative about other faith groups In many rural areas Baptecostal would be a good descriptive term 43

44 Religion In Central Appalachia:  Denominations are irrelevant  Religious tradition often takes place over Scripture and dogma  One out of three unchurched have been previously churched  Salvation is equated to simply believing in or about Jesus. No life change necessary. 44

45 45 Music  Strong folk tradition  Churches are very influential: no explicit lyrics  Country/Bluegrass influence  Prevalence of white country gospel music  Square dancing is a common form of entertainment

46 46 Music Today  Music within the church community is changing  The change has brought challenges, pain, life, division, …  Today you will find a wide variety of styles of music  Music style will govern worship style

47 Factors to Remember When Ministering in Appalachia  Culture (particularly the area where you will be serving)  Poverty  Medium age  Education (yours may not be important to them)  Literacy levels  Religious background  Music 47

48 Twelve Values Common to Appalachians Values you need to know to do effective ministry in Appalachia.

49 Twelve Values Common to Appalachians 1.Traditionalism or Heritage – a Strong Love of Tradition.  love of things as they are. Change comes slowly. There is a need for process time. 2.Strong sense of family or Familism  family centered; loyalty runs deep; responsibility may extend beyond immediate family; "blood is thicker than water." Relationships are very important. High value placed on good neighbors. 49

50 Twelve Values Common to Appalachians 3.Neighborliness and Hospitality - help each other out, but suspicious of strangers; spontaneous to invite people for a meal, to spend the night, etc.  People are friendly, but not open to strangers.  Trust is important. Tend not to ask your advice until they trust you.  Relationships are important and deep relationships are developed slowly and last a lifetime. 50

51 I will share a cup of coffee with you out of obligation. I will share a cup of coffee with you my guest. I will share a cup of coffee with you my special guest. I will share a cup of coffee with you as a friend. Four Cups Of Coffee Rule 51

52 Twelve Values Common to Appalachians 4.Love of Place - never forget "back home" and go there as often as possible; it is revitalizing; sometimes stay in places where there is no hope of maintaining decent lives because it is “home.” 52

53 Twelve Values Common to Appalachians 5.Individualism, Self-Reliance, Pride - most obvious characteristics; look after oneself; solitude; freedom; do things for oneself; not wanting to be beholding to others; make do  Strong Work Ethic (not as strong today)  Courage  We consider our way to be the best  If we have to do it your way, then after you leave we will undo it 53

54 Twelve Values Common to Appalachians 6.Personalism - relates well to others; go to great lengths to keep from offending others; getting along is more important than letting one's feelings be known; think in terms of persons rather than degrees or professional reputations 54

55 Twelve Values Common to Appalachians 7.Modesty and Being Oneself - believe one should not put on airs; be oneself, not a phony; don't pretend to be something you're not or be boastful; don't get above your raising 8.Sense of Beauty - displayed through music, folksongs, poems, arts, crafts, etc., colorful language metaphors (“I’m as nervous as a long-tailed cat in a roomful of rocking chairs.”) 55

56 Twelve Values Common to Appalachians 9.Sense of Humor - seem dour, but laugh at ourselves; do not appreciate being laughed at; humor sustains people in hard times. Humor is often used to cover up personal pain, disappoint, or distrust. Humor can be filled with sarcasm 10.Strong sense of solidarity - Stick, together, even if you disagree, express yourself but stand together 56

57 Twelve Values Common to Appalachians 11.Strong sense of Patriotism - goes back to Civil War times; flag, land, relationships are important; shows up in community celebration and festivals 57

58 Twelve Values Common to Appalachians 12.Strong Religious Beliefs - values and meaning to life spring from religious sources; fatalistic (outside factors control one's life, fate, believe things happen for a reason and will work out for the best); sustains people in hard times 58

59 Factors that Impact Ministry in Appalachia 1.Geographical/Terrain of the state – travel is measured in time not miles. Creates a type of isolation in the remote, rural areas 2.Literacy – depending on the area between 50 to 80% of the adult population cannot read on an 8 th grade level (functionally illiterate). +/- 20% below a 3 rd grade level. 59

60 Factors that Impact Ministry in Appalachia 3.Economic issues –  Poverty – 37 of the 100 poorest counties in the USA are in Central Appalachia  1 out of 5 children go to bed hungry every night  Low income – way below the national average 60

