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Phase II – A New Republic

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1 Phase II – A New Republic
The Road to Independence “let us disappoint the men who are raising themselves upon the ruin of this country” Samuel Addams, 1776 Phase II – A New Republic

2 Key Topics Covered Influence of British political System Origins of Resistance British response Choice of Independence Military Course Peace for a New Nation

3 Was the American Revolution Inevitable??

4 British Mercantilism 17th century economic policy
Mercantilist doctrine Role of the colony English Acts of Trade and Navigation Positive / negative effects

5 Mercantilism New Economic Policy Intense Competition
Founding of colonies, new goods in Europe led to significant changes 1500s, Europeans developed new economic policy, mercantilism Nation’s strength depended on its wealth Wealthy nation had power for military and expanded influence New Economic Policy Wealth measured by amount of gold, silver possessed by nation Mercantilists believed there was fixed amount of wealth in world For one nation to become wealthier, more powerful—had to take wealth, power away from another nation Mercantilism led to intense competition between nations Intense Competition

6 Balance of Trade Imports Exports
Mercantilists built wealth two ways—extract gold, silver from mines at home, in colonies; sell more goods than it bought from foreign countries, creating favorable balance of trade With favorable balance of trade, country received more gold, silver from other nations than it paid to them Increased its power; weakened foreign competitors To achieve favorable balance of trade, could reduce amount of imports by placing tariffs on goods Importer paid tariff, added cost to price of good Imported goods more expensive, discouraged people from buying Imports Encourage exports that could sell for higher prices than raw materials Countries encouraged manufacturing and export of manufactured goods Governments provided subsidies to help start new industries Exports

7 Third approach for favorable balance of trade, controlling sources
Nation that controlled own sources would not need to import from competing nations Why important Country did not need to spend own money to obtain raw materials Foreign countries considered rivals, might become active enemy, cut off supply of raw materials European nations worked to become more self-sufficient Nations began to establish colonies


9 Building colonial empires essential to mercantilist system
Colonies Building colonial empires essential to mercantilist system European powers wanted to establish colonies To control sources of raw materials To provide new markets for manufactured goods To mercantilist, colonies existed only to benefit home country Colonies Monarchs restricted economic activities in colonies Colonists could not sell raw materials to other countries Could not buy manufactured goods from other nations Strict laws forbade colonies from manufacturing goods Forced to buy only from home country Strict Laws

10 Joint-Stock Companies
A New Business Organization New Ventures Overseas business ventures often too expensive for individual investors Investors began pooling money in joint-stock companies Joint-Stock Companies Investors bought shares of stock in company If company made profit, each shareholder received portion Shares Profit, loss based on number of shares owned If company failed, investors lost only amount invested Financing Colonies British East India Company, one of first joint-stock companies 1600, imported spices from Asia Others formed to bear cost of establishing colonies

11 The Economy Increase of trade by 1760’s Agriculture New England Middle
Southern Monetary system Transportation

12 Religion Variety Protestant dominance Anglicans Congregationalists

13 The Great Awakening 18th C; intellectual discourse Dramatic changes
Expressions of religious feeling Jonathan Edwards George Whitefield The impact Political influence

14 What is an American? “The American is a new man, who acts upon new principles; he must therefore entertain new ideas, and form new opinions. From involuntary idleness, servile dependence, and useless labor, he has passed to toils of a very different nature, rewarded by ample subsistence. This is an American” J. Hector St. John Crevecoeur 1782

15 National Character Motivations Political heritage Natural environment
American viewpoint Outsider observations

16 Empires at War End of 17th C. A series of four wars King William’s War
Queen Anne’s War King George’s War

17 French and Indian War The beginning What was at stake / Ft. Duquesne
The Virginia Militia A British invasion Albany Plan of Union British Victory effects of war

18 Was 1763 a "turning point" in British-colonial relationships???

19 North America in 1750

20 French and Indians

21 1754  The First Clash The Ohio Valley British French
Fort Necessity Fort Duquesne * George Washington * Delaware & Shawnee Indians

22 "Join or Die" Ben Franklin à representatives from New England, NY, MD, PA  This is Benjamin Franklin's 1754 cartoon emphasizing the need for the various colonies and regions to work together. While this became a potent message during the revolutionary period of the 1770s, the cartoon was actually intended to unite colonists against the Indian threat. Albany Congress  failed Iroquois broke off relations with Britain & threatened to trade with the French.

