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The Politics of International Migration Class 17 – Thursday, 10 November 2011 J A Morrison 1 US-Mexican Border.

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Presentation on theme: "The Politics of International Migration Class 17 – Thursday, 10 November 2011 J A Morrison 1 US-Mexican Border."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Politics of International Migration Class 17 – Thursday, 10 November 2011 J A Morrison 1 US-Mexican Border

2 The Politics of International Migration I. Beyond the Economics II. Migration Politics III. Migration Trends: Yesterday and Today IV. Explaining Migration Policy 2

3 The Politics of International Migration I. Beyond the Economics II. Migration Politics III. Migration Trends: Yesterday and Today IV. Explaining Migration Policy 3

4 Last time, we thought about migration primarily as an economic phenomenon. Migrants were a factor of production, albeit a “special” factor. 4

5 5 ≠ But…

6 6 >

7 Obviously, shuffling people around is not the same (economically) as shipping commodities or wiring capital. But migration has some considerable non-economic dimensions as well. 7

8 Social/Cultural Effects of Immigration Cultural diversification –Better food: Tikka Masala –Ethnic tension: Sharks & Jets; Natives vs Dead Rabbits Linguistic division  challenges to social fabric and organization 8

9 Social/Cultural Effects of Emigration Homogenization of population –E.g. Central & Eastern Europe after WWII Loss of particular socio-economic classes –“Brain drain” –Loss of “undesirables” Creation of Migration/Diaspora culture –Consciousness of loss: Ireland; Africa 9

10 10 “Ireland Forever” Jewish Life in Holland Marcus Garvey

11 11 Nas’ 2010 Album

12 Political Dimension Redistribution of political power Introduction of alternative political culture –Can non-democratic peoples live in a democracy? Security concerns –Terrorists & criminals as “migrants” –Movement of contraband Liberty –Should we restrict the freedom of movement? –Allowing migration to protect human rights 12

13 The Politics of International Migration I. Beyond the Economics II. Migration Politics III. Migration Trends: Yesterday and Today IV. Explaining Migration Policy 13

14 II. Migration Politics 1. Integration 2. Migration & Security 3. Migration under Duress 4. Migration Policy Across Time 14

15 One of the key political questions about migration is: how well do migrants integrate into their adopted societies? 15

16 The Melting Pot 16 "America is God's Crucible, the great Melting-Pot where all the races of Europe are melting and reforming... Germans and Frenchmen, Irishmen and Englishmen, Jews and Russians - into the Crucible with you all! God is making the American.” -- Israel Zangwill, The Melting Pot (1908)

17 “There is no room in this country for - hyphenated Americanism…When I refer to hyphenated Americans, I do not refer to naturalized Americans…The men who do not become Americans and nothing else are hyphenated Americans; and there ought to be no room for them in this country…The only man who is a good American is the man who is an American and nothing else.” – Teddy Roosevelt, Address to the Knights of Columbus (12 October 1915)

18 But not everyone agrees. Samuel Huntington suggests the latest group of immigrants into the US is different from all the previous groups… 18

19 “In the end, the results could be similar: the creation of a large, distinct, Spanish- speaking community with economic and political resources sufficient to sustain its Hispanic identity apart from the national identity of other Americans and also able to influence U.S. politics, government, and society.” – Samuel Huntington, The Hispanic Challenge

20 This position has a long, distinguished pedigree… 20

21 “They will bring with them the principles of the government they leave…These principles, with their language, they will transmit to their children. In proportion to their numbers, they will share with us the legislation. They will infuse into it their spirit, warp and bias its direction, and render it a heterogeneous, incoherent mass” – Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia 1784

22 And these views may be more prevalent than we immediately suspect… 22

23 Nick Griffin Chairman of the British National Party (BNP) Member of the European Parliament for North West England (Griffin explains his surreptitious strategy. YouTube) YouTube 23

24 II. Migration Politics 1. Integration 2. Migration & Security 3. Migration under Duress 4. Migration Policy Across Time 24

25 Over time, many have feared migrants would be the instruments of foreign governments and interests. 25

26 Such as Guy Fawkes… 26

27 Gunpowder Plot of : Elizabeth I confirms English Reformation 1602: Pope orders English Jesuits to resist Protestant Succession 1603: James I ascends, disappoint Catholics Gunpowder Plot is devised to kill king, start rebellion, and install James’ nine-year-old daughter as Catholic monarch Guy Fawkes buries gunpowder under House of Lords 5 Nov 1605: Plot is discovered & Fawkes arrested 27

28 While the conspirators were primarily English, many contemporaries viewed them as acting at the behest of foreign interests (i.e. the Pope). The Gunpowder Plot inspired dramatic anti-Catholic sentiment and redoubled English efforts to root out foreign allegiances. 28