61 Factors that Impact Ministry in Appalachia 4.Love of the family atmosphere – churches tend to be smaller than in other areas 5.Strong love for autonomy, for independence 6.Distrust of denominations – control matters, denominations tends to believe that one size fits all. Exercise outside influence which is resisted and resented 61

62 Factors that Impact Ministry in Appalachia 7.Strong Wesleyan – Arminian – Holiness – Pentecostal influence on one hand and the strong Arminian Baptist (do not believe in eternal security) influence on the other hand 8.Strong belief in the KJV Bible 9.Love of free worship - music 10.Lack of indigenous pastors 62

63 Factors that Impact Ministry in Appalachia 11.Population shifts and declining towns Migration over the past 50 years has led to a serious decline in many areas. US Census projects flatten growth through 2025 in many part of central and northern Appalachia 12.Priority – your priority may not be my priority. I will say yes to you and either not show up or fail to participate. 63

64 Factors that Impact Ministry in Appalachia 64 13.Titles/Professionalism in the church are frowned upon 14.Aging Population/High level of disability 52% to 58% of the senior adults are primary caregivers for their grandchildren. High level of disability

65 Factors that Impact Ministry in Appalachia 15.Population is a stew or mosaic not a melting pot – with some exceptions in the remote areas. Be careful what you say about other ethic groups. German Italian Coalfields – Scot-Irish, Welsh Polish European African American Native American Asian Hispanic 65

66 Factors that Impact Ministry in Appalachia 16.Event driven/project 17.Stewardship is project/need driven 18.Matriarchal society – above average female pastors across the state in most denominations. Long history of female pastors and leadership in churches. 66

67 Factors that Impact Ministry in Appalachia 19.Religious associations historically were formed for the purpose of fellowship. Hierarchy and control – real or perceived is resisted. 20.Entitlement mentality – you owe me. 67

68 Questions and Answers Discussion 68

69 Session 3 – Preaching and Pastoring in Appalachia How to be more effective as you pastor in Appalachia 69

70 Preaching in Appalachia Bill Barker, Director Appalachian Regional Ministry

71 Pastoring in the Mountains Too many non-indigenous pastors leave the mountains wounded, misunderstood, sometimes feeling abused, having never felt accepted by those he was called to pastor. 71

72 Get to Know Your Church Field  The culture  The Demographics  The past religious history  What is the predominate religious influence Faith group/denomination  What is the Biblical understanding or literacy level of your church field 72

73 8 Marks for any Discussion of Appalachian Religion 1.Puritanical behavior patterns or legalism/holiness (external rules) 2.Fundamentalists views of the Bible and doctrine 3.King James Bible 4.Little distinction between clergy and laity 73

74 8 Marks for any Discussion of Appalachian Religion 5.Sectarian concepts of the church and its mission (Isolation) 6.Revivalism - emotion 7.Informality in worship – testify (bear witness) when you want 8.Local church autonomy/opposition to centralized authority of the church. 74

75 10 Factors That Affect Pastoring in the Mountains 1.Appalachian Culture – a distinctive subculture in American. Divided into sub-cultures, often along ethic lines 75

76 10 Factors That Affect Pastoring in the Mountains 2.Educational Level – varies across the state “Good teacher, ain’t much of a preacher!” Factors that impact literacy  Economics  Family Unit  Geographical/Isolation 76

77 10 Factors That Affect Pastoring in the Mountains 3.Distrust of outsiders – “furriners” Historically Central Appalachia has been treated as a Third World County (controlled by outside interest) Absentee corporate ownership Outside attitude  Reflected in media  Reflected by government  Reflected by religion 77

78 10 Factors That Affect Pastoring in the Mountains 4.Out-migration 1950 – 2000 steady decline in population Resulted in a “brain drain” Impact on churches (aging congregation) 78

79 10 Factors That Affect Pastoring in the Mountains 5.Automation Industry – higher production, few employees Shift out of the state 6.Union and Politics “Leave your union views and political views out of the pulpit.” 79

80 10 Factors That Affect Pastoring in the Mountains 7.Economics It is hard to get poor people in church. The higher the poverty, the higher the unchurched. Great divide – between the haves and the have-nots. 80

81 10 Factors That Affect Pastoring in the Mountains 8.Change (Modern times) Television Internet Social change Economic change Communities disintegrating Churches – aging, closing, dysfunctional Music and Bible Translations 81

82 10 Factors That Affect Pastoring in the Mountains 9.Religious culture “Good people, but lost without Jesus.” 10.Family Respect and utilize holidays Respect the elderly Reach the children Be prepared to deal with “shack’n up issues” 82

