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Lesson 1 Direct democracy – people govern themselves instead of representatives Indirect democracy – people elect representatives to speak for them (The.

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Presentation on theme: "Lesson 1 Direct democracy – people govern themselves instead of representatives Indirect democracy – people elect representatives to speak for them (The."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lesson 1 Direct democracy – people govern themselves instead of representatives Indirect democracy – people elect representatives to speak for them (The United States is an indirect democracy).

2 Lesson 2 Advert – verb, to call attention to something Avert – verb, to turn away

3 Lesson 3 Bell-: Latin root, “war” Bellicose – adjective, warlike, aggressive, quarrelsome Antebellum – adjective, refers to times before the war, especially the Civil War

4 Lesson 4 Bicameral – adjective, government term, meaning “having two branches, chambers, or houses” Impeachment – noun, process of bringing formal changes against a public official

5 Lesson 5 Affection – noun, fondness, devotion Affectation – noun, phoniness, pretension, artificiality

6 Lesson 6 Pac-: Latin root, peace, agree Plac-: Latin root; appease Placate: verb, to calm or satisfy Pacifist: noun, person who opposes war or violence

7 Lesson 7 Pro tempore – Latin term, “for the time being”, “for a little while” Writ of habeas corpus – Latin legal term, a prisoner has the right to know why he or she is in jail and to be brought before a judge

8 Lesson 8 Common – adjective, shared Mutual – adjective, reciprocal

9 Lesson 9 Hosp-: Latin root, guest Inhospitable – adjective, unfriendly, uninviting, unwelcome Hospice – noun, place or program for pilgrims, strangers, terminally ill find shelter, rest,or treatment

10 Lesson 10 Quorum – noun, number of persons needed at a meeting in order for business to take place Caucus – noun, meeting organized to further the special interests of the group in US politics

11 Lesson 11 Ambiguous – adjective, having a double meaning, unclear, uncertain Ambivalent – adjective, having conflicting feels or attitudes about something

12 Lesson 12 Amare – Latin root, to love Amiable – adjective, affable, pleasant, good- natured Amicable – adjective, showing goodwill and friendliness, less personal than amiable

13 Lesson 13 Lobby – noun, special group that tries to influence legislation Census – noun, official count of people in any given place

14 Lesson 14 Can – helping verb, to be able to May – helping verb, to be permitted to

15 Lesson 15 Contemptible – adjective, deserving scorn, more of a personality than an action Contemptuous – adjective, showing scorn, scornful

16 Lesson 16 Crim-: Latin root, fault, crime, accusation To incriminate – verb, to show evidence or involvement of a crime Recrimination – noun, a counter accusation

17 Lesson 17 Consul – noun, official appointed by a government to look after the welfare and commercial interests of its citizen in foreign countries State of the union message – noun, speech given by the President to Congress at the beginning of each session to recommend ways to improve the condition of the nation.

18 Lesson 18 To censor – verb, to edit, remove something considered objectionable To censure – verb, to condemn or blame

19 Lesson 19 Prob-: Latin root, upright, honorable, suggests honesty or integrity Approbation – noun, praise or commendation Probity – noun, integrity, honesty, uprightness

20 Lesson 20 Pocket veto – noun, occurs when the President holds a bill unsigned until Congress is no longer in session Ex post facto – adjective, made or done after something has occurred but having retroactive effect

21 Lesson 21 i.e. - Latin term, “that is to say”, used with equivalent terms The class will study the document that governs the United States, i.e. the Constitution. e.g. - Latin term, “for example”, means that there are some examples listed, but more exist. – There are some young teachers in the school, e.g. Mrs. Scaramucci, Mrs. Marcou, and Ms. Bradford.

22 Lesson 22 Judicial – adjective, having to do with a court of law or the administration of justice. The judicial branch of government interprets the law. Jurisdiction – noun, the range or extent of authority; power. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction over ambassadors, public ministers, and consuls. Judicious – adjective, having or exercising good judgement; wise; sensible The general was a judicious commander of troops.

23 Lesson 23 Appellate – adjective, having to do with an appeal or call for help. A higher court is an appellate court. To apportion – verb, to give out fair parts/portions Mrs. Scaramucci will apportion out the pizza so she will receive an extra slice. Appropriation – noun, something, usually money, set aside for a specific purpose Part of Mrs. Scaramucci's check goes to an appropriation for paying her mortgage and house bills.

