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Writing Handout 進外三甲英文段落寫作一 教師 粘忠倚. Sentences and clauses ◎ Clauses → Cats are cute pets. → Serious problems will happen if you neglect this. ◎ Not Clauses.

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Presentation on theme: "Writing Handout 進外三甲英文段落寫作一 教師 粘忠倚. Sentences and clauses ◎ Clauses → Cats are cute pets. → Serious problems will happen if you neglect this. ◎ Not Clauses."— Presentation transcript:

1 Writing Handout 進外三甲英文段落寫作一 教師 粘忠倚

2 Sentences and clauses ◎ Clauses → Cats are cute pets. → Serious problems will happen if you neglect this. ◎ Not Clauses → before brushing his teeth. → to catch the bus. Clauses are the building blocks of sentences. A clause contains ( at least ) a subject and a verb.

3 Be alert to the fact that there are two kinds of clauses : independent and dependent clauses. An independent clause contains a subject and a verb, expressing a complete thought. A dependent clause, beginning with subordinating conjunctions such as if, when and because, does not express a complete thought. It cannot stand as a sentence by itself. Ex : 1. I love my grandmother for her kindness. 2. when he was young. 3. after he picked up the ticket.

4 simple, compound, complex, compound-complex. A sentence is a group of words that express a complete thought. There are four kind of sentences in English : simple, compound, complex, compound-complex. Simple : A simple sentence contains a subject-verb combination. Ex : 1. My brother went camping. 2. John and Mary are fond of swimming. 3. My father was exhausted and went to bed early. 4. John and Mary speak and write Chinese well. 5. I got up early, brushed my teeth, ate my breakfast and went out. 6. I like fruits but hate cheese.

5 Compound : A compound sentence connects two or more simple sentences ( independent clauses ) with a comma and a coordinating conjunction. It can be formed as follows : Ic, □ ic. Ex : 1. He is kind, and he is devoted to helping the poor. 2. I studied hard, so I got excellent grades. 3. He didn’t go to school, for he was sick. 4. He was sick, yet he still went to school. 5. I like fruits, but I hate cheese.

6 對等連接詞 : f a n b o y s Ic, for and nor but or yet so ic.

7 Complex : 三大子句 ( 名詞、形容詞、副詞 ) 一定是 complex A complex sentence contains one independent and one dependent clause. A complex sentence can be formed as follows : Icdc.=Dc, ic. In a complex sentence, one idea is generally more important than the other. We put the more important idea in the independent clause. Ex : 因為他生病了, 他沒上學. ◎ Simple : S + V → He was sick and didn't go to school. → Because of his sickness (being sick), he didn't go to school. ◎ Compound : Ic, 7 ic. → He was sick, so he didn't go to school. → He didn't go to school, for he was sick. ◎ Complex : Icdc.=Dc, ic. → Because he was sick, he didn't go to school. → When he was sick, he didn't go to school. → As he was sick, he didn't go to school. → Since he was sick, he didn't go to school.

8 Ex : 因為他很自私, 所以我討厭他. ◎ Simple : S + V → Because of his selfish, I hate him. ◎ Compound : Ic, 7 ic. → He is selfish, so I hate him. → I hate him, for he is selfish. ◎ Complex : Icdc.=Dc, ic. → I hate him because he is selfish. → Because he selfish, I hate him.

9 Exercise : Wright Simple, Compound, Complex, or Fragment in the blank. _____ 1. Before pitching your tent, prepare the meal for everybody. _____ 2. Before pitching your tent, take the time to prepare the area that will be under the tent. _____ 3. Peter is not the man to do anything by halves. _____ 4. Peter is not the man who will do anything by halves. _____ 5. He tied his shoelaces, put on his coat, and went out. _____ 6. Never will I marry the man. _____ 7. No sooner had he reached the park than it began to rain.

10 _____ 8. Despite winning the game, Peter was not happy. _____ 9. Even though Peter won the game, he was not happy. _____ 10. The pollution and toxic fumes from the cars. _____ 11. The man named "Prodigy" by every man. _____ 12. The most famous president that I have ever interviewed. _____ 13. After the lecture ends, they went to the cinema to watch the movie. _____ 14. She puts aside her money every day so that she can go abroad. _____ 15. Say when.

11 Transition 轉折語 ◎ Ic; transition, ic. = Ic. Transition, ic It is raining heavily; he can’t go mountain climbing. = It is raining heavily; therefore, he can’t go mountain climbing. =It is raining heavily. Therefore, he can’t go mountain climbing.

12 因此, 於是 therefore, consequently, thus, as a result, as a consequence, hence, accordingly 除此之外 besides, in addition, additionally 然而, 僅管 however, nevertheless Transition 轉折語

13 Writing Handout 1 Vocabulary VerbsNouns decidedecision discussdiscussion

14 a.I have ____________ to go abroad for advanced study b.After the class, we got together to ___________ the homecoming party. c.The students had a long ___________ about the homecoming party. d.It was scorching, so he made a __________ to go to the beach.

15 B Unscramble these words to make sentences. Discard one word. The first one is done for you. 1. country can things many I about describe my the I can describe many things about my country. 2. the to difficult make decide was very decision → ___________________________________________________ 3. it about long time they a for discussed → ___________________________________________________ 4. immigration discussion discussed a family the about long had → ___________________________________________________ 5. passport get decision has to he decide a → ___________________________________________________

16 Vocabulary VerbsNouns enrollenrollment requirerequirement

17 Fill in the blanks with the words from the vocabulary list. Be sure the verbs are in the correct tense. a. For the costume party, the only ________ is to be over 18. b. He _________ in school in order to learn English. c. Success __________ hard work. d. Our school has a very large ________

18 Vocabulary Adjectives pleasedsatisfieddissatisfied displeased (be displeased with sb) (be displeased at st)

19 1. My boss gave me a raise because he was ____________ with my work. 2. The workers were on a strike because they were ____________ with the ill treatment. 3. I am ____________ to meet you. 4. ____________ at her son’s naughty behavior, the mother yelled at him.