83 10 Things To Remember When Pastoring in the Mountains 1.Get to know your people Visit in their homes, eat their food, drink their coffee Visit, visit, visit and visit some more Build relationships 83

84 10 Things To Remember When Pastoring in the Mountains 2.Identify with your people In dress Hunting Fishing NASCAR Housing School Community events If you are planning to Home School … 84

85 Remember! People don’t care how much you know until they know how much you care! 85

86 10 Things To Remember When Pastoring in the Mountains 3.Respect your peers – preachers and faith groups Historically many rural preacher’s have lacked formal training, but they are not ignorant of the Bible. To be college and seminary trained is not seen as being Holy Spirit taught. 86

87 From Eastern Kentucky “My preaching career in area churches during my 16 years at the ministry where I serve has taught me that as a seminary graduate, it’s almost impossible for me to get down as far as I need to go to really communicate with mountain people. It’s a daunting calling.” (Michael Spencer – March 2008) 87

88 10 Things To Remember When Pastoring in the Mountains 4.As a norm most Appalachians enjoy free worship with strong lay participation. Strong independent mindset 5.Most Appalachians enjoy preaching with some animation (life) in it. 88

89 10 Things To Remember When Pastoring in the Mountains 6.Preaching often centers around storytelling, therefore illustrations are important. Illustrations are windows Use current illustrations Use personal illustrations Use I, we, us … but never you. 89

90 Storyline Preaching Peter Walking on Water Matthew 14:22-32 1.Read the story from Scripture 2.Tell the story in your own words 3.Apply the story ●Fear● Failure ●Faith● Forgiveness 4.Retell the story in a modern setting 90

91 10 Things To Remember When Pastoring in the Mountains 7.Leave the Greek and Hebrew in the study and out of the pulpit The omission of phrases like “the Greek says,” are best left unsaid. Such phrases say to the hearer, “I’m smarter than you.” 91

92 10 Things To Remember When Pastoring in the Mountains 8.Topical vs. Expository Preaching Topical preaching has been the mainstay in many rural mountain churches Few congregations move beyond the pastor’s ability to communicate effectively doctrine, Bible knowledge, etc. Storyline preaching is powerful 92

93 10 Things To Remember When Pastoring in the Mountains  However, do not be afraid of Expository Preaching There are different models  John MacArthur – verse by verse  Charles Spurgeon – passage  Charles Swindoll – mixture of the above build around a topic Use in a series of 4 to 8 week cycles 93

94 10 Things To Remember When Pastoring in the Mountains 9.Give them Hope Build Upon Christ Jesus did not preach a gospel with minimum requirements. Jesus came preaching the Kingdom of God and inviting ordinary people to be apart of it. 94

95 10 Things To Remember When Pastoring in the Mountains 10.Do not underestimate the impact and power of TV Preachers/Per- sonalities and the Internet Can be the source of false doctrine Can raise the bar of expectations for your preaching Be careful about using the other man’s material 95

96 Overwhelmed? “Be a man. Get your hands dirty; go hunting; do something with men, build your church on men …. When you use personal illustrations consider using those that cast yourself as the goat not the hero … Love your people and know they aren’t dumb … When you preach, do it with enthusiasm and emotion.” (Glen Mathews – Evangelist) 96

97 10 Guiding Principles for Pastoring in the Mountains KISS 1.Remember KISS Keep It Short and Simple 2.Always take your people to Jesus “Sir, we would Jesus” (John 12:21) “Sir, we would see Jesus” (John 12:21) 3.Be yourself using the gifts and skills God has given you 97

98 10 Guiding Principles for Pastoring in the Mountains 4.Keep your spiritual life fresh Prayer Bible Reading Bible Study Other reading Jealously guard your personal time with God 98

99 10 Guiding Principles for Pastoring in the Mountains 5.Never stop learning Continuing education is important Use the internet, correspondence, seminars 6.Keep your preaching Fresh and Relevant However, leave the study in the study 99

100 10 Guiding Principles for Pastoring in the Mountains 7.Plan your Preaching Christian calendar  Christmas  Easter Church calendar  Homecoming Denomination calendar  Missions  Evangelism Secular calendar  Mother’s Day  Father’s Day Mark sure you allow for the local church and community events that often go unmentioned. Be flexible. 100

101 10 Guiding Principles for Pastoring in the Mountains 8.Let the Holidays and Special Events work for you. Involve your people Christmas New Year’s Easter Mother’s Day Memorial Day Father’s Day 4 th of July VBS Sunday Homecoming Labor Day Veterans' Day Labor Day 101