23 1755  Br. Decides to Eliminate Fr. Presence in No. Amer.
Gen. Edward Braddock  evict the French from the OH Valley & Canada (Newfoundland & Nova Scotia) Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley, & Acadia. Killed 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne  by 1500 French and Indian forces. Only Br. Success  expelled France from Louisiana.

24 The French & Indian War (the next slides…)
Lord Loudouin Marquis de Montcalm Native American tribes exploited both sides! 1756 British reaction - full scale assault against Fr. in Canada and in the world 1757 William Pitt - The Great Organizer 1758 Louisbourg victory 1758 Quebec 1760 Montreal

25 British-American Colonial Tensions
Colonials British Methods of Fighting: Indian-style guerilla tactics. March in formation or bayonet charge. Military Organization: Col. militias served under own captains. Br. officers wanted to take charge of colonials. Military Discipline: No mil. deference or protocols observed. Drills & tough discipline. Finances: Resistance to rising taxes. Colonists should pay for their own defense. Demeanor: Casual, non-professionals. Prima Donna Br. officers with servants & tea settings.

26 1757  William Pitt Becomes Foreign Minister
He understood colonial concerns. He offered them a compromise: - col. loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br. would reimburse col. assemblies for their costs. - Lord Loudoun would be removed. RESULTS?  Colonial morale increased by 1758.

27 1758-1761  The Tide Turns for England
* By 1761, Sp. has become an ally of Fr.

28 The French & Indian War Battle of Quebec Sept. 1759
Wolfe’s strategy - hit the roots not the branches Montcalm’s mistake Treaty of Paris 1763

29 1763  Treaty of Paris France --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River. Spain --> got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England. England --> got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India.

30 North America in 1763

31 Fr. & Ind. War Transforms Colonial Relations in N. America
English-French rivalry worldwide World War b/w two powerful empires English, w/ colonial help, fight Fr. And their Native American allies Fr. Finally lose war & are expelled from N. America Eng. Inherit vast new land holdings in N. America The first four years saw nothing but severe reverses for the British regulars and American colonials, primarily because of superior French land forces in the New World. Lack of colonial assistance to the war effort compounded British problems. By the end of 1757, however, the course of the war began to be altered by three major influences. One was the dynamic leadership of the British prime minister, William Pitt the Elder, who saw that victory in North America was the supreme task in the worldwide struggle and who has been truly called the organizer of victory in the Great War for the Empire. The second was the increasing superiority of British financial and industrial resources, food supplies, and naval equipment, as opposed to growing national bankruptcy and economic paralysis faced by France. Finally, both the British and Americans were becoming seasoned wilderness fighters.

32 Effects of the War on Britain?
It doubled the size of Britain’s North American territory and it must be governed 2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt. They will have to pay to maintain and control this vast empire. To make matters worse, citizens in Great Britain were already heavily taxed. Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings. Intractable American colonists were not about to accept restrictions on their activities. Some colonists, in fact, were beginning to compete effectively with British capitalists and refused to subordinate their economic interests to those of British manufacturers. Hostile NA in the Appalachian region, who felt threatened by American westward expansion into the Ohio River Valley, needed to be controlled. - Pontiac’s Rebellion Therefore, England felt that a major reorganization of her American Empire was necessary!

33 Effects of the War on the American Colonials
1. It united them against a common enemy for the first time. 2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated. 3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify.

34 Mercantilism Was the period from 1650 to end of Fr. Ind. War 1763 a period of “salutary neglect?” Some historians question this view especially given that mercantilism was the prevailing economic system It emphasizes that a nation’s economic power expands by maintaining a favorable balance of trade and controlling hard currency-specie. The American colonies were Britain’s reliable source of raw materials and a viable market for British goods. Ex: lg swaths of British deforested and for its massive navy it needed N. America for lumber supply. British mercantilist policies were not generally challenged by the colonists, in part b/c they were difficult to implement and often infrequently enforced As long as competition from the Americans wasn’t significant and Britain wasn’t experiencing an economic or fiscal crisis, there was little need or incentive to abandon the policy of salutary neglect.