20 Unscramble these words to make sentences. 1. in school enroll the United States in can free for children all → _____________________________________________________ 2. require the seedlings young intensive care → _____________________________________________________ 3. he test pleased passed the he because was → _____________________________________________________ 4. dissatisfied schedule her she class with was → _____________________________________________________ 5. teacher students because displeased late were the arrived the → _____________________________________________________ 6. work director her satisfied was with the → _____________________________________________________

21 A Difficult Decision Leaving my country was the most difficult decision of my life. Although I had an uncle in New York. I had to leave the rest of my family in Taiwan, and I didn’t know when I would see them again. Of course, being able to immigrate to the United States was a great chance for me, but I also knew that living alone is unbearable. I knew that life would be difficult and lonely. I and my family discussed my plans. We discussed our ideas for several months and finally decided I should go. Nobody could understand my suffering, and this was the most difficult decision that I made.

22 On the morning I left, it was raining heavily, and I woke up with tears in my eyes. My parents were so old that I was afraid to leave them. I was solicitous about their health. I worried that they would become sick or die. I also worried that I would not be successful in my new life and would disappoint my family. I really didn’t want my family to see me crying. When I kissed my parents at the airport, I restrained myself from crying. Although my heart was breaking, I had a big smile on my face. My mother was the last to say goodbye. She said, “you may live far away, but Taiwan is always your precious hometown.”

23 Writing Exercise 2 Dear Henry: It’s hard to believe that you are in your final year of high school. How time elapses! I remember when you were born. I’m very pleased because you’ve grown up to be a fine young man. At this time in your life, you must make many important decisions, and I am convinced that you probably feel confused. If you make a wrong decision and go astray, you may pay for your mistake the rest of your life. Now, you must put a premium on education because it is a first priority. It is the key to a successful future. Getting a good job requires having a good educational background.

24 When I first came to the United States, I didn’t have a high-school diploma. I was lucky. I had the opportunity to enroll in an adult school to learn English and finish high school. After I had got the high-school diploma, I had more opportunities for advancement. The face that a good job requires a good education is hardly news. Nowadays, a college education is the basic requirement for a good job. You are an intelligent young man, so you will by all means make the right choices. Since good universities are getting more and more expensive, I will support you financially. Whatever you choose, I hope you will not be dissatisfied. I wish you all the best. Please write as soon as possible. Love, Grandpa

25 Connecting Words although and because

26 Combine the two sentences to make one longer sentence. Use a connecting word from the vocabulary list. 1. He enjoyed his classes. They were difficult and occult. → _____________________________________________________ 2. He is serious in appearance. He is kind at heart. → _____________________________________________________ 3. She enrolled in school. She desired to improve her writing ability. → _____________________________________________________ 4. Last week Ted saw the school counselor. He advised him to enroll in a literature class. → _____________________________________________________ 5. I want to apply for a full-time job soon. I have to graduate first. → _____________________________________________________

27 Connecting Words although because after before

28 Combine the two sentences to make one longer sentence. Use a connecting word from the vocabulary list 1. He wanted to get a new job. His boss was demanding and stingy. → _____________________________________________________ 2. He pulled himself up by his own bootstraps. He led a prosperous life. → _____________________________________________________ 3. She mailed the letter. She typed the letter. → _____________________________________________________ 4. She dressed carefully. She went to the interview. → _____________________________________________________ 5. They worked in the same office. They hardly got along well with each other. → _____________________________________________________

29 Connecting Words because if but so

30 Combine the two sentences to make one longer sentence. Use a connecting word from the vocabulary list. 1. He went bankrupt. He was indulged in gambling. → _____________________________________________________ 2. They will take a honeymoon. They will get married. → _____________________________________________________ 3. They will elope. Their parents will disapprove of their marriage. → _____________________________________________________ 4. His father was seriously ill. He spared for no cost at the apothecaries in buying drugs that might help with the illness. → _____________________________________________________ 5. He is an imbecile. She still marries him. → _____________________________________________________

31 Connecting Words although even though so because

32 Combine the two sentences to make one longer sentence. Use a connecting word from the vocabulary list 1. I like hot water. I moved to Arizona. → _____________________________________________________ 2. I like hot water. I live in Alaska. → _____________________________________________________ 3. He hates spicy food. He will eat in a Mexican restaurant tonight. → _____________________________________________________ 4. He loves spice food. He eats in a Mexican restaurant every night. → _____________________________________________________ 5. Ted was at enmity with Helen. Ted never met Helen without staring at her. → _____________________________________________________

33 Connecting Words Here are some words that indicate a “reason.” becausebecause ofas a consequence of due tosinceas a result of

34 1. We called off the picnic because the weather was terrible. → Because of___________________________________ 2. He lost an important customer because he made a serious mistake. → As a consequence of____________________________ 3. The flight was delayed because there was heavy fog. → Due to_______________________________________ 4. Since the emperor was circumspect and intelligent, he had a victorious campaign against the Romans. → As a result of__________________________________

35 Connecting Words soand that’s whyas a result thusconsequentlytherefore Here are some words that indicate a “result.” for this reasonas a corollary

36 1. They canceled the picnic because it was raining. (and that’s why) →____________________________________________ 2. Tamora has sworn to avenge the death of her son because titus murders her son. (For this reason) →____________________________________________ 3. Helen was seriously ill this morning, and she called in sick. (As a result) →____________________________________________ 4. He felt remorse for his past because he perpetrated the crime of homicide. (therefore) →____________________________________________ 5. It was raining heavily, and I got soaking wet. (so) →____________________________________________

