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Mengelola Perubahan dan Pembelajaran Organisasi Chapter 25

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2 Mengelola Perubahan dan Pembelajaran Organisasi Chapter 25
Mata kuliah : J Pengelolaan Organisasi Entrepreneurial Dosen Pembuat : D Rudy Aryanto Tahun : 2009 Mengelola Perubahan dan Pembelajaran Organisasi Chapter 25

3 Learning Objectives Describe the seven-step model of organizational change Describe sources of change and alternative change management Discuss the ethical issues that arise in organizational development practices Compare alternative interventions that can improve performance Identify major reasons people resist change

4 Managing Change A Proactive Behavior

5 Learning Principles and Change
Principles of learning Unfreezing old learning Movement to new learning Refreezing the learned behavior

6 Change Agents An intervener who…
Brings a different perspective to a situation Challenges the status quo The success of a change program rests heavily on… The relationship between the change agent and key decision makers

7 Types of Change Agents External-Internal Internal External

8 Why People Resist Change
Rational or irrational reaction to Uncertainty Actual, perceived, or imaged threats Parochial self-interest Misunderstanding Lack of trust Different assessments Low tolerance for change

9 Reducing Resistance to Change
Employee resistance can be reduced by utilizing: Education and communication Participation and involvement Facilitation and support Negotiation and agreement Manipulation and cooptation Explicit and implicit coercion

10 Model for Managing Change
Forces for change Environmental Market Technology Resources Internal Behavior Processes Performance outcomes Organizational Group Individual Diagnosis of the problem Information Participation Change agent Selection of appropriate intervention Structural Skill/attitude Behavioral Limiting Conditions Leadership climate Formal organization Organization culture Implementation Timing Scope Experimentation Evaluation of method Feedback Adjustment Revision Reinforcement Affect Encourage Leads to Followed by Provision for 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

11 Forces for Change Environmental Forces Internal Forces Economic
Technological Social/political Internal Forces Process problems Behavioral problems

12 Diagnosis of a Problem Change agents facilitate a diagnosis
Gathering, interpreting, and presenting data There is no formula for accurate diagnosis Questions that can point to the right direction: What is the problem, as distinct from the symptoms of the problem? What must be changed to resolve the problem? What outcomes (objectives) are expected from the change? How will those outcomes be measured?

13 Data Collection Process & Techniques
Processes and techniques… Questionnaire Direct observation Interviews Workshops Examination of documents and records

14 Intervention Intervention –
A specific action or program undertaken to focus the change process on particular targets.

15 Depth & Approach of Change
Depth of intended change Scope and intensity of organizational change efforts Approaches to achieving change Structural Behavioral Technological

16 Alternative Change Techniques
Structural Change Change the nature of jobs Change the bases for departmentalization Change line-staff relationships Behavioral Change Team building Diversity training Technological Change New ways of transforming resources into products or services

17 Technological Change Techniques
Flexible manufacturing systems Automation Robotics Wireless Connectivity

18 High-Tech Disappointments
High-tech changes often disappoint Structural changes not implemented Behavioral changes lacking Employee training Compensation Management style

19 Anticipated Outcomes of Change
Structural changes Work simplification Job enrichment Job description Departmentalization Satisfaction Morale Performance Initiator of change: internal and/or external change agent Communications Attitudes Self-awareness Problem solving Behavioral changes Team building Cross-cultural understanding Managing diversity Technological changes Robotics Automation Wireless connectivity Efficiency Output Quality

20 Appreciative Inquiry A method of focusing on and bringing about positive change Uses metaphors and narratives to strengthen an individual or organization’s ability to anticipate, seize, or initiate positive potential A positive approach to change that completely lets go of problem-based management Individual engagement to bring about creative solutions

21 Framework for Appreciative Inquiry
1 Discovery Phase Identifying everything that is the best of “what is” 2 Dreaming Phase Thinking about what the “possibilities” are 3 Designing Phase Discussing and analyzing what “should” be 4 Delivery Phase Creating clear objectives of “what is going to be”

22 Trends in Organizational Change
Downsizing Empowerment Flextime Virtual Jobs

23 Limiting Conditions Selection of a change technique…
Based on diagnosis of the problem Tempered by the conditions at the time an intervention is to occur Conditions to consider… Leadership climate The formal organization The organizational culture Resistance to change

24 Implementing & Evaluating Change
The implementation of proposed change has two dimensions: Timing — when to make the change Scope — how much change to make Feedback should be solicited during the monitoring phase It helps determine the success of the change

25 Ethical Issues of Change
Change itself is not unethical It creates opportunities for unethical behavior Ethical choices are always guided by the underlying values of management Employ and empower managers who create and foster a culture that encourages ethical behavior

26 Guidelines for Managing Change
Everyone involved must have… High and visible commitment to the effort Advance information that lets them know what is to happen and why they are being asked to do what they are to do The change effort… Must connect to other parts of the organization, especially evaluation and reward systems Should be directed by line managers and assisted by a change agent, if necessary

27 Guidelines for Managing Change
For a change to be effective… The effort must be based on good diagnosis and consistent with the conditions in the organization Management must remain committed to the effort through all its steps Evaluation is essential and must consist of more than asking people how they felt about the effort People must see the connection between the effort and the organization’s mission and goals Change agents, if used, must be competent and perceived as such

28 The Learning Organization
Learning is a key ingredient in… Growing Becoming more effective Becoming more socially responsible Sustaining the business’s value proposition

29 A Learning Perspective
Scanning the environment Performance issues Metrics Experimental philosophy Transparency Education Operational variety Multiple advocates Engaged leaders and role models

30 Manager’s Role in Learning Organizations
Managers who also lead can create or contribute to the learning environment Build a commitment to learning Work to generate ideas with impact Work to generalize ideas with impact

31 Manager’s Role in Learning Organizations
Sustaining a learning organization requires A commitment to learning Generation & implementation of creative ideas Building cohesive teams Fostering collaboration and support What is learned must be implemented in order to execute a change Managers must be decisive and action oriented

32 Converting a Traditional Organization
Change the way information and experienced are used Change the way information is sought, used, stored and reviewed Information must be shared, available, and transparent Actively work to make information, new ideas, and creativity part of the culture

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