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In February of 1998, a Somerset (UK) man was trapped under a fallen van he had been repairing. As he cried for help and darkness fell it seemed he would be left there all night; his leg had been caught beneath the wheels. The area was rather isolated and nobody heard his cries-except a parrot perched on a caravan in a nearby camp site. The bird mimicked the man's cries, which is apparently normal behavior for this type of animal, and alerted two men working in the area. These reversed the van off the injured man, who, in the end, only had slight injuries. Animals, Our Friends

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Read through the whole text and find the Chinese expressions for the corresponding English phrases: 象人一样聪明 失去兴趣 排列四根撞柱 敲击他的前蹄 认钟点 说出某数的平方根 受到全世界的称赞 用数学思考 怀疑有诈 给某人提示 毫无疑问 as intelligent as humans lose interest line up four skittles tap his front hoof tell time give the square root of a number be acclaimed around the world reason in math suspect trickery give sb. cues no doubt

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Text B TextB_P1 ? CH Horse Sense — Wilhelm von Osten TriesWilhelm von Osten to Teach Horse to Count Ruth Dorfman 1 Can a horse add, subtract, multiply, and divide? Of course not! However, in 1900 Wilhelm von Osten disagreed with you. Von Osten was a German schoolteacher. He tried to prove that animals are as intelligent as humans.subtractmultiplydividedisagreed with Germanschoolteacher intelligent 2 Taking a bear, a cat, and a horse as his students, von Osten began to teach them arithmetic or real numbers. Although the bear and cat soon lost interest, the horse didn’t.arithmeticlost interest 3 In fact, Clever Hans, as he was called, prove d to be an excellent student. Facing his teacher, he would stand quietly during each lesson. To make sure that Hans paid attention, von Osten had put flaps at the sides of Hans’ eyes. These “blinders” made Hans look directly at his teacher. It seemed impossible for anything to distract him.Hansflapsblindersdistract agree with sb. agree about / on sth. 不用作被动 证明老方法还是最好的方法。 The old methods proved to be the best.

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Text B TextB_P2 ? CH 4 Von Osten used “skittles” — nine small bowling pins — to teach Hans the numbers one to nine. “How many pins are there?” von Osten would ask as he lined up four skittles.skittleslined up 5 “Tap-tap-tap-tap,” Hans would answer, tapping his front hoof.hoof 6 When von Osten replace d the nine pins with numbers written on a chalkboard, Hans continued to learn rapidly. He still gave the right answers to most of the problems he was given. This amazing animal even learned to tell time and give the square root of some numbers! Before long, Clever Hans was being acclaimed around the world! No other animal had ever reasoned in math before!chalkboard rapidlytell time Before longacclaimedreasoned

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Text B TextB_P3 ? CH 7 There were mathematicians, however, who suspected trickery. Was von Osten giving Hans cues? It seemed impossible for a horse to do such complicated math! However, when mathematicians tested Hans, they were amazed. Testing results showed that he had the ability of a 14-year-old schoolboy!mathematicianssuspectedtrickeryschoolboy 8 Yet, some scientists were still suspicious. They formed a group to retest Hans. A psychologist in the group, Oskar Pfungst, had an idea. Why not test Hans alone? Then, certainly, no one could give the horse cues.scientistssuspicious retestpsychologistOskar Pfungst cues 9 As Pfungst had thought, Hans failed the test. It was because Hans needed someone with the correct answer to be in the room, but the person with the answer didn’t know that he was giving Hans cues! As Hans got closer to the correct answer, there were changes in this person’s body that only the horse could sense. Even a faster heartbeat could be the signal for Hans to start tapping!heartbeatsignal

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Text B TextB_P4 ? CH 10 No doubt, von Osten was disappointed to find that Hans had never understood math. However, he was really a very smart horse!No doubtdisappointed (408 words)

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1) What did von Osten think of animals? He thought animals were as intelligent as humans. TextB_P1_Questions 2) What did von Osten do to prove what he thought was right? He took a bear, a cat and a horse as his students and began teaching them arithmetic. 3) Did the students stick to the end? Only the horse did. 4) Why did von Osten put flaps at the sides of Han’s eyes? To make sure that Hans paid attention.