24 Lesson 24 Lev-: Latin root, to lighten, raise Alleviate – verb, to relieve, diminish, lighten Levity – noun, frivolity, giddiness, lack of appropriate seriousness

25 Lesson 25 Amendment – noun, act of changing by correction, deletion, or addition. Constitutional amendment – change made after the Constitution was ratified. First ten amendments = Bill of Rights Suffrage – noun, the right to vote

26 Lesson 26 Delusion – noun, persistent false belief Illusion – noun, false belief by misinterpretation of things that actually exist Allusion – noun, casual or indirect meaning of something

27 Lesson 27 Grav-: Latin root, weighty, serious, heavy Gravid – adjective, enlarged with something Gravity – noun, weighty importance of something To gravitate – verb, to be drawn toward something

28 Lesson 28 cicerone – noun, one who guides sightseers through a museum or other interesting landmark To hector – to bully, intimidate, torment

29 Lesson 29 Hung jury – noun, a jury that cannot agree on a verdict of a person accused of a crime Filibuster – noun, method of delaying or stopping action on a legislative issue by the use of long speeches or prolonged debate To filibuster – verb, to obstruct legislative action by long speeches or debate

30 Lesson 30 Faze – verb, to perturb, disturb, or fluster Phase – noun, a period or stage; verb, to introduce in stages

31 Lesson 31 Hedonism – noun, theory that pleasure is the highest good Driven by hedonism, the crazy teacher spent her days at gourmet restaurants and making extravagant Nestor – noun, leader in his/her own field Nestor comes from the Iliad, as he was one of the oldest and wisest Greek warriors of Troy.

32 Lesson 32 Conscience – noun, sense of right and wrong In order to maintain a clear conscience, the customer returned the excess change to the salesclerk. Conscientious – adjective, guided by one's conscience. The conscientious nurse attended to her patients tenderly and carefully. Consciousness – noun, awareness of one's surroundings. Public consciousness of the politician's dishonesty changed the overall outlook of the election. Conscious – adjective, aware or cognizant The nurse was conscious of the patient's need for attention.

33 Lesson 33 Stentorian – adjective, loud and powerful sound Spartan – adjective; simple, frugal, and disciplined

34 Lesson 34 Et al. - Latin, et alii, “and others” Used for referencing additional people Etc. - Latin, et cetera, “and others” Used for referencing additional things.

35 Lesson 35 Krat-: Greek root, power Demos-: Greek root, people Democracy – noun, rule by the people Aristocracy – noun, powerful nobility Bureaucrat – noun, appointed government official Plutocrat – noun, one who has power because of his or her wealth

36 Lesson 36 Stoic – adjective, indifferent to pain and pleasure noun, someone who is indifferent to pain and pleasure Sybartic – adjective, extravagant and hedonistic with pleasure

37 Lesson 37 Felicitious – adjective, appropriate or fitting Fortuitous – adjective, happening or produced by chance; accidental; lucky

38 Lesson 38 Ven-/vent-: Latin root, to come Advent – noun, coming, arrival To intervene – verb, to come between, to mediate between two groups

39 Lesson 39 Implicit – adjective, implied or hinted at Explicit – adjective, clear and definite

40 Lesson 40 Cap-/cep-/cip-: Latin roots, to take or seize Perceptible – adjective, noticeable, able to be taken in through the sense Susceptible – adjective, vulnerable, liable, open to influence

41 Lesson 41 All ready – completely prepared Already – before, has happened previously All right – satisfactory Alright – not a real word Altogether – entirely, completely All together – in a group

42 Lesson 42 Ag-: Latin root, go, drive, lead, do Agenda – noun, list of things that need to be done Agitate – verb, to stir or excite

43 Lesson 43 Fin-: Latin root, end, boundary Finale – noun, last part or conclusion of any performance or course of action Finite – adjective, having definite limits or boundaries

44 Lesson 44 Any way – in any manner Anyway – in any case, nevertheless Anyways – not a proper word

45 Lesson 45 Ject-: Latin root, throw, hurl Conjecture – noun, theory based on few facts Trajectory – noun, curved path taken by a projectile, such as a missile, meteor, or bullet

