4British Mercantilism 17th century economic policy Mercantilist doctrineRole of the colonyEnglish Acts of Trade and NavigationPositive / negative effects
5Mercantilism New Economic Policy Intense Competition Founding of colonies, new goods in Europe led to significant changes1500s, Europeans developed new economic policy, mercantilismNation’s strength depended on its wealthWealthy nation had power for military and expanded influenceNew Economic PolicyWealth measured by amount of gold, silver possessed by nationMercantilists believed there was fixed amount of wealth in worldFor one nation to become wealthier, more powerful—had to take wealth, power away from another nationMercantilism led to intense competition between nationsIntense Competition
6Balance of Trade Imports Exports Mercantilists built wealth two ways—extract gold, silver from mines at home, in colonies; sell more goods than it bought from foreign countries, creating favorable balance of tradeWith favorable balance of trade, country received more gold, silver from other nations than it paid to themIncreased its power; weakened foreign competitorsTo achieve favorable balance of trade, could reduce amount of imports by placing tariffs on goodsImporter paid tariff, added cost to price of goodImported goods more expensive, discouraged people from buyingImportsEncourage exports that could sell for higher prices than raw materialsCountries encouraged manufacturing and export of manufactured goodsGovernments provided subsidies to help start new industriesExports
7Third approach for favorable balance of trade, controlling sources Nation that controlled own sources would not need to import from competing nationsWhy importantCountry did not need to spend own money to obtain raw materialsForeign countries considered rivals, might become active enemy, cut off supply of raw materialsEuropean nations worked to become more self-sufficientNations began to establish colonies
9Building colonial empires essential to mercantilist system ColoniesBuilding colonial empires essential to mercantilist systemEuropean powers wanted to establish coloniesTo control sources of raw materialsTo provide new markets for manufactured goodsTo mercantilist, colonies existed only to benefit home countryColoniesMonarchs restricted economic activities in coloniesColonists could not sell raw materials to other countriesCould not buy manufactured goods from other nationsStrict laws forbade colonies from manufacturing goodsForced to buy only from home countryStrict Laws
10Joint-Stock Companies A New Business OrganizationNew VenturesOverseas business ventures often too expensive for individual investorsInvestors began pooling money in joint-stock companiesJoint-Stock CompaniesInvestors bought shares of stock in companyIf company made profit, each shareholder received portionSharesProfit, loss based on number of shares ownedIf company failed, investors lost only amount investedFinancing ColoniesBritish East India Company, one of first joint-stock companies1600, imported spices from AsiaOthers formed to bear cost of establishing colonies
11The Economy Increase of trade by 1760’s Agriculture New England Middle SouthernMonetary systemTransportation
13The Great Awakening 18th C; intellectual discourse Dramatic changes Expressions of religious feelingJonathan EdwardsGeorge WhitefieldThe impactPolitical influence
14What is an American?“The American is a new man, who acts upon new principles; he must therefore entertain new ideas, and form new opinions. From involuntary idleness, servile dependence, and useless labor, he has passed to toils of a very different nature, rewarded by ample subsistence. This is an American” J. Hector St. John Crevecoeur 1782
15National Character Motivations Political heritage Natural environment American viewpointOutsider observations
16Empires at War End of 17th C. A series of four wars King William’s War Queen Anne’s WarKing George’s War
17French and Indian War The beginning What was at stake / Ft. Duquesne The Virginia MilitiaA British invasionAlbany Plan of UnionBritish Victoryeffects of war
211754 The First Clash The Ohio Valley British French Fort Necessity Fort Duquesne * George Washington * Delaware & Shawnee Indians
22"Join or Die"Ben Franklin à representatives from New England, NY, MD, PA This is Benjamin Franklin's 1754 cartoon emphasizing the need for the various colonies and regions to work together. While this became a potent message during the revolutionary period of the 1770s, the cartoon was actually intended to unite colonists against the Indian threat.Albany Congress failed Iroquois broke off relations with Britain & threatened to trade with the French.
231755 Br. Decides to Eliminate Fr. Presence in No. Amer. Gen. Edward Braddock evict the French from the OH Valley & Canada (Newfoundland & Nova Scotia)Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley, & Acadia.Killed 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne by 1500 French and Indian forces.Only Br. Success expelled France from Louisiana.
24The French & Indian War (the next slides…) Lord LoudouinMarquis de MontcalmNative American tribes exploited both sides!1756 British reaction - full scale assault against Fr. in Canada and in the world1757 William Pitt - The Great Organizer1758 Louisbourg victory1758 Quebec1760 Montreal
25British-American Colonial Tensions ColonialsBritishMethods of Fighting:Indian-style guerilla tactics.March in formation or bayonet charge.Military Organization:Col. militias served under own captains.Br. officers wanted to take charge of colonials.Military Discipline:No mil. deference or protocols observed.Drills & tough discipline.Finances:Resistance to rising taxes.Colonists should pay for their own defense.Demeanor:Casual, non-professionals.Prima Donna Br. officers with servants & tea settings.