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Chinese Version TextB_P1_Chinese 马的意识 —— 威廉 冯 奥斯顿试图教马数数 鲁丝 多尔夫曼 马会不会加减乘除？当然不会！但是在 1900 年，冯 奥斯顿可不同意你的意见。冯 奥斯 顿是位德国教师，他试图证明动物和人一样聪明。 他收了一只熊、一只猫和一匹马作学生，开始教他们算术或实数。熊和猫很快失去了兴 趣，然而马却没有。 事实上，这匹名叫聪明的汉斯的马是一名优秀的学生。每堂课他都静静地站在那里，面 对着老师。为了确保汉斯专心听讲，冯 奥斯顿在它眼睛的两侧安上了遮挡物。这些 “ 障眼 物 ” 迫使汉斯正视老师。看来没有什么能让他分神了。

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Language Points Wilhelm von Osten / ' ' / 威廉 · 冯 · 奥斯顿 TextB_P1_LP_ Wilhelm von Osten

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Language Points Ruth Dorfman / ' / 鲁丝 · 多尔夫曼 TextB_P1_LP_ Ruth Dorfman

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Language Points Oskar Pfungst / ' / 奥斯 卡 · 冯斯特 TextB_P1_LP_ Oskar Pfungst

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Language Points Hans / / 汉斯（男子名） TextB_P1_LP_ Hans

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add add A to B; add A and B together 5 加 5 等于 10 。 Add 5 to 5 and you get 10. 5 plus 5 equals 10.

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Language Points subtract / ' /: v. take (a number or quantity) away from (another number, etc.) 减，减去；做减法 TextB_P1_LP_ subtract e.g. 10 减 4 等于 6 。 10-4 = 6: Four subtracted from ten / Ten minus four equals six. Subtract 4 from 10 and you get 6. T T subtract sth. from sth.

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Language Points multiply / ' / v. 乘；做乘法 TextB_P1_LP_ multiply e.g. 10 乘 4 等于 40 。 10×4 = 40: Ten multiplied by four equals forty. / Ten times four is/are forty. / Multiply 10 by 4 and you get 40. T multiply A by B multiply A and B together

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Language Points divide / ' /: v. (cause to) split or break into parts; separate; find out how many times one number is contained in another 分，分开；分隔；除；做除法 TextB_P1_LP_ divide e.g. 50 除以 5 等于 10 。 全班被分为几个小组。 50÷5 = 10: Fifty divided by five equals ten. T The class was divided into several groups. T

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Language Points disagree with: differ in opinion from; refuse to agree with 与 … 意见不一致；不同意 TextB_P1_LP_ disagree with

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Language Points intelligent / ' /: a. having or showing intelligence 聪明的； 有才智的 TextB_P1_LP_ intelligent intellectual 智力的；理智的 思维的，善思考的，能运用聪明才智的 intellectual people 善思考的人 intelligible 可（易）理解的

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Language Points German / ' /: a. of Germany, its culture, its language or its people 德国的；德国文化的；德语的；德国人的 n. German person; language spoken in Germany, Austria and part of Switzerland 德国人；德语 TextB_P1_German

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Language Points schoolteacher / ' /: n. teacher in a school （中小学）教 师 TextB_P1_LP_ schoolteacher

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Language Points lose interest : stop having any interest 不再有兴趣；失掉兴趣 TextB_P1_LP_ lose interest e.g. He started off well, but soon lost interest and became lazy. 他开始还好，可很快就失去兴趣，变懒了。 T lose heart lose one’s heart lose one’s temper lose one’s breath lose one’s head 泄气，灰心 爱上，钟情于 发脾气 上气不接下气 昏了头，惊慌失措，冲动

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Language Points distract / ' /: vt. stop (sb.) concentrating on sth. 使（某人）分心；分散（某人）的注意力 TextB_P1_LP_ distract e.g. The noise distracted her from her work. Don’t distract me. 喧闹声使她不能专心工作。 T 别分散我的注意力。 T distract sb. from sth. adj. distracted distracted with/by sth. 因 … 精神不能集中的 n. distraction

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Language Points arithmetic / ' /: n. branch of mathematics that deals with calculations using numbers 算术 TextB_P1_LP_ arithmetic

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Language Points flap / /: n. flat piece of material that covers an opening or hangs down 片状垂悬物；眼罩 TextB_P1_LP_ flap

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Language Points blinders / /: n. (pl.) leather pieces fixed on a bridle to prevent a horse from seeing sideways 马眼罩 TextB_P1_LP_ blinders

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TextB_P2_Questions 5) What did von Osten use to teach Hans the numbers one to nine? He used “skittles” — nine small bowling pins. 6) How well did Hans learn arithmetic? He learned quickly and could give the right answers to most questions. 7) What else did Hans learn? He also learned to tell time and give the square root of some numbers.