35 Major British mercantilist policies in the pre-1760 period
Navigation laws 1660, 1663, 1673, designed to promote English shipping and control colonial trade in regard to important crops The Wool (1699), Hat (1732), and Iron (1750) Acts- designed to thwart American business men from turning raw material into finished commodities - obviously the merchant class will disdain these laws The Molasses Act (1733) - rum Overseeing all: British Board of Trade OK until post 1763 King George III put George Grenville as Prime Minister - his solution: fundamentally change British economic, trade, political relationship with Americans Abandoned salutory neglect as a policy Begin: Proclamation of 1763

36 The Aftermath: Tensions Along the Frontier
1763  Pontiac’s Rebellion Fort Detroit British “gifts” of smallpox-infected blankets from Fort Pitt.

37 Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763)

38 Colonials Paxton Boys (PA)
BACKLASH! Paxton Boys descended on Philadelphia where NA (Pontiac’s men?) sought refuge. Paxton Boys wanted funding to support safety on frontier. Ben Franklin negotiated for funding. What years earlier that echoed this armed insurrection? Colonial perception: colonial gov’ts favored the aristocracy over the needs of the masses? Carolinas in Regulators- asserted taxation w/out representation = tyranny British  Proclamation Line of 1763. Colonials Paxton Boys (PA)

39 Rethinking Their Empire
Br. Gvt. measures to prevent smuggling: 1761  writs of assistance James Otis’ case Protection of a citizen’s private property must be held in higher regard than a parliamentary statute. He lost  parliamentary law and custom had equal weight.

40 British Actions and Colonial Reaction
Issue of revenue Sugar Act Quartering Act Stamp Act Protest Declaratory Act

41 George Grenville’s Program, 1763-1765
1. Sugar Act 2. Currency Act 3. Quartering Act 4. Stamp Act

42 Theories of Representation
Real Whigs Q-> What was the extent of Parliament’s authority over the colonies?? Absolute? OR Limited? Q-> How could the colonies give or withhold consent for parliamentary legislation when they did not have representation in that body??

43 Stamp Act Crisis Loyal Nine - 1765
Sons of Liberty – began in NYC: Samuel Adams Stamp Act Congress – * Stamp Act Resolves Declaratory Act – 1766

44 Townshend Duties Crisis: 1767-1770
1767  William Pitt, P. M. & Charles Townshend, Secretary of the Exchequer. Shift from paying taxes for Br. war debts & quartering of troops  paying col. govt. salaries. He diverted revenue collection from internal to external trade. Tax these imports  paper, paint, lead, glass, tea. Increase custom officials at American ports  established a Board of Customs in Boston.

45 Colonial Response to the Townshend Duties
1. John Dickinson  * Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania.  2nd non-importation movement: * “Daughters of Liberty” * spinning bees 3. Riots against customs agents: * John Hancock’s ship, the Liberty * 4000 British troops sent to Boston.

46 many colonists began calling people who joined the non-importation
For the first time, many colonists began calling people who joined the non-importation movement, "patriots!"

47 Second Phase Charles Townshend Reaction Repeal Boston Massacre

48 Tar and Feathering

49 The Boston Massacre For enlisted men, serving in the British army was often an act of desperation; subsistence wages They often took spare jobs - contributed to tensions Crispus Attucks John Adams defended British soldiers; winning acquittals for most Calm afterwards as Lord North - new prime minister - withdrew all of Townshend Acts except Tea Tax Sam Adams kept everyone informed through committees of correspondence

50 The Boston Massacre (March 5,1770)

51 Renewal of the Conflict
The Gaspee Boston Tea Party Intolerable Acts Coercive Acts Quebec Act

52 The Gaspee Incident (1772) Providence, RI coast

53 Committees of Correspondence
Purpose  warn neighboring colonies about incidents with Br  broaden the resistance movement.

54 Tea Act (1773) British East India Co.: Monopoly on Br. tea imports.
Many members of Parl. held shares. Permitted the Co. to sell tea directly to cols. without col. middlemen (cheaper tea!) North expected the cols. to eagerly choose the cheaper tea.