261757 William Pitt Becomes Foreign Minister He understood colonial concerns.He offered them a compromise:- col. loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br. would reimburse col. assemblies for their costs.- Lord Loudoun would be removed.RESULTS? Colonial morale increased by 1758.
271758-1761 The Tide Turns for England * By 1761, Sp. has become an ally of Fr.
28The French & Indian War Battle of Quebec Sept. 1759 Wolfe’s strategy - hit the roots not the branchesMontcalm’s mistakeTreaty of Paris 1763
291763 Treaty of ParisFrance --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River.Spain --> got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England.England --> got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India.
31Fr. & Ind. War Transforms Colonial Relations in N. America English-French rivalry worldwideWorld War b/w two powerful empiresEnglish, w/ colonial help, fight Fr. And their Native American alliesFr. Finally lose war & are expelled from N. AmericaEng. Inherit vast new land holdings in N. AmericaThe first four years saw nothing but severe reverses for the British regulars and American colonials, primarily because of superior French land forces in the New World. Lack of colonial assistance to the war effort compounded British problems. By the end of 1757, however, the course of the war began to be altered by three major influences.One was the dynamic leadership of the British prime minister, William Pitt the Elder, who saw that victory in North America was the supreme task in the worldwide struggle and who has been truly called the organizer of victory in the Great War for the Empire.The second was the increasing superiority of British financial and industrial resources, food supplies, and naval equipment, as opposed to growing national bankruptcy and economic paralysis faced by France.Finally, both the British and Americans were becoming seasoned wilderness fighters.
32Effects of the War on Britain? It doubled the size of Britain’s North American territory and it must be governed2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt. They will have to pay to maintain and control this vast empire. To make matters worse, citizens in Great Britain were already heavily taxed.Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings. Intractable American colonists were not about to accept restrictions on their activities. Some colonists, in fact, were beginning to compete effectively with British capitalists and refused to subordinate their economic interests to those of British manufacturers.Hostile NA in the Appalachian region, who felt threatened by American westward expansion into the Ohio River Valley, needed to be controlled. - Pontiac’s RebellionTherefore, England felt that a major reorganization of her American Empire was necessary!
33Effects of the War on the American Colonials 1. It united them against a common enemy for the first time.2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated.3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify.
34MercantilismWas the period from 1650 to end of Fr. Ind. War 1763 a period of “salutary neglect?”Some historians question this view especially given that mercantilism was the prevailing economic systemIt emphasizes that a nation’s economic power expands by maintaining a favorable balance of trade and controlling hard currency-specie. The American colonies were Britain’s reliable source of raw materials and a viable market for British goods. Ex: lg swaths of British deforested and for its massive navy it needed N. America for lumber supply.British mercantilist policies were not generally challenged by the colonists, in part b/c they were difficult to implement and often infrequently enforcedAs long as competition from the Americans wasn’t significant and Britain wasn’t experiencing an economic or fiscal crisis, there was little need or incentive to abandon the policy of salutary neglect.
35Major British mercantilist policies in the pre-1760 period Navigation laws 1660, 1663, 1673, designed to promote English shipping and control colonial trade in regard to important cropsThe Wool (1699), Hat (1732), and Iron (1750) Acts- designed to thwart American business men from turning raw material into finished commodities - obviously the merchant class will disdain these lawsThe Molasses Act (1733) - rumOverseeing all: British Board of TradeOK until post 1763King George III put George Grenville as Prime Minister - his solution: fundamentally change British economic, trade, political relationship with AmericansAbandoned salutory neglect as a policyBegin: Proclamation of 1763
36The Aftermath: Tensions Along the Frontier 1763 Pontiac’s RebellionFort DetroitBritish “gifts” of smallpox-infected blankets from Fort Pitt.
38Colonials Paxton Boys (PA) BACKLASH!Paxton Boys descended on Philadelphia where NA (Pontiac’s men?) sought refuge. Paxton Boys wanted funding to support safety on frontier.Ben Franklin negotiated for funding.What years earlier that echoed this armed insurrection?Colonial perception: colonial gov’ts favored the aristocracy over the needs of the masses?Carolinas in Regulators- asserted taxation w/out representation = tyrannyBritish Proclamation Line of 1763.Colonials Paxton Boys (PA)
39Rethinking Their Empire Br. Gvt. measures to prevent smuggling:1761 writs of assistanceJames Otis’ caseProtection of a citizen’s private property must be held in higher regard than a parliamentary statute.He lost parliamentary law and custom had equal weight.