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Chinese Version TextB_P2-_Chinese 冯 · 奥斯顿用撞柱游戏中的 9 个小瓶柱来教汉斯 1 到 9 的数字。他排出 4 根小柱，问 道： “ 有几根小柱子啊？ ” “ 嗒，嗒，嗒，嗒， ” 汉斯敲着前蹄回答。 冯 · 奥斯顿用写在黑板上的数字代替九柱后，汉斯依然学得很快，他仍旧能答对 问他的大多数问题。这只令人惊讶的动物甚至学会了认钟点和算某些数的平方根！不 久，聪明的汉斯赢得了全世界的称赞。之前可从来没有动物进行过数学思维！

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Language Points line up : cause to form a line 使排成行 TextB_P2_LP_ line up e.g. The boy loves to line his toy soldiers up into rows. “Line up, children ， ” the teacher shouted. 那男孩喜欢把他的玩具兵排成几排。 T “ 排好队，孩子们， ” 老师喊道。 T

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Language Points rapid / ' /: a. moving or acting with great speed; fast 迅速的；快的 TextB_P2_LP_ rapid e.g. rapid growth/development/change/response 快速增长 / 发展 / 变化 / 反应 T

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Language Points tell time: read a clock or watch 讲出钟表上的时间，识钟 TextB_P2_LP_ tell time e.g. People used to use the sundial to tell time. When you teach your child to tell time, start your child out with just the second hand. 人们曾经根据太阳知道时辰. T 教孩子学认时间的时候，先从秒针开始。 T

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Language Points before long: in a short time; soon 不久（以后）；很快 TextB_P2_LP_ before long e.g. If you keep the machine running like that, it will break down before long. The two boys learned that they had a great deal in common and before long, they became friends. 如果你让机器一直这样运转着，那它很快就会坏掉的。 T 两个男孩发现彼此有许多共同之处，不久，他们就成了朋友。 T

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Language Points acclaim / 'kl m/: vt. welcome with shouts of approval; acknowledge the greatness of 向 … 欢呼；称赞 TextB_P2_LP_ acclaim e.g. The crowds acclaimed the hero as he rode through the town. He is acclaimed as the best basketball player of the year. 英雄骑马经过城镇的时候，人群向他发出欢呼。 T 他被誉为年度最佳篮球运动员。 T

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Language Points reason / ' /: vi. use one’s power to think, understand, form opinions, etc. 推论，推理，作逻辑思维 TextB_P2_LP_ reason e.g. When people think differently, it’s hard to reason with them. The student reasoned thoughtfully before answering the question. 当人们的思维方式不同时，很难跟他们讲道理。 T 回答问题之前，这个学生思考得很透彻。 T reason with sb. 为说服某人而与之理论 reason sb. into/ out sth. 以理说服某人做 / 不做某事

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Language Points skittle / /: n. bottle’shaped wooden pin used in the game of skittles （撞柱游戏用的瓶状）木柱 TextB_P2_LP_ skittle

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Language Points hoof / /: n. horny part of the foot of a horse, an ox or a deer （马、牛或鹿的）蹄 TextB_P2_LP_ hoof

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Language Points chalkboard / ' /: n. = blackboard 黑板 TextB_P2_LP_ chalkboard

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8) What did some mathematicians think of Hans-performance? They suspected trickery, that von Osten was giving Hans cues. TextB_P3_Questions 9) What did the mathematicians find when they tested Hans? They found that he had the ability of a 14-year-old schoolboy. 10) How was the second test different from the first one? Hans was tested alone in the second test. 11) Why did Hans fail in the second test? Because Hans needed someone with the answer to be in the room so that he could sense the answer through changes in the person’s body. When he was alone, he had no clues.

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Chinese Version TextB_P3_Chinese 然而，有些数学家怀疑有诈。冯 奥斯顿是不是在给汉斯提示呢？让一匹马做如此复 杂的数学计算似乎是不可能的！不过，当数学家们测试汉斯时，他们大为惊讶。测验结果 表明，汉斯的能力竟达到了一个 14 岁学生的水平！ 尽管如此，仍有科学家表示怀疑。他们组成一个小组重新对汉斯进行测试。小组中 的一名心理学家奥斯卡. 冯斯特想到一个主意。为什么不单独测试汉斯呢？这样一来，当 然不可能有人给他提示了。 不出冯斯特所料，汉斯没能通过测验。这是因为汉斯需要房间里有个知道正确答案 的人，可是那个知道答案的人并不知道自己在提示汉斯！当汉斯接近正确答案时，那人的 身体就会发生一些变化，而这些变化只有汉斯能察觉到。即使是心跳加速也可能成为让汉 斯开始敲击蹄子的信号！

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Language Points suspect / /: TextB_P3_LP_suspect e.g. They suspected him of murder. I suspect his loyalty. 他们怀疑他杀了人。 T 我怀疑他的忠诚 。 T 2. n. person suspected of a crime, etc. 嫌疑犯 1. vt. feel doubt about (sth.); think (that there is sth.) without being sure or without having proof 怀疑；疑有 e.g. The suspect turned out to be innocent. 结果证明嫌疑犯是清白的。 T suspect sb. of sth. / doing sth. 怀疑某人有某罪

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Language Points cue / /: n. thing said or done to signal sb.’s turn to say or do sth. esp. in a play or other performance 提示，暗示 TextB_P3_LP_cue e.g. The actor missed his cue and came onto the stage late. I gave him the cue to step forward. 那位演员错过了提示，上台晚了。 T 我暗示他走上前去。 T

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Language Points suspicious / /: a. having or showing suspicion 怀疑的 TextB_P3_LP_suspicious e.g. I am suspicious of his promise. His promise looks suspicious to me. 我怀疑他的承诺。 T 他的诺言在我看来很可疑。 T be suspicious about / of sb. / sth.