55 Boston Tea Party (1773)

56 Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts 1774)
What will the British response be? Boston Port Bill Administration of Justice Act Massachusetts Gov’t Act Quebec Act 1774 Facilitate incorporation of Fr Canadians and their land into British empire Quebec’s boundary extended to Ohio River Catholicism recognized as Quebec’s official religion *nonrepresentative gov’t estb. for its citizens This wasn’t just Mass. but larger range Dissolved jury trials and popular assemblies Alarmed land speculators that this lg. swath removed

57 First Continental Congress (1774)
55 delegates from 12 colonies Agenda  How to respond to the Coercive Acts & the Quebec Act? 1 vote per colony represented.

58 First Continental Congress
Purpose and intent Delegates Actions Adopted measures Suffolk Resolves Declaration of Rights and Grievances The Association Second congress

59 First Continental Congress
Sept delegates from colonies meet to discuss response to Intolerable Acts an advisory board not legislative body Radicals - Va’s Patrick Henry, Ma’s Sam & John Adams, Pa’s Charles Thomson - colonies relationship w/ Br. Has passed point of no return. For them there are only 2 alternatives: force Britain to accede to their demands or declare independence Moderates - Pa’s John Dickinson and Va’s George Washington - relationship b/w the colonies and Gr. Britain can be repaired Conservatives - NY’s John Jay and Pa’s Joseph Galloway - mild rebuke of Britain is ok but nothing aggressive - quasi-Albany Plan would be best. A colonial “grand council” would have power to veto British acts. The Galloway plan was narrowly defeated.

60 First Continental Congress
The more radical delegates used Thomas Jefferson’s A Summary View of the Rights of British America to post the following ideas Parliament possessed no inherent authority to tax colonists The British Empire was a compact (or loose union) between the center (the mother country) and its colonies, not one unit dominated by Britain Each colony possessed its own legislature independent of Britain’s legislative authority Holding together this loose-knit union was a collective allegiance to the king They took the following actions: they declared the Intolerable Acts null & void They recommended colonists arm themselves Militias should be formed (Mass. Minute Men) They recommended a boycott of British goods - A TOTAL AND COMPLETE BOYCOTT *note: not calling for independence yet

61 The British Are Coming . . . Paul Revere & William Dawes make their midnight ride to warn the Minutemen of approaching British soldiers.

62 The Shot Heard ’Round the World! Lexington & Concord – April 18,1775

63 Fighting Begins Lexington and Concord Bunker Hill
The Second Continental Congress Declaration of the Causes and Necessities for Taking Up Arms Peace Efforts

64 Was the American Revolution Inevitable??

65 Thomas Paine: Common Sense

66 Declaration of Independence (1776)

67 Independence Hall

68 New National Symbols

69 Arguments for Independence
Thomas Paine Committee of Five Treason “Everything that is right or reasonable pleads for separation “ “Society in every state is a blessing, but government even in its best state is but a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one. For when we suffer, or are exposed to the same miseries by a government, which we might expect in a country without a government

70 Why not declare independence?
F E A R Factions within the colonies Everyone was scared of British military power A mob-run state Reduction in revenues

71 Why not declare independence?
Loyalty to the empire Poor unity within the colonies Upper class feared mob rule Middle class feared decline in business All feared the British army & navy Irish rebels had been hanged, drawn, & quartered Just a small minority of rebel-rousers? SOMEWHAT – Brits mistakenly thought by capturing leaders in the colonies, the militia would disband. Many were on the fence. Up to 16% were loyalists, mostly in the lower southern colonies. Factions within the colonies Everyone was scared of British military power A mob-run state Reduction in revenues Loyalist flee or were persecuted – older, wealthier, educated, Mostly in the south and NYC, Quaker PA, NJ Loyalists were weakest in NE – British used Yankee churches as pigsties 80,000 of them flee after declaration of independence Some 50,000 at one time bore arms for British, but the British did not overly use them – another error on their part

72 Catalysts for Independence
Harsh British actions Burning of Falmouth and Norfolk Hiring of Hessians Common Sense Experience running their own governments Acceptable “umbrella of language” to shield colonists against criticism that they were rebelling against God. June 1776 Richard Henry Lee moves that the United Colonies be free and independent states. The motion is passed July 1776. Common Sense sold over 100,000 copies in the colonies within the first few months Written in easy to understand language