40British Actions and Colonial Reaction Issue of revenueSugar ActQuartering ActStamp ActProtestDeclaratory Act
42Theories of Representation Real WhigsQ-> What was the extent of Parliament’s authority over the colonies??Absolute?OR Limited?Q-> How could the colonies give or withhold consent for parliamentary legislation when they did not have representation in that body??
43Stamp Act Crisis Loyal Nine - 1765 Sons of Liberty – began in NYC: Samuel AdamsStamp Act Congress – * Stamp Act ResolvesDeclaratory Act – 1766
44Townshend Duties Crisis: 1767-1770 1767 William Pitt, P. M. & Charles Townshend, Secretary of the Exchequer.Shift from paying taxes for Br. war debts & quartering of troops paying col. govt. salaries.He diverted revenue collection from internal to external trade.Tax these imports paper, paint, lead, glass, tea.Increase custom officials at American ports established a Board of Customs in Boston.
45Colonial Response to the Townshend Duties 1. John Dickinson * Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania. 2nd non-importation movement: * “Daughters of Liberty” * spinning bees3. Riots against customs agents: * John Hancock’s ship, the Liberty * 4000 British troops sent to Boston.
46many colonists began calling people who joined the non-importation For the first time,many colonists began calling peoplewho joined the non-importationmovement,"patriots!"
49The Boston MassacreFor enlisted men, serving in the British army was often an act of desperation; subsistence wagesThey often took spare jobs - contributed to tensionsCrispus AttucksJohn Adams defended British soldiers; winning acquittals for mostCalm afterwards as Lord North - new prime minister - withdrew all of Townshend Acts except Tea TaxSam Adams kept everyone informed through committees of correspondence
53Committees of Correspondence Purpose warn neighboring colonies about incidents with Br broaden the resistance movement.
54Tea Act (1773) British East India Co.: Monopoly on Br. tea imports. Many members of Parl. held shares.Permitted the Co. to sell tea directly to cols. without col. middlemen (cheaper tea!)North expected the cols. to eagerly choose the cheaper tea.
56Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts 1774) What will the British response be?Boston Port BillAdministration of Justice ActMassachusetts Gov’t ActQuebec Act 1774Facilitate incorporation of Fr Canadians and their land into British empireQuebec’s boundary extended to Ohio RiverCatholicism recognized as Quebec’s official religion*nonrepresentative gov’t estb. for its citizensThis wasn’t just Mass. but larger rangeDissolved jury trials and popular assembliesAlarmed land speculators that this lg. swath removed
57First Continental Congress (1774) 55 delegates from 12 coloniesAgenda How to respond to the Coercive Acts & the Quebec Act?1 vote per colony represented.
58First Continental Congress Purpose and intentDelegatesActionsAdopted measuresSuffolk ResolvesDeclaration of Rights and GrievancesThe AssociationSecond congress
59First Continental Congress Sept delegates from colonies meet to discuss response to Intolerable Actsan advisory board not legislative bodyRadicals - Va’s Patrick Henry, Ma’s Sam & John Adams, Pa’s Charles Thomson - colonies relationship w/ Br. Has passed point of no return. For them there are only 2 alternatives: force Britain to accede to their demands or declare independenceModerates - Pa’s John Dickinson and Va’s George Washington - relationship b/w the colonies and Gr. Britain can be repairedConservatives - NY’s John Jay and Pa’s Joseph Galloway - mild rebuke of Britain is ok but nothing aggressive - quasi-Albany Plan would be best. A colonial “grand council” would have power to veto British acts. The Galloway plan was narrowly defeated.
60First Continental Congress The more radical delegates used Thomas Jefferson’s A Summary View of the Rights of British America to post the following ideasParliament possessed no inherent authority to tax colonistsThe British Empire was a compact (or loose union) between the center (the mother country) and its colonies, not one unit dominated by BritainEach colony possessed its own legislature independent of Britain’s legislative authorityHolding together this loose-knit union was a collective allegiance to the kingThey took the following actions:they declared the Intolerable Acts null &voidThey recommended colonists arm themselvesMilitias should be formed (Mass. MinuteMen)They recommended a boycott of Britishgoods - A TOTAL AND COMPLETE BOYCOTT*note: not calling for independence yet
61The British Are Coming . . .Paul Revere & William Dawes make their midnight ride to warn the Minutemen of approaching British soldiers.