102 10 Guiding Principles for Pastoring in the Mountains 9.Be Evangelistic in your Preaching Do not be afraid to share the gospel Learn to incorporate the gospel into every message 10.Preach to a Point and Make your Invitation Clear A good invitation starts during the introduction of the message 102

103 Preach the Word Preach the word of God. Be persistent, whether the time is favorable or not. Patiently correct, rebuke, and encourage your people with good teaching. (2 Timothy 4:2 NLT) 103

104 Questions and Answers Discussion 104

105 Session 4 – The Dynamics of Appalachian Churches Pastoring the smaller church or the mountain family church 105

106 Southern Baptists in Appalachia  Some places trusted and respected  Others see us “as one step above the Jehovah Witnesses and one step below the Mormons.”  Still other areas do not have a clue who we are 106

107 107 Working with the Appalachian Church  Use Common Sense  Trust and Respect –must be earned. Don’t be fooled by the surface friendliness  Keeping Appointments Your priority may not be my priority  Conflict Often will talk to a mutual friend Offending one member can impact the whole church (family)

108 108 Working with the Appalachian Church  Humor Humor is often used to cover up pain, disappointment, fear …  Inter-family Relationships  Literacy – education (view of)  Role of women in the church More of a central Appalachia issue Female pastors Deaconess

109 109 Working with the Appalachian Church  Be patient  Emphasize the Family “Will the Circle Be Unbroken”  Work with the existing leadership Remember – “Your perception of a lack of leadership may not be theirs.”  Do not impose your ideas of church on them until you have earned the right.

110 110 Working with the Appalachian Church  Help them discover “core values” Biblical Baptist  Make change slowly Work through the existing leadership Trust their judgment  Allow for process time

111 111 Working with the Appalachian Church  Teach them how to deal with conflict  Allow for “toot” time  Learn their language/culture  Accept the fact that you may never know “why”  “Pay your rent”

112 Working with the Appalachian Church The Small-Medium Church  Single Cell – acts like one big family  Sense of Family – feel they are part of a family. Greatest fear is the lost of their sense of family if the church were to grow.  Allows for Quicker Involvement The feeling of being needed motivates members to become involved. 112

113 Working with the Appalachian Church The Small-Medium Church  Informal Environment  Much loving and caring  Absentees are missed by everyone  Heavy Reliance upon volunteers  Giving is project driven not budget driven  Participation means more than performance 113

114 Working with the Appalachian Church The Small-Medium Church  Limited Entrance Points Usually limited to pastor and members (relationships)  Focuses on One Event at a Time In the small church, one per quarter Revival Vacation Bible School Homecoming Thanksgiving/Christmas 114

115 Working with the Appalachian Church The Small-Medium Church  Pastor May or May Not have a Great Impact Usually have a strong lay leadership Pastor is usually best described as the Chaplain or Preacher.  Lay Leadership Usually one or two strong lay leaders. Business is usually decided in informal settings outside the business meetings 115

116 Working with the Appalachian Church The Small-Medium Church Limitations  Limited Programs  Inadequate Evangelism – evangelism and discipleship may not be a priority  Event Driven  Survival Finances  Tough Crusted Lay Leadership  Rapid Pastoral Turnover  High Demand of Pastor’s Time 116

117 Working with the Appalachian Church The Small-Medium Church Limitations  Inadequate Facilities – space is limited  Smallness Breeds Smallness – in a comfort zone. Small Groups Become too Intimate  Reputation – strife among the membership will impact their witness  Older Membership  Many Communities in the Appalachia are not growing 117

118 118 Working Within The Boundaries or Limitations The Single Cell Church 5 – 150 in average attendance Difficult To Engage In Evangelism, Outreach, and Discipleship OR … Maybe Not

119 119 Working Within The Boundaries or Limitations The Single Cell Church in Appalachia It averages 30 to 45 in attendance. Difficult To Engage In Evangelism, Outreach, and Discipleship OR … Maybe Not New Members Back Door

120 Church Planters  Make sure you are called  Indigenous sons work best  Study the area where you are called  Learn the culture  In many areas be prepared to serve bi-vocational 120

121 Church Planters  Seek the person of peace  Become acquainted with the local spiritual leader  Build relationships  Get out among the community  Be a soul-winner  Use volunteers 121

122 Questions and Answers Discussion 122

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