37 6. I went straight to bed after I got home because the trip was exhausting. (thus) →______________________________________________ 7. Michael was diligent and assiduous, and he pulled himself up by his own bootstraps. (For this reason) → ______________________________________________ 8. Tim was tired out, and he fell asleep right away. (therefore) → ______________________________________________ 9. She is unwilling to eat dessert because she is on a diet. (thus) → ______________________________________________ 10. We should drive high-mileage automobiles that use less fuel. The price of gasoline is increasing. (as a consequence) → ______________________________________________

38 ※ 探討原因 (cause) 的段落時,可用以下句型 : ◎ There are several causes of _______. ◎ There are several reasons for _______. ◎ There are several main reasons why ______. ◎ Several main reasons can explain why ______. ◎ 人 do/does 事 for several reasons. EX: People learn English for three main reasons. There are several main reasons for people’s learning English. People like to make on-line purchases for several reasons.

39 ※ 探討原因 (effect ) 的段落時,可用以下句型 : ◎ _______ has had several important effects on ________. ◎ _______ has had important effects on _________. ◎ _______ has had some positive / negative effects on _____. EX: Deforestation has had some negative effects on the environment. Global warming has had several important effects on the environment. Regulations about hairstyles has had some positive effects on students.

40 Surfing the Internet Nowadays, more and more people enjoy spending their time surfing the Internet for different purposes. Three possible reasons can explain why people do this. The first reason some people surf the net is that they really don’t know what to do in their free time. They feel bored most of the time; therefore, they regard surfing the net as a pastime. The joy of playing online games is available. The second reason people surf the net is to get some information for their studies. The third reason for surfing the Interment is that people can make friends with those from a distance. Due to the modern technology, people can easily keep in touch with their friends. Undoubtedly, people surf the net to meet different needs. As a result, it’s really hard to imagine a world without the Internet. If the Internet hadn’t been invented several decades ago, people would never have had the chance to lead a convenient life.

41 Comparison & Contrast 比較與對比 To compare means to discuss how two people, places, or things are similar: Both teachers and students need to spend a lot of time preparing for classes. To contrast means to discuss how two people, places, or things are different: One advantage of a bicycle over a car is that a bicycle is good for environmental protection.

42 ※ Here are some words that can indicate “similarity:” be similar tohave….in commonthe same as both….andneither….noras….as LikewiseSimilarlyand….too

43 ※ Here are some words that can indicate “difference” and “contrast:” althoughin contrasteven thoughbut whiledespite not as….asyet unlikewhereasbe different fromhowever on the other hand

44 Exercise: Fill in the blanks by using the correct words. 1. My wife is fond of playing volleyball. ____ _____ ______ _______, I enjoy going mountain-climbing. 2. __________ Mary is very smart and diligent, her twin sister, Helen, has a completely different personality. 3. I enjoy horror films, __________ my wife loves action / adventure movies. 4. I and my brother have one thing __________ __________: we both like French Escargot. 5. The air in the mountain is fresh and invigorating. _______ ________, the air in the city is polluted and dirty.

45 6. My sister is shy and introvert. __________, I am outgoing and talkative. 7. Our marriage custom is __________ __________ that in Japan. You have to consult some people in advance. 8. Many tourists like backpacking traveling; __________, there are also many tourists enjoy joining tours. 9. Taipei is a modern city in Taiwan, and __________ is Kaohsiung. 10. Many people can’t enjoy sound sleep, and _________ ________ I. 11. __________ his shortcomings, I still like her.

46 My Two Idols Most people have their own idols, and so do I. My idols are neither superstars nor historic heroes. They are two of my relatives: John, my nephew, and Ted, my granduncle. Although John is only twelve years old, he has already made up his mind to be a successful pianist in the future. He makes it a rule to practice playing the piano for six hours every day. He is a man of high resolve, and everyone is impressed with his indomitable spirit. There is an old saying which goes well— “It’s dogged that does it.” I believe his dream will come true. On the other hand, Ted is not as naturally talented as John. Learning new things is hard for him. However, he is not a quitter. At the age of fifty, Ted started to learn English. It has been three years, but no one understands his English when he speaks it. My granduncle is a man who cannot countenance defeat. Despite his slow progress, he insists on practicing English for six hours every day. He is convinced that he will become an English expert. John and Ted are different in age, but they have one thing in common. They are diligent, and they never give in to difficulties. They become my idols because of their assiduous attitude.

47 Definition Paragraph 定義性文章 Definition composition aims to clarify some confusing or indefinite terms, thereby helping readers have a concrete idea about something. Here are some tips for writing a good definition composition: 1. Explain something in a concrete way or define it clearly. 2. Provide readers with details or examples to visualize a concrete picture. 3. Avoid giving misleading or confusing definitions. 4. Resort to adjective clauses to modify a new term so that it becomes clear.