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Language Points signal /' /: n. sign, gesture, sound, etc. that conveys a message, command, etc. （传递信息、命令等的）信号，暗 号 TextB_P3_LP_signal e.g. 交通信号 电视信号 旗语 traffic signals T TV signal T flag signal T

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Language Points TextB_P3_LP_ mathematician mathematician / /: n. expert in mathematics 数学家

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Language Points TextB_P3_LP_ trickery trickery / /: n. deception; cheating 欺骗；欺诈

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Language Points TextB_P3_LP_ schoolboy schoolboy / /: n. boy who goes to school （中、小学）男生

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Language Points TextB_P3_LP_ scientist scientist / /: n. specialist in science 科学家

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Language Points TextB_P3_LP_ retest retest / /: vt. test again 再实验；再测试

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Language Points TextB_P3_LP_ psychologist psychologist / /: n. expert in psychology 心理学家

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Language Points TextB_P3_LP_ heartbeat heartbeat / /: n. pulsating movement of the heart or the sound it makes 心搏；心跳声

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12) What’s the result of von Osten’s experiment with Hans? Was he satisfied with the result? Hans had never understood math. The result was disappointing to von Osten. TextB_4_Questions

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Chinese Version TextB_P4_Chinese 毫无疑问，冯 · 奥斯顿发现汉斯从来不懂数学时他很是失望。不过话说回来，汉斯的 的确确是匹非常聪明的马！

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Language Points no doubt: without doubt; surely; certainly 无疑地；确实地 TextB_P4_LP_no doubt e.g. No doubt the suggestion would please her. The question was asked many times before and will, no doubt, be asked by many people again. 这项建议无疑会令她高兴。 T 这个问题曾被多次问到，而且毫无疑问还会再次被很多人问起。 T

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Language Points disappoint / /: vt. fail to be or do sth. as good, interesting, etc. as was hoped for or desired or expected by (sb.) 使（某人）失望 TextB_P4_LP_disappoint e.g. Did the news disappoint you? We were greatly disappointed at the result of the election. 这消息令你失望了吗？ T 我们对选举结果感到非常失望。 T

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Exercises Answer the following questions. What did von Osten think of animals? What did von Osten do to prove what he thought was right? Did the students stick to the end? Why did von Osten put flaps at the sides of Han’s eyes? What did von Osten use to teach Hans the numbers one to nine? How well did Hans learn arithmetic? What else did Hans learn? What did some mathematicians think of Hans’performance? What did the mathematicians find when they tested Hans? How was the second test different from the first one? Why did Hans fail in the second test? What was the result of von Osten’s experiment with Hans? Was he satisfied with the result? TextB_Exc1_13 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

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1. Tony used to come up with some quite ideas and we’d try and put them into practice. 2. I’m sorry to you, Alex, but I’m afraid that job doesn’t interest me. 3. It was only through hints from his friends that he started to feel of her honesty. 4. are developing medicines that slow or stop the growth of cancer （癌）. 5. She tried with the children, but it just made the matter worse. TextB_Exc2_14 Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the forms where necessary. divide disappoint intelligent suspect amazing reason suspicious scientist replace signal amazing ________ disappoint __________ suspicious _________ Scientists ________ reasoning _________

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6. Old houses are being torn down and with new buildings and roads. 7. Low blood pressure （血压） can be a warning of a health problem. 8. Where were you when the documents disappeared? And who do you of taking them? 9. The class into five groups, each having eight students. 10. Do you mean to say that computers can be more than humans? TextB_Exc2_14_2 replaced ________ suspect_______ signal______ intelligent________ was divided__________ divide disappoint intelligent suspect amazing reason suspicious scientist replace signal

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TextB_Exc3_15 Fill in the blanks with the expressions given below. Change the forms where necessary. disagree with lose interest make sure line up tell time before long no doubt why not 1. I used to fish with my friend but when he moved away I quickly. 2. Even today it is useful to know how to by the stars. 3. It was a big risk; he knew perfectly well that many would him on that. 4. He got the feeling that he’d be promoted （提升）. tell time _______ disagree with ___________ lost interest __________ before long __________

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5. The crowds along the finish line to cheer the runners on. 6. he is a good actor, but only time will tell if he is the greatest ever. 7. Read carefully to that you understand the message correctly. 8. If your car’s broken down, go by bus? TextB_Exc3_15_2 lined up_______ No doubt ________ make sure_________ why not_______ disagree with lose interest make sure line up tell time before long no doubt why not

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