46 Lesson 46 To compose – verb, to make up, to constitute To comprise – verb, to include, to consist of Is compromised of – not a proper phrase

47 Lesson 47 Tract-: Latin root, to drag or draw Retraction – noun, withdrawal or taking back of something previously said Intractable – adjective, not easily drawn back or controlled, stubborn

48 Lesson 48 Any one – a particular person or thing Anyone – anybody Every one – each one in a group, one Everyone – the group as a whole, all

49 Lesson 49 Duc-: Latin root, to lead Conducive – adjective, tending to promote or encourage Deduction – noun, conclusion made by reasoning; subtraction

50 Lesson 50 Envelop – verb, to wrap up, surround, or cover completely Envelope – noun, wrapper or container, used especially for mailing letters

51 Lesson 51 Sec-/sequi-: Latin root, to follow Consequential – adjective, following as an effect or conclusion Sequence – noun, fixed condition or order of one thing following directly after another

52 Lesson 52 Disinterested -adjective, impartial, neutral, impassionate – Disinterested = not choosing a side Uninterested – adjective, indifferent, unconcerned – Uninterested = doesn't care, more negative

53 Lesson 53 Apollonian – adjective, harmonious, serene, well- balanced, rational, calm Bacchanalian – adjective, frenzied, riotous, wanton, debauched

54 Lesson 54 Biannual – adjective, twice a year Biennial – adjective, every two years Bimonthly – adjective, either twice a month or every two months Biweekly – adjective, either twice a week or every two weeks

55 Lesson 55 Delphic – adjective, unclear, ambiguous, obscure Dionysian – adjective, wildly, uninhibited, frenzied, unrestrained, undisciplined

56 Lesson 56 Flair – noun, natural talent Flare – noun, a flame or bright blaze of light Flare – verb, to blaze with a sudden burst of flame

57 Lesson 57 Jovial – adjective, merry and jolly Mercurial – adjective, unpredictable, changeable, volatile, fickle

58 Lesson 58 Libel – noun, act or crime of damaging a person's reputation by way of pictures, signs, or written/printed words Slander – noun, act or crime of uttering a false and malicious statement about another person

59 Lesson 59 Ambi-: Latin root, on both sides, around Amphi-: Greek root, on both sides, around Ambivalent – adjective, having conflicting feelings or attitudes about an object Ambidextrous – adjective, able to use both left and right hands with equal ease Ambient – adjective, completely surrounding, encompassing

60 Lesson 60 Tortuous – adjective, full of bends, twists, and turns Torturous – adjective, painful and agonizing

61 Lesson 61 ep-/eph-/epi-: Greek prefixes, on, upon, in addition to Ephemeral – adjective, lasting for a day, fleeting, momentary Epidermis – noun, outer layer of skin

62 Lesson 62 Prim- : Latin prefix, first Examples: primary, primer, primate, primitive Primogenture: noun, being the first born child; historically as the rights of the parents' estate going to the firstborn son. Primal: adjective, original, first in importance

63 Lesson 63 Prone – lying with your face down, “planking”; naturally inclined, likely, disposed Supine – lying on your back with the face turned upward; having moral or mental indifference, apathetic

64 Lesson 64 Modus operandi – Latin, a manner of work, a method of operation Modus vivendi – Latin, a manner of living, a practical arrangement that is acceptable to all concerned

65 Lesson 65 Loath – adjective, reluctant and unwilling Loathe – verb, to detest or hate

66 Lesson 66 Ad hoc - “for a specific and limited purpose” Ad hominem - “using prejudice and emotion rather than intellect or reason”

67 Lesson 67 Grisly – adjective, causing horror, revulsion, or fear, gruesome Grizzly – adjective, grayish

68 Lesson 68 Vor-: Latin root, to eat Carnivorous – adjective, meat-eating Herbivorous – adjective, plant-eating

69 Lesson 69 Lightning – noun, brilliant electrical discharge in the atmosphere Lightening – adjective, making lighter or brighter; making less heavy, reducing the weight or load

70 Lesson 70 Cred-: Latin root, believe Credence – noun, belief Credulity – noun, willingness to believe, accept, or trust without sufficient evidence, gullibility