48 EX: Borsch is a kind of thick soup. → (not clear) Borsch is a kind of thick soup that is made with a lot of beets and sour cream. → (clear) EX:.A fortune cookie is a biscuit. → (not clear) EX:.A fortune cookie is a biscuit which contains a piece of paper that says what is supposed to happen in the future. → (clear) ※ Marriage is a union. The union binds two families closely together. →

49 Exercise: Combine the sentences by using adjective clauses. 1. Low-fat milk is a kind of milk. It contains a little fat. → ________________________________________________ 2. Fine-weather friends are false friends. They may desert you when you are in trouble. → ________________________________________________ 3. A typhoon is a violent storm. The storm has very strong wind. → ________________________________________________ 4. Tourists are the kind of people. They travel for pleasure. → ________________________________________________

50 6. A model student is the assiduous student. He will preview the lessons before class. → ________________________________________________ 7. Anger is the strong feeling. It makes you feel unhappy. → ________________________________________________ 8. Sushi is a Japanese dish. It contains cold cooked rice and raw fish. → ________________________________________________ 9. Recipes are instructions. They will help people prepare palatable foods. → ________________________________________________ 5. Dragon is a large imaginary animal. It stands for favorable auspice in China. → ________________________________________________

51 11. A furniture store is the place. People can buy sofas, couches, and so on in it. → ________________________________________________ 12. Christmas Day is the day. Christians celebrate the birth of Christ on the day. → ________________________________________________ 13. A musical is a kind of show. It has a lot of singing and dancing. → ________________________________________________ 14. A home is the place. People live in it. → _______________________________________________________ 10. Love is the strong attachment. You have the strong attachment when you like someone deeply. → ________________________________________________

52 Writing Exercise For some people, a home is just the place where they live. After an exhausting day, they will go back home to take a rest. However, in my apprehension, a home is not merely a house to stay in. Looking in the dictionary, you will find that the definition of home is simply a house or an apartment for rest. Obviously, this definition is unsatisfactory and doesn’t explain what a home really provides people. As far as I am concerned, a home is a place where every family member communicates well and lives together as one. A home is like a shelter that can protect people from worry and fear from real life. Besides, a home is the place where they can share their happiness and sadness with each other. When anyone in a family is faced with thorny problems, the others will strive every nerve to help him or her to solve them. Never will they leave him or her in the lurch. A real home is indeed a paradise where they are carefree and relaxed. The last thing a home will do is to desert its members. Therefore, a home is not only a place for rest but also a place where people can get protection, shelter, mirth, and happiness. Home

53 Opinion Paragraphs Opinion paragraphs are used to express opinions and arguments about one particular topic. You can employ such phrases as I think, In my opinion, In my apprehension, and I believe, etc, to introduce opinions. You can resort to facts and opinions to bolster up your main idea. A fact is a piece of information that is true: That movie was two and half hours long. An opinion is an idea or belief about a particular subject: That movie was boring. You can use facts to support your opinions.

54 Exercise: Read these sentences. Write F if the sentence is a fact, and O if the sentence is an opinion. _____ 1. Bruce Lee died tragically in _____ 2. English is an easier language to learn than Arabic. _____3. He was born in Tokyo. _____4. Jogging is the best way to stay health. _____5. Owls are birds that hunt at night. _____6. People should ride their bicycles into town rather than cars. _____7. Being a teacher is the best career choice. _____8. Marilyn Monroe spent many years without parents in an orphanage. _____9. Smoking must be banned in all restaurants and bars. _____10.Helen is a very gifted musician.

55 Writing Exercise It is true that the living environment is getting worse and worse (deteriorating). Most people don’t care about how to protect our environment. In my opinion, more and more people should ride bicycles into town instead of driving. Last year seventy-three percent of all workers drove their own car to work. This results in inconvenience and irrevocable damage. For example, car traffic in town is terrible, parking spaces are hard to find, and pollution from cars is a real problem. Toxic fumes from cars are unbearable. Therefore, it’s time for us to take actions. Citizens who want a cleaner place to live ought to try this non-polluting form of transportation. Cycling is good not only for health but also for environment. The government must not allow this problem to get worse, and it can make some bike paths for people to use. If people ride bicycles to work and school, they will definitely enjoy the health benefits of daily exercise. Should we Ride Bicycles or Drive

56 Process Paragraphs 步驟性文章 A process paragraph is a description of how to do something. It offers and explains the steps you need to follow to complete an activity. Here are some useful transitions: first, second, third, then, next, finally, the first step, meanwhile, while, after, after that, before, and from then on. EX: The next step is to put everything in the bowl. Make sure you have enough time to apply for it before you buy your ticket. Before you go out, be sure that the table is reserved.

57 Here are some useful patterns for the topic sentence: 1. It’s simple to __________ if you have the right materials / equipment. 2. It’s not difficult to __________ if you have the right tools / ingredients. 3. __________ is easy when you follow these steps / this procedure. 4. __________ is simple if you follow the directions / instructions. 5. Here are some suggestions to make __________ successful. 6. There are several major steps involved in __________. EX: There are several major steps involved in making some coffee. Here are some suggestions to make writing a good essay successful. Planning a vacation abroad is simple if you follow the instructions.

58 Exercise A: Use the above-mentioned useful patterns to write the topic sentence. EX: Make a borsch → It’s easy to make a borsch when you follow this procedure. 1. How to make delicious spaghetti. → ______________________________________________ 2. How to plan a vacation abroad. → ______________________________________________ 3. How to lose some weight. → ______________________________________________ 4. How to make good popcorn. → ______________________________________________ 5. How to apply for a university. → ______________________________________________

59 Exercise B: Fill in the blanks by using finally, first, then, and while. Making delicious spaghetti is not as difficult as people think. It’s easy to make delicious spaghetti if you follow these steps. ________, take out an onion, some beef, two cans of tomato sauce, and some vegetables. __________, cut the onion and vegetables into pieces, and fry them with beef in frying pan. Next, add the mixture of onion and beef with the tomato sauce, and then wait until it starts to boil. _________ you’re doing this, boil some water in another pan and put some spaghetti into the boiling water and boil it until it is soft. __________, put the spaghetti on a plate and pour some sauce on it.