62The Shot Heard ’Round the World! Lexington & Concord – April 18,1775
63Fighting Begins Lexington and Concord Bunker Hill The Second Continental CongressDeclaration of the Causes and Necessities for Taking Up ArmsPeace Efforts
69Arguments for Independence Thomas PaineCommittee of FiveTreason“Everything that is right or reasonable pleads for separation ““Society in every state is a blessing, but government even in its best state is but a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one. For when we suffer, or are exposed to the same miseries by a government, which we might expect in a country without a government
70Why not declare independence? F E A RFactions within the coloniesEveryone was scared of British military powerA mob-run stateReduction in revenues
71Why not declare independence? Loyalty to the empirePoor unity within the coloniesUpper class feared mob ruleMiddle class feared decline in businessAll feared the British army & navyIrish rebels had been hanged, drawn, & quarteredJust a small minority of rebel-rousers?SOMEWHAT – Brits mistakenly thought by capturing leaders in the colonies, the militia would disband. Many were on the fence.Up to 16% were loyalists, mostly in the lower southern colonies.Factions within the coloniesEveryone was scared of British military powerA mob-run stateReduction in revenuesLoyalist flee or were persecuted – older, wealthier, educated,Mostly in the south and NYC, Quaker PA, NJLoyalists were weakest in NE – British used Yankee churches as pigsties80,000 of them flee after declaration of independenceSome 50,000 at one time bore arms for British, but the British did not overly use them – another error on their part
72Catalysts for Independence Harsh British actionsBurning of Falmouth and NorfolkHiring of HessiansCommon SenseExperience running their own governmentsAcceptable “umbrella of language” to shield colonists against criticism that they were rebelling against God.June 1776 Richard Henry Lee moves that the United Colonies be free and independent states. The motion is passed July 1776.Common Sense sold over 100,000 copies in the colonies within the first few monthsWritten in easy to understand language
73Declaration of Independence An eloquent appeal of why secession is needed must be created – a formal explanation.Would be used to help enlist foreign aidTell the king whyGarner foreign supportSolidify home supportOnly took two daysJefferson argued that governments derived their power from the people—a line of reasoning that sprang from the writings of contemporary philosophers including Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Thomas Paine. Both had argued that people enter into a social contract with the body that governs them and that when the government violates that contract, the people have the right to establish a new government. These notions of a contract and accountability were radical for their time, because most Europeans believed that their monarchs’ power was granted by God. The Declaration of Independence thus established a new precedent for holding monarchies accountable for their actions.Task falls to Thomas Jefferson
74The War Patriots African-Americans Loyalists Native Americans Initial losses and hardshipsAlliance
75A War Fought on Many Levels Inter-colonial: Loyalists vs. PatriotsMilitary: American rebels vs. British redcoatsRole of the MilitiaIdeologically: Hearts and minds of the undecided and indifferentAfrican Americans mostly side with the BritishMilitary COULD NOT WIN! Complete outmatched. But their took their time, retreated, and used Indian-fighting tactics.British offers freedom to blacks that fight for them.Ten of thousands of slaves are lost during the altercationThe liberal declaration of independence shames some states into stiffening anti-slavery laws, particularly in the north.
76Who did the Indians side with? Mostly with the English – believed to be a sure bet to win.Mohawk chief Joseph Brant and other key chiefs convince thousands of Iroquois, Creek, Cherokee, Choctaw, and other warriors to join forces the BritishConducted independent raids on American arsenals and settlements along the western frontier.After the war the Americans felt justified in taking land from natives.
77On the Eve of the Revolution ? BritainAmericansAdvantages?Disadvantages
79Washington’s Headaches Only 1/3 of the colonists were in favor of a war for independence [the other third were Loyalists, and the final third were neutral].State/colony loyalties.Congress couldn’t tax to raise money for the Continental Army.Poor training [until the arrival of Baron von Steuben.
81Military Strategies Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line]. The AmericansThe BritishAttrition [the Brits had a long supply line].Guerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war you don’t have to win a battle, just wear the British down]Make an alliance with one of Britain’s enemies.Break the colonies in half by getting between the No. & the So.Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods and supplies from an ally.“Divide and Conquer” use the Loyalists.
90Britain’s “Southern Strategy” Britain thought that there were more Loyalists in the South.Southern resources were more valuable/worth preserving.The British win a number of small victories, but cannot pacify the countryside [similar to U. S. failures in Vietnam!]Good US General: Nathanial Greene
91The Battle of Yorktown (1781) Count de RochambeauAdmiral De Grasse
92Cornwallis’ Surrender at Yorktown: “The World Turned Upside Down!”Painted by John Trumbull, 1797
93The road towards peaceFighting continued for over a year after Yorktown.World War become overwhelming to the British.A Whig ministryA chance to thwart the French & bring the Americans back to English tradeFrench want to keep America East and give Spain some rewards for joining the warKnowing this, John Jay goes to England separate from the other nations for a peace.Spain had recaptured Florida for England
94Treaty of Paris of 1783 Britain recognized the independence of the US Borders from Atlanta, to Mississippi, to the Great Lakes, to Florida.Americans must stop persecuting Loyalists and recommend their property be restored.British creditors could still collect payment.France agrees to all parts – end to conflictSlips towards bankruptcy and bloody revolution