71 Lesson 71 Noisome – adjective, offensive, especially to the smell Noisy – adjective, making noise or racket

72 Lesson 72 Literally – adjective, word for word, in the literal or strict sense Figuratively – adjective, involving a figure of speech, metaphorically, not literally

73 Lesson 73 Fid-: Latin root, faith Affidavit – noun, written declaration certified before a judge or other authority Fiduciary – noun, person chosen to manage the property or affairs of another; adjective, relating to something held in trust

74 Lesson 74 Curr-/curs-: Latin verb, to run Cursory – adjective, hasty, rapid, superficial, not thorough Concurrent – adjective, happening simultaneously

75 Lesson 75 Limp Noun, lame movement or gait Verb, to walk lamely or with an uneven gait Adjective, lacking firmness, wilted Limpid – adjective, clear, transparent

76 Lesson 76 Flect-/flex-: Latin root, to bend Flexor – noun, muscle that bends or flexes the body To genuflect – verb, to bend the knee, as in worship or respect

77 Lesson 77 To denote – verb, to be an indication or sign of To connote – verb, to imply or suggest a meaning in addition to the literal meaning

78 Lesson 78 Post-: Latin prefix, after Posterior – adjective, situated towards the back; noun, the buttocks Posthumous – adjective, occurring after one's death

79 Lesson 79 Flaunt – verb, to make a bold, conspicious, gaudy display in public Flout – verb, to treat with contempt or disdain

80 Lesson 80 Odyssey – noun, a long journey of wanderings full of adventures and trials Penelope – noun, a patient, perfect, and faithful wife

81 Lesson 81 Gerrymandering – noun, practice of redrawing boundary lines of voting districts in order to favorite a certain party's candidates Constituent – noun, one who elects another as a representative in public office

82 Lesson 82 Later – comparative form of the adjective/adverb late Latter – referring to the second of two things mentioned

83 Lesson 83 Eminent domain – noun, government's right to take land for public use Enacting clause - “be it enacted by the Senate and the House of Representatives” is the enacting clause on each bill before Congress

84 Lesson 84 Procrustean – adjective, taking no account of individual differences; cruelly making everything the same; forcing conformity Protean – adjective, readily assuming different shapes; variable

85 Lesson 85 Ascent – noun, upward movement Assent – verb, to express agreement

86 Lesson 86 Warrant noun, an authorization, justification, or sanction verb, to approve officially, authorize, sanction Writ – noun, legal document ordering the person or persons named in it to do or refrain from doing a specific act

87 Lesson 87 Prohibition – noun, legal restriction of the manufacture and sale of alcoholic drinks for common consumption The 18 th Amendment instated prohibition. Bootleg – verb, to make, sell, or transport illegally; When there was prohibition in the United States, people would bootleg alcohol.

88 Lesson 88 Premier – noun, a prime minister in certain European countries – adjective, first in position, rank, or authority Premiere – noun, first public showing of a movie, drama, opera, etc.

89 Lesson 89 Repeal – verb, to revoke or withdrawal Used as “To repeal a law or a tax” Appeal – noun, formal request made by a person or an institution regarding the correctness of a judgement or ruling

90 Lesson 90 Alliteration – noun, repetition of the same initial/first letter Assonance – noun, repetition of same vowel sounds in a series of words Consonance – noun, repetition of same consonant sounds in a series of words

91 Lesson 91 Mal-: Latin prefix, bad Malodorous – adjective, having an unpleasant or offensive odor Malevolent – adjective, doing or desiring to do evil or harm to others

92 Lesson 92 Cata-: from the Greek word kata, meaning “down” or “against” Cataclysm – noun, a violent change or sudden upheaval Catapult – noun, ancient military weapon used for hurling stones, arrows, or other missiles Catacomb – noun, underground cemetery

93 Lesson 93 Cata-: Greek prefix, down, against Cataclysm – noun, violent change, sudden upheaval Catapult – noun, ancient military weapon for hurling stones, arrows, or other missiles Catacomb – noun, underground cemetery

94 Lesson 94 Deca-/deka- : Latin/Greek prefix, ten Dekameter - noun, length of ten meters Decapod - noun, crustacean with five pairs of legs Decade – noun, period of ten years Decathlon – noun, series of ten track and field events