60 Writing Exercise Are you pestered by how to plan a vacation abroad? It is easy to make your trip successful if you follow these steps. First, check if you need a visa for the country that you want to visit. Make sure that you have enough time to apply for it before you buy your ticket. Next, you should research airfares and schedules. Don’t forget to look for the best flight for you. It’s a good idea to fly direct. Third, you can make a hotel reservation if you are sure of your destination. It is necessary for you to learn about the weather, the food, and other details about the country. You can use the Internet because it is a useful source of information. Last but never least, keep in mind that you should go to the airport at least two hours before your flight. If you follow these steps, you will definitely enjoy a gorgeous vacation. How to Plan a Vacation Abroad

61 Problem / Solution Paragraphs 問題 / 解決法 文章 A problem issue is raised in problem/solution writing. It will first explain a problem and then proposes one or more solutions to that problem. Generally speaking, you can describe a problem in the first paragraph and offer solutions in the second paragraph. ★ The first conditionl is a useful way to talk about both problems and solutions: If people keep on driving to work, air pollution will deteriorate. If factories dump their waste into streams, fish will get sick. If global warming continues, polar bears will become extinct.

62 Exercise: Complete these sentences by choosing the correct word. 1. If you give / will give me a ride, I will go / won’t go to that movie. 2. If we protect / don’t protect young children from violence on TV, they go / will go astray. 3. If deforestation continues /doesn’t continue, the world’s climate changes / will change. 4. City traffic won’t be / will be stuck if we use public transportation vehicles. 5. Students won’t go/ will go berserk if exam stress continues /will continue.

63 Writing Exercise That there are fewer and fever trees is true. Deforestation is a serious problem because trees play an important role in the environmental protection. Their function is two-fold: they are good for both animals and humans. They clean the air, store water, preserve soil, and provide habitats for animals. They also supply food, wood products, and paper products for humans. Hundreds of rain forests were destroyed in the past fifty years. Today, the forests of the world are being cut down at an amazing rate. How important trees are, and nobody can imagine a world without trees. If deforestation continues, the world’s climate will change drastically, floods and mud-slides will happen easily, and animals will become extinct. One solution to the problem of deforestation is to use less paper. If we continue using paper widely, more and more trees will be cut for paper making. In order to reduce your paper use, you can use both sides of the paper when you photocopy, write a letter, or write a paper for school. The second solution is to reuse old paper when you can instead of using a new sheet of paper. The final solution is to recycle used paper products instead of throwing them away. It’s very easy for us to put them in some recycling centers. If we had taken actions before, the forests wouldn’t have disappeared so quickly. I am convinced that through our joint efforts, we can help save the world’s forests and recreate a beautiful environment. Deforestation

64 Adverb Clauses An adverb clause is a dependent clause that functions as an adverb. It can answer questions such as Where ? Why? When? How? For what purpose? and Under what conditions? An adverb clause is introduced by one of the subordinating conjunctions in the following chart.

65 Time When, as, as soon as, before, after, since, until When they saw the monster, they were pulverized by panic. Reason Because, since, as Since Earth is getting warmer, scientists are trying to find a solution. Purpose So that, in order that I took a speech class so that I could enhance my speaking ability Result So+adjective/adverb+that Such+a(n)+noun+that At first, speaking in front of people made me so nervous that I got a stomachache before every class. She is such a charming girl that everyone loves her. Concession Although, though, even though Although he was assiduous, he still got poor grades. Contrast (direct Opposition) While, whereas Speaking of personality, I am shy and reticent, whereas my brother is outgoing and enjoys being in the limelight. Conditional If, unless If you had studied hard, you would have been a successful executive. Unless she apologizes to me first, I won’t talk to her again.

66 Exercise: Edit the essay for errors in adverb clauses. There are 13 errors. Look for the following kinds of mistakes. Incorrect subordinator → I took a speech class, so I could overcome my fear of public speaking. Two many connectors → Even though he drove fast, but he was late. Comma error → He was despised, because he was dishonest. Wrong subordinator → If you walk more quickly, you’ll miss the bus.

67 Net Addiction A lot of people cannot live without the Net. They do researches and chat with people all over the world through the instrumentality of surfing the Net. However, some people spend such many hours online that they become Internet addicts. Although an average person spends about eight to twelve hours per week, but and addict speeds eight to twelve hours per day online. Because addicts are indulged in the computer world so their lives are negatively affected. They are transformed into social hermits, because they stop going out and interacting with people face-to-face. The computer world deters them from real-life social situations, and they enjoy being in a dimly lit room with only the glowing screen to light up their lives. Internet addiction affects both the addicts themselves and the people around them. For example, Peter’s marriage to Rosa broke up until he insisted on spending so many hours on the Net, ignoring her completely. As soon as he returned home from work he rushed to his computer room. Before he finished dinner, he would disappear into his computer room again. Completely ignored, she felt very upset. He paid so little attention to her, that she finally divorced him.

68 Since college students are especially technologically skilled they can easily become nonstop Net-surfers. Most colleges provide computers at several locations around campus, so that student can use them whenever they want. As a result, they are lost in the computer world, throwing their textbooks into the air. They won’t go to bed when the sun rises. Last semester, twenty freshmen at my college were flunk although they became Internet addicts. Indeed, the Internet is both advantageous and disadvantageous to people. In short, even though the Internet is an excellent source of information and entertainment, but we must not be controlled by it.