73 Declaration of Independence
An eloquent appeal of why secession is needed must be created – a formal explanation. Would be used to help enlist foreign aid Tell the king why Garner foreign support Solidify home support Only took two days Jefferson argued that governments derived their power from the people—a line of reasoning that sprang from the writings of contemporary philosophers including Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Thomas Paine. Both had argued that people enter into a social contract with the body that governs them and that when the government violates that contract, the people have the right to establish a new government. These notions of a contract and accountability were radical for their time, because most Europeans believed that their monarchs’ power was granted by God. The Declaration of Independence thus established a new precedent for holding monarchies accountable for their actions. Task falls to Thomas Jefferson

74 The War Patriots African-Americans Loyalists Native Americans
Initial losses and hardships Alliance

75 A War Fought on Many Levels
Inter-colonial: Loyalists vs. Patriots Military: American rebels vs. British redcoats Role of the Militia Ideologically: Hearts and minds of the undecided and indifferent African Americans mostly side with the British Military COULD NOT WIN! Complete outmatched. But their took their time, retreated, and used Indian-fighting tactics. British offers freedom to blacks that fight for them. Ten of thousands of slaves are lost during the altercation The liberal declaration of independence shames some states into stiffening anti-slavery laws, particularly in the north.

76 Who did the Indians side with?
Mostly with the English – believed to be a sure bet to win. Mohawk chief Joseph Brant and other key chiefs convince thousands of Iroquois, Creek, Cherokee, Choctaw, and other warriors to join forces the British Conducted independent raids on American arsenals and settlements along the western frontier. After the war the Americans felt justified in taking land from natives.

77 On the Eve of the Revolution ?
Britain Americans Advantages ? Disadvantages

78 Loyalist Strongholds

79 Washington’s Headaches
Only 1/3 of the colonists were in favor of a war for independence [the other third were Loyalists, and the final third were neutral]. State/colony loyalties. Congress couldn’t tax to raise money for the Continental Army. Poor training [until the arrival of Baron von Steuben.

80 Exports & Imports:

81 Military Strategies Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line].
The Americans The British Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line]. Guerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war  you don’t have to win a battle, just wear the British down] Make an alliance with one of Britain’s enemies. Break the colonies in half by getting between the No. & the So. Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods and supplies from an ally. “Divide and Conquer”  use the Loyalists.

82 Phase I: The Northern Campaign [1775-1776]

83 The British suffered over 40% casualties.
Bunker Hill (June, 1775) The British suffered over 40% casualties.

84 Phase II: NY & PA [ ]

85 New York City in Flames (1776)

86 Washington Crossing the Delaware Painted by Emanuel Leutze, 1851

87 Saratoga: “Turning Point” of the War?

88 Significance of Saratoga
Swings momentum to the American side. Convinces France to join the Patriot cause. French in America was difficult at first – their old enemies.

89 Phase III: The Southern Strategy [1780-1781]

90 Britain’s “Southern Strategy”
Britain thought that there were more Loyalists in the South. Southern resources were more valuable/worth preserving. The British win a number of small victories, but cannot pacify the countryside [similar to U. S. failures in Vietnam!] Good US General: Nathanial Greene

91 The Battle of Yorktown (1781)
Count de Rochambeau Admiral De Grasse

92 Cornwallis’ Surrender at Yorktown:
“The World Turned Upside Down!” Painted by John Trumbull, 1797

93 The road towards peace Fighting continued for over a year after Yorktown. World War become overwhelming to the British. A Whig ministry A chance to thwart the French & bring the Americans back to English trade French want to keep America East and give Spain some rewards for joining the war Knowing this, John Jay goes to England separate from the other nations for a peace. Spain had recaptured Florida for England

94 Treaty of Paris of 1783 Britain recognized the independence of the US
Borders from Atlanta, to Mississippi, to the Great Lakes, to Florida. Americans must stop persecuting Loyalists and recommend their property be restored. British creditors could still collect payment. France agrees to all parts – end to conflict Slips towards bankruptcy and bloody revolution

95 North America After the Treaty of Paris, 1783

96 Victory Yorktown Treaty of Paris Strengths and weaknesses

97 Social Change Ending of aristocracy Church and State Women Slavery

98 Historical Perspectives
Radical or Conservative

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