95 Lesson 95 To download – verb, to retrieve a file on the Internet Cache – noun, storage place on the hard drive for recently-used Internet information Encryption – noun, coding or scrambling of information in a file so that I can only be decoded and read by someone who has the correct decoding key

96 Lesson 96 Multi-: Latin prefix, many Multiply – verb, to make many or increase the number Multivitamin – noun, has several vitamins in one capsule Multiped – noun, many-footed Multitude – noun, a great many

97 Lesson 97 Ambi-: Latin prefix, both, around Ambisinister – adjective, clumsy with both hands Ambidextrous – adjective, skillful with both hands Ambilateral – adjective, refers to both sides Ambiversion – noun, personality that exhibits both extroversion and introversion Ambivalent – adjective, having conflicting feelings or attitudes

98 Lesson 98 Template – noun, pre-formatted file used as a starting point for a new document Pixels – noun, short for picture elements, the tiny dots that make up pictures on computer displays Resolution – noun, how fine an image a monitor can display and a printer can print Server – noun, computer that serves information to other computers connected to it.

99 Lesson 99 Soli- : Latin prefix, alone, single, sole Soliloquy – noun, speech in which one is speaking to oneself Solitude – noun, state of being or living alone Solitaire – noun, card game played by one person Solo – noun, performance or action done by only one person

100 Lesson 100 Circum-: Latin prefix, around or round about Circumference – noun, boundary around a circular area Circumvent – verb, to go around Circumspect – adjective, watchful, prudent Circumnavigate – verb, to fly or sail around something

101 Lesson 101 Para-: Greek prefix, beside or near Parasite – noun, animal or plant that lives on or in another organism of a different species, from which the parasite obtains its food Parallel – adjective, extending in the same direction and remaining the same distance apart at every point Paragon – noun, model of excellence Paradigm – noun, pattern or example

102 Lesson 102 Upload – verb, opposite of download, send file from computer to server Spam – noun, unsolicited junk email Webmaster – noun, person in charge of maintaining a website Firewall – noun, security feature

103 Lesson 103 Audi- : Latin prefix, sounds within human hearing range Audible – adjective, capable of being heard Audience – noun, group of listeners at an event Audition – noun, trial hearing given to vocalist or actor Audiologist – noun, person who evaluates one's hearing

104 Lesson 104 Con-, Com-, Co-, Col-, Cor-: Latin prefixes meaning with or together Convene – verb, to come together Commingle – verb, to mix together or combine Coadjutor – noun, works with another employee as an assistant Collateral – noun, security provided when applying for a loan Correlate – verb, to show a meaningful connection between

105 Lesson 105 Contra- : Latin prefix, against Contradict – verb, to speak against Contraband – noun, goods illegally imported or exported Contravene – verb, to go against or oppose something Contrast – noun, comparison to show the differences Contralateral – adjective, referring to part of the human body on opposite sides

106 Lesson 106 Dis- : Latin prefix, apart, away, opposite of Disarray: noun, out of order Disappoint – verb, to fail to meet expectations Disbelief – noun, lack of or refusal to believe Dishearten – verb, to discourage Disown – verb, to refuse to recognize as one's own

107 Lesson 107 Extra-/extro- : Latin prefix, outside of or beyond Extracurricular: adjective, outside of the regular school curriculum Extrovert – noun, outgoing sociable person Extraordinary – adjective, not usual Extrasensory – adjective, things outside of one's normal perception Extrospection – noun, observation of things outside oneself

108 Lesson 108 Inter- : Latin prefix, between or among Interscholastic – adjective, between schools Interfere – verb, to concern oneself with other people's affairs without having been asked Intervene – verb, to come between certain events or points in time Intercept – verb, to catch between

109 Lesson 109 Trans- : Latin prefix, across, beyond, through Transmit: verb, to send or to forward Transcontinental: adjective, across a continent Transcend: verb, to rise above or to go beyond Transfix: verb, to pierce through or impale

110 Lesson 110 Omni- : Latin prefix, all Omniscient – adjective, having all knowledge Omnipotent – adjective, having complete or unlimited power Omnifarious – adjective, all kinds, types, or forms Omnivorous – adjective, eating all types of foods

111 Lesson 111 Loqu-: Latin root, “speak” Soliloquy – noun, the act of talking to oneself. Colloquy – noun, formal conversation, discussion, or conference Loquacious – adjective, excessively talkative

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