69 Sentences and Clauses Clauses are the building blocks of sentences. A clause is a group of words that contains (at least) a subject and a verb ClausesNot clauses Dogs make excellent pets after getting into his car If you neglect this problemto avoid nuclear accidents

70 A Sentence is a group of words that you use to communicate your ideas. Every sentence is formed from one or more clauses and expresses a complete thought. There are four kinds of sentences in English: simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex. Be alert to the fact that there are two kinds of clauses: independent and dependent. An independent clause contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. It can stand alone as a sentence by itself. A dependent clause, beginning with subordinating conjunctions such as if, when, and because, does not express a complete thought, so it cannot stand alone as a sentence by itself. Ex: I admired my grandmother for her strength and kindness →_______ When I was young → → _________ After you cut the vegetables into one-inch pieces → _______ A simple sentence is one independent clause. Ex: Freshwater boils at 100 degrees Celsius. Freshwater boils at 100 degrees and freezes at 0 degree Celsius.

71 A compound sentence is two or more independent clauses joined together by a coordinating conjunction. A compound sentence can be formed as follows: IC, coordinating conjunction + iC. EX: He was assiduous, so he had high achievement. She was a notorious liar, but nobody knew the truth.

72 A complex sentence combines one independent clause and one dependent clause. A complex sentence can be formed as follows: Icdc. = Dc, ic. In a complex sentence, one idea is generally more important than the other. We place the more important idea in the dependent clause and the less important idea in the dependent clause. There are three kinds of dependent clauses: adverb, adjective, and noun. Ex: Women who are not married are called spinsters. Everyone knows that our environment is deteriorating. When he saw his mother, he burst out crying. Although he is charming, I don’t like him.

73 A compound-complex sentence is the combination of compound sentence and complex sentence. It has at least three clauses, at least two of which are independent. Ex: After I graduated from college, I wanted to travel, but I had to earn money immediately. The lost boy didn’t know where he should go, so at first he burst out crying. When you photocopy, you can use both sides of the paper, and you can reduce your paper use.

74 Reduced Participial Clauses 簡化分詞子句 Participial phrases can be formed by reducing adjective clauses and adverb clauses. For this reason, they are sometimes called reduced clauses. (A) Reduced Adjective Clauses Follow these steps when you want to reduce a subject pattern adjective clause: 1. Cross out the relative pronoun. 2. Change the verb to a participle (Ving or V.p.p.) 3. Keep the same punctuation (commas or no commas). 4. Put the word not at the beginning of a participial phrase to make it negative.

75 EX: Reduced Adjective Clauses 1. The soldiers who fought in the Trojan War were brave → The soldiers fighting in the Trojan War were brave. 2. The rock band members, who looked happy after their victory, were cheered by the fans. → The rock band members, looking happy after their victory, were cheered by the fans. 3. The murder suspect, who did not confess his crimes, was put into jail. → The murder suspect, not confessing his crimes, was put into jail. 4. The languages which are spoken widely in Switzerland are German, French, and Italian. → The languages spoken widely in Switzerland are German, French, and Italian.

76 1. Tourists who plan to go sightseeing must contact the travel agent. →____________________________________________ 2. The cakes which are made by the celebrity chef are delicious. →____________________________________________ 3. A pedestrian who had been hit by a speeding car was lying in the street. →____________________________________________ 4. The driver, who did not realize what had happened, continued on. →____________________________________________ 5. Many students who study at this university are from foreign countries. →____________________________________________ Exercise: Rewrite each sentence, reducing the adjective clause to a participial phrase.

77 6. People who smoke for a long time are not in good condition. →____________________________________________ 7. Children who are raised in bilingual families have an advantage over monolingual children. →____________________________________________ 8. People who are indulged in gambling will end up being bankrupt. →____________________________________________ 9. Cigarette companies, which have been long criticized for their advertisements, look for new ways to sell their products. →____________________________________________ 10. Robots, which do not need eat, sleep, or take breaks, can work continually. →____________________________________________

78 (B) Reduced Adverb Clauses (Participial Constructions) It is true that participial phrases can enhance your writing style. You can reduce some adverb clauses to –ing and –ed phrases, thereby making your sentences more cogent and powerful.. To reduce an adverb clause, you have to follow these steps: 1. Make sure that the subject of the adverb clause and the subject of the independent clause are the same. 2. Delete the subject of the adverb clause. If necessary, move it to the subject position in the dependent clause. 3. Change the adverb clause verb to the appropriate participle. ( Ving or V.p.p. ) 4. Delete or retain the subordinator according to the following rules: a. Retain before, and retain since when it is a time subordinator. b. Delete all three reason subordinators because, since, and as. c. Retain after and while if the participial phrase follows the independent clause.

79 EX: Delete Since he fell on the ground, he broke his wrist. → Falling on the ground, he broke his wrist. As he cheated in the exam, he was punished. → Cheating in the exam, he was punished. Retain He hasn’t called her since he went to Japan two years ago. → Since going to Japan two years ago, he hasn’t called her. → He hasn’t called her since going to Japan two years ago. Before you marry him, you should think twice. → Before marrying him, you should think twice. After he passed the entrance examination, he became a freshman in college. → After passing the entrance examination, he became a freshman in college. ※ Pay attention to the perfect form. Because he had heard the secret, he decided to run away. → Having heard the secret, he decided to run away.

80 1. Before a student chooses a college, he or she should consider several factors. →______________________________________________________________ 2. After she passed the TOEFL exam, she became freshman in college. →______________________________________________________________ 3. While he was preparing for the test, he stayed with us. →______________________________________________________________ 4. Because the team has won the tournament, it is the best team in our country. →______________________________________________________________ 5. Since my parents have spent most of their savings to send me and my brothers to college, they have not enough money for their retirement →_______________________________________________________________ Exercise 1: Rewrite the following sentences, changing the adverb clause to a participial phrase.