29 (Happy Guy Fawkes Day—a few days later!) 29

30 John Locke went so far as to advocate a “general naturalization”—a policy of accepting just about anyone. 30

31 “Naturalisation is the shortest and easiest way of increasing your people, which all wise governments have encouraged by privileges granted to the fathers of children…And that because (1) People are the strength of any country or government…[and] (2) 'Tis the number of people that make the riches of any country.” – John Locke, “For a General Naturalization” (1693)

32 And Locke advocated toleration. But he famously excepted Roman Catholics, on the grounds that their allegiances lay with Rome, not London. 32

33 Is all of this fear justified? 33

34 Migrants’ Violence 34 Assassination of William McKinley (Sept 1901) Assassination of Franz Ferdinand (June 1914)

35 And, of course… 35

36 II. Migration Politics 1. Integration 2. Migration & Security 3. Migration under Duress 4. Migration Policy Across Time 36

37 Frequently, migration occurs under duress. The “pushes” and “pulls” are often coercive. 37

38 Slavery Israelites in Egypt Caesar & Gaul Iroquois’ mourning wars African slavery Axis powers during WWII Slavery today 38

39 Expulsion 1492: Spain expels Moors, Jews 19 th C: US expels blacks & Native Americans from various territories 1840s: Irish Catholics “encouraged” to leave(?) 1930s & 1940s: Nazi Germany’s expulsion of Jews, gypsies, other minorities 1980: Castro sends criminals & insane to US 39

40 And sometimes migration is forcibly limited… 40

41 The Berlin Wall 41 Korean DMZ

42 II. Migration Politics 1. Integration 2. Migration & Security 3. Migration under Duress 4. Migration Policy Across Time 42

43 US Immigration Policy across Time 1798 – Alien and Sedition Acts –French Revolution, here? No thanks! 1840s-1850s – Know Nothing Party –Fears about the Irish and German Native American Resettlement (Indian Removal Act of 1830) Anti-Asian – Chinese Exclusion Act (1882), White Australia Policy (1901), Gentleman’s Agreement (1907) Early 20 th C –Literacy Test (1917), Quota Act (1921) –Fears about Southern and Eastern Europeans, “Radicals,” Communists Today – Radical Right in Europe, Minute Men –Fears about Hispanics in the US, Muslims in Europe

44 Key Issues in Current Debate Illegal immigrants: million in US Border security/fence High Tech workers Guest worker programs Employer sanctions National ID

45 Recent Immigration Reform Acts 2007 Act: A “Compromise” Bill –Conservatives: Increased border security –Amnesty (essentially) for current “illegals” –Shift bias for new immigrants to high-skilled Stillborn –A majority of Americans supported it –But Congress never voted on it, let it die Why?  Seems that compromise included deal- breakers for both sides

46 The Politics of International Migration I. Beyond the Economics II. Migration Politics III. Migration Trends: Yesterday and Today IV. Explaining Migration Policy 46

47 World migration 100 years ago Important differences between 19 th century and today: Europe has become a net receiver Latin America has become a net sender Much more migration between developing countries today than before

48 World Migration Today Top Five Receivers (total) Top Five Receivers (% population) Top Five Senders (total) Top Five Senders (% Population) USQatarMexicoJamaica Russian FederationAndorraRussian FederationBosnia GermanyUAEIndiaTrinidad and Tobago UkraineMonacoChinaAlbania FranceKuwaitUkraineArmenia

49 Who is Moving Today? 2008: million people (3% of world population)  Still less than in the 19 th Century (~5%) Refugees only 7.1% of migrants Mostly low skill labor

50 US immigration over time - Allowed in many more people in 19 th century per capita - Immigration per capita has not returned to the levels seen in 19 th century

51 The Politics of International Migration I. Beyond the Economics II. Migration Politics III. Migration Trends: Yesterday and Today IV. Explaining Migration Policy 51

52 Interests Economic Interests –Low skilled labor face competition –Employers demand more/different labor –Recipients of remittances –Fiscal implications Non-economic interests –Xenophobia –Cultural gain/loss –Keep families together –Political culture & transaction costs –Liberty 52

53 US Opinion on Immigration 53 Gallup: Should immigration be increased, decreased, or maintained at its present level?

54 Domestic Institutions Migrant’s social & political benefits –E.g. Can migrants vote? Get healthcare? Unequal protection under the law –E.g. Jim Crow South Cultural & Religious institutions –E.g. Wearing “the veil” in French schools 55

55 Ideas Differing strategies about how to maximize our preferences/interests –E.g. Foreign aid versus Immigration + Remittances Migration policy as subordinate part of broader FEP bundle –E.g. Commitment to free trade and open capital markets might suggest that migration is unnecessary 54

56 Structure of International System What is the effect of hegemony on migration? Two competing logics –Positive: Missionaries, settlers, civil servants go abroad –Negative: Economic integration lessens need to travel abroad for work Empirically: more migration with more hegemony--but we have an N of 2! 56

57 Next time, population growth… 57

58 Midterm Reviews 1. What is going well? 2. What could go better? 3. What could you do to have a better experience? 4. Other thoughts? 58


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