81 6. Because he had finished his assignment, he went straight to bed. →_________________________________________________________ 7. Since I arrived at the city, I haven’t had sound sleep. →_________________________________________________________ 8. As we didn’t know where the costume party was, we asked for help. →_________________________________________________________ 9. Since Peter came from a conservative family, he was shocked by the practice of trial marriage. →_________________________________________________________ 10. When he crossed the street, he saw an ambulance whizzing by. →_________________________________________________________

82 Exercise 2: Improve the following short essay by changing the underlined adjective and adverb clauses to participial phrases. Rewrite the essay on a separate sheet of paper. Global Warming Have you noticed that it is getting hotter and more scorching over the past two decades. One of the biggest problems that faces humankind in the next few decades is the problem of global warming. This is a serious problem that may cause the extinction of all living creatures. In the past 150 years, global temperatures have risen approximately 1 ℃ (1.8 ℉ ). The year 1998 was the warmest year that has ever been recorded. With the rising global temperature, people will definitely confront catastrophic consequences. As Earth's temperature rises, polar ice will melt, which will cause the water level of oceans to rise. What ensues is the unbelievable flooding along the coasts. Global warming will also bring about climate changes that will affect agriculture. For example, crops that were previously grown in Guatemala may not flourish because it gets too hot.

83 Because they believe that the increase in carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere is the primary cause of global warming, scientists insist on taking strong measures to decrease CO2 levels. They are asking the world’s governments to be alert to CO2 that is released into the atmosphere. They demand that the world’s governments write an agreement that will control the amount of CO2. They are convinced that with our joint efforts we can expect a beautiful earth that is extricated from a dangerous situation. After each government signs such an agreement, each government should strive every nerve to enforce it. For example, Brazilians should stop burning their rain forests. Furthermore, if Americans stop driving their gas-guzzling SUVs, they will help save the earth. We will definitely have a bright vista if we jump on the bandwagon of environmental protection.

84 The Structure of an Essay An essay is a piece of writing several paragraphs long. To put it another way, an essay is a group of paragraphs written about a single topic and a central main idea. It must have at least three paragraphs, but a five-paragraph essay is a common assignment for academic writing. There are three main parts in an essay, that is, introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion. The introduction → the first paragraph of an essay, explaining the topic with general ideas. The soul of the introduction is the thesis statement. The body → the paragraphs supporting the thesis statement and bridging the introduction and the conclusion. The conclusion → the last paragraph of an essay, summarizing the thesis and the supporting ideas of the essay.

85 Essay I. Introduction III. Conclusion General statements Thesis statement Restatement or summary of the main points II. Body A. paragraph with supporting sentences B. paragraph with supporting sentences C. paragraph with supporting sentences E s s a y

86 Here are some rules for formatting an essay: 1. Use double spacing. 2. Leave 2.5 centimeters (1 inch ) of space on the sides, and the top and bottom of the page. This space is called the margin. 3. When typing your essay, you have to start the first line of each paragraph with five spaces. This is called indenting. 4. Put the title of your essay at the top of the first page in the center.

87 ☆ Essay outlining Because an essay is long, you had better organize and plan before you begin to write. The best way to do this is to make an outline. An outline is a list of the information you will put in your essay, telling what ideas you will discuss and showing which ideas will come first, second, and so on. Here are some tips for writing an outline: 1. Brainstorm and go through the usual process of gathering ideas. 2. Number your ideas to show how they work together. To avoid confusion, use different types of numbers and letters to show the organization of the ideas. Use roman numerals for your introduction, body paragraphs, and your conclusion. 3. Then, use capital letters (A, B, C, etc.) to fill in more information for your body paragraphs. 4. Finally, use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.) to give details for your supporting points.

88 This is what an outline looks like: I. Introduction II. First main idea A. First supporting point 1. First detail 2. Second detail B. Second supporting point 1. First detail 2. Second detail III. Second main idea IV. Third main idea IV. Conclusion

89 Exercise A: Fill in the blanks using different types of numbers and letters to complete this outline. ___. Nuclear Power is not a good energy source for the world. ___. Very Expensive ___. ___. Nuclear fuel is expensive ___. ___. Nuclear power plants are expensive to build and operate. ___. ___. ___. Cost of construction. ___. ___. ___. Cost of training workers. ___. Nuclear materials are not safe. ___. ___. Nuclear fuels are dangerous. ___. ___. ___. Radioactive gases are noxious. ___. ___. ___. Working with radioactive fuels can harm workers. ___. ___. Nuclear waste products are dangerous. __. ___. ___. Difficult to dispose of or stole safely. ___. There is a great possibility of accidents. ___. ___. Nuclear power plants can fail. __. ___. ___. Three Mile Island, U.S.A. (1979) __. ___. ___. Tarapur, India (1992) ___. The world should develop different types of energy because nuclear power is costly and dangerous. The Perils of Nuclear Energy

90 Studying in Great Britain I. Although studying in a new country is a little stressful, knowledge of a few British characteristics and customs helps you feel comfortable in your temporary home. II. British people are usually reserved and orderly. A. They are quiet and restrained B. They are very orderly 1. Waiting in a queue for a bus or a ticket is a must 2. You may encounter some frosty stares if you jump the queue III. The weather is no joke--it rains a lot. IV. Cars drive on the left side of the road. V. If you maintain a positive attitude, you will soon adapt yourself to the way of the British. Exercise B: Write an outline for the essay “Studying in Great Britain” and then complete the essay.

91 Due to the top and well-renowned universities, people come from all over the world to the United Kingdom to pursue education. Some come for a year, whereas others may stay four years or longer to complete a program or earn a degree. Leaving one’s hometown for advanced study is not an easy thing. Undoubtedly, studying in a new country is a little stressful, but knowledge of a few British characteristics and customs helps you feel comfortable in your temporary home. British people are unique in their behavior. They are usually reserved and orderly. They are the people of undemonstrative nature, so they are quiet and restrained. Despite their reticence, they are friendly. They are very orderly in the sense that they will never violate the law or social ethics. For example, you may encounter some frosty stares if you jump the queue. Therefore, waiting in a queue for a bus or a ticket is a must. Studying in Great Britain

92 Living in a new country, you will have completely new experiences: seeing new sights, eating new food, hearing the foreign sounds of a new language, and most of all, feeling a different climate. You have to pay attention to the fact that the weather there is no joke. It rains a lot, and the weather is inclement and freezing in winter. You don’t have to worry about this too much, for you can protect yourself from coldness by wearing jackets, windbreakers, and mufflers. Traffic condition is the last thing with which you have to be familiar. Arriving at the airport, you will find that cars drive on the left side of the road. Beside, it may take you a few days to remember which direction traffic is coming from. If you are not used to looking to the right instead of to the left, stepping off a curb can be dangerous. In fact, this is a matter of time because sooner or later you will get used to this condition. There is a proverb which goes well: “Do as the Romans do in Rome.” All you have to do is to observe what the British people do. By maintaining a positive attitude and with time, you will soon adapt to the ways of the British and feel comfortable in your temporary home. You can learn how to lead a happy life in a short time.

93 The Example Essay There are many different kinds of essay, and one of them is example essay. In an example essay, each paragraph gives an example to support the thesis statement. To buttress your argument by giving concrete examples, you can resort to the following transitions at the beginning of your paragraphs. Body ParagraphTransitions 1. One example of NP is ……… Take, for example, ……… An example of NP is……… 2. Another example of NP is ……… An additional example is ……… A second example of NP is ……… 3. A final example of NP is ……… Finally, ………

94 Pay attention to the usage of for example, for instance, such as, and e.g….. 1. For example and for instance have the same meaning. When your sentence is conducted by for example or for instance, put a comma after these words, and it must be followed by a complete sentence. → For example, running a treadmill helps you relive the stress. → For instance, a person born under the sign Virgo is very ambitious. 2. Sometimes e.g. is used to, how example; it is an abbreviation of the Latin exempli gratia. For example and e.g. have the same meaning. → The ancient Greeks compared the human face to the faces of various animals and birds, e.g., the eagle and the horse. → The ancient ………... For example, they compared it to those of the eagle and the horse.

95 3. One way to introduce an example is by the use of such as. In order to be brief, people use such as + example….. Owing a pet can help children cope with family problems. For example, it helps children deal with illness or the death of a relative. → Owing a pet can………, such as illness or the death of a relative. → Owing a pet can……………, e.g., illness or the death of a relative. → Studies show that pets provide a range of health benefits. For instance, pets help in lowering blood pressure and faster healing after surgery. → Studies show …………., such as lowering blood pressure and faster healing after surgery.

96 ☆ No commas are needed when the such as phrase offers essential information. Use commas when the such as phrase can be take out without changing the meaning of the sentence. Some harms caused by the nuclear explosion in Japan, such as fires, explosions, and radiation exposure, are really frightening. Studies such as these alert us to how to take precautions. Exercise: Rewrite the sentences by using the words in the parenthesis. Use correct punctuation. 1. Speaking of my character, enduring patience is on of my good traits. I am patient with different types of people. For example, I am patient with children, senior citizens, and even people who are sick. (e.g.) →_____________________________________________

97 2. Canada is renowned for its stunning scenery. For example, it has beautiful mountains, gorgeous waterfalls, and clean beaches. (such as) →_______________________________________________ 3. Studies show that pets have done a perfect job an tendering the elderly. For example, pets help the elderly feel less lonely and encourage them to exercise. →_______________________________________________ 4. Today there are many animal healing programs, such as a program that uses dogs to detect cancer. (For example) →_______________________________________________ 5. Healing programs use many different animals. For instance, these programs use dogs, cats, rabbits, and birds to help the sick feel better. →_______________________________________________ 6. People get many benefits from pet ownership. For instance, pet owners have lower cholesterol levels, which can help extend their lives. →_______________________________________________

98 for example and example instead in conclusion if then however for instance but such as The Example Essay Exercise: Fill in the blanks by using the words in the box. A Virgo It is true that every person is born with both good and bad character traits. No matter how shy or outgoing you are, you must like yourself as you are. If you do not love even a part of yourself, _________ you are practically deal. As I have the opportunity to write about myself, I will describe the good traits of my character. I was born under the sign Virgo, __________ I believe I have some of characteristics of people born under this sign.

99 An example of a good trait of a Virgo that I possess is patience. Sometimes I think I am too patient, even to the extreme extent, ________ I have also found that patience helps me in several way, __________, it helps me to concentrate on my study when the lesson is difficult or boring. Besides, __________ I don’t succeed in something, I am willing to try several more times. Never will I give it up. My patience also helps me to relax and stay calm. I am also very patient with people, _______________ children, senior citizens, and even people who are sick and in trouble. I can deal with people who are nervous, angry, and upset, helping them to calm down. __________, people take advantage of my patience, and I don’t like that at all. Ambition is the second __________ of a typical Virgo trait that I possess. Sitting in one place for more than 10 minutes is the last thing I will do. I detest sitting at home all day doing nothing. ________, I am very ambitions and eager to do anything to accomplish my goal. Once I make up my mind, I will by all means strain every nerve to meet my goal. _________, I used to be assiduous, and I spared no efforts to achieve distinction in my study. Obviously, ambition is what helped me to graduate from college in three years. ________, I am happy and proud to be a Virgo. As I intend to be a psychologist in the future, my patience and ambition enable me to be eligible for this job. With these two traits, I think I will someday be very successful in this profession. I am bound to benefit a lot from these two character traits.

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