F.A.R.O. A self - analysis project for the continuous improvement of scholastic service No one is able to fly at the first attempt, but you will be able, I promise
The F.A.R.O. project is carried out by a network of 130 Italian schools belonging to every grade and degree, coordinated by “Gregorio Russo” school Palermo: it would like the partecipation of foreign schools. Aim of the project is to realize a self - analysis route of scholastic service by common instruments for every schools of the network. The collected data will be synthesized in an annual report by each school. All the annual reports will be compared. SELF-ANALYSIS PROJECT TO SEARCH QUALITY IN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS:
The definition of threshold levels of the observed results involves a constant comparison with other professional fields: that’s why the creation of a school network could enrich the vision of the analyzed phenomena and allow the realization of a system of self-evaluation. WHICH OPERATIONAL MODEL? THE SCHERENS’ HYPOTHESIS The model refers to the Scherens’ hypothesis (1990) according to which “a model formed by context / input / process / output represents the best analytic scheme to systematize the thought on systems of indicators”. The choice allows an operational link with other network schools which have adopted the same model and work on similar areas.
THE SCHERENS’ HYPOTHESIS What is to be evaluated? OBSERVATION AREAS AND SUB-AREAS Input ConteXTProcessES Output (ProdUCtS) Every area is been analyzed in the following elements: School image Context Users typology Reality of the territory Professional resources Input Structural resources Atmosphere Processes Team work Learning success Output (products)Study advancement Instruments functional to collect the data are available for every sub-are
COMENIUS 1.3 PROJECT Goal of the project School improvement through an awareness of school like “learning organization”. Coordinator School: Ballysillan Primary schoolBelfast (United Kingdom) Partners Schools: DD Circ. I L. DA VINCITrapani (Italy) DD Circ. QUARTO 31°Genova (Italy) Ayia Filakindergarden – Ayia FilaCyprus Jardim de infancia nà 2 Apela ç aoApelaçao – Lisbon (Portugal) École Maternelle de NuyensBordeaux (Fran ç e) Kursenai Kindergarten BuratinasKursenai (Lithuania) Dunya Okul Oncesi Merkezi erkeziDunya (Turkey)
IMPROVEMENT AREA: The processes: The process of learning/teaching
THE PROJECT “EARLY STEPS”AS AN INSTRUMENT TO IMPROVE THE DIDACTIC/MATHETIC PROJECT It is realized by partnership among Universities and school of five different nations (Finland, United Kingdom, Cyprus, Italy, Greece). 31
Why the “Early Steps” project is an instrument to improve the learning/teaching process? Because it underpins a personalist antropology. Reasons of personalist antropology: Which antropology is more suitable for the man of the third millennium, age wherein the final identity of every person is more “unique” than in the past? It is necessary to overcome three kinds of antyropology:- Materialistic - Rationalistic - Individualistic and support an authentic personalist anthropology.
WHAT IS NOT MAN? Only the body (even if nowadays there is an exhaggerated cult of corporeity) Only rationality (the “Chicago man” doesn’t live, of course, a wellbeing condition) Only individual with continuous desire of power (“Homo homini lupus” theorized by Hobbes is a man deeply unhappy)
WHAT IS MAN? Reciprocity (because human person can not create his own happiness without others) Reciprocity (because human person can not create his own happiness without others) Creaturehood (because human person is born and grows up in a relational context where he/she interacts activily) Creaturehood (because human person is born and grows up in a relational context where he/she interacts activily) THE PERSON IS INEXHAUSTIBILITY (because human person cannot be explored neither by self-reflection nor by scientific hetero-reflection “The person cannot be counted but only told about” St Agustine) INEXHAUSTIBILITY (because human person cannot be explored neither by self-reflection nor by scientific hetero-reflection “The person cannot be counted but only told about” St Agustine) Unity (because human person is all in every part and every part is referred to all) Unity (because human person is all in every part and every part is referred to all)
Body, mind and psyche integration, that is integration among corporeity/moviment, affectivity/feelings, theoretical, technical and phronetic rationality. Body, mind and psyche integration, that is integration among corporeity/moviment, affectivity/feelings, theoretical, technical and phronetic rationality. Sporting and physical education meant as basic component of educational process. Sporting and physical education meant as basic component of educational process. Motor and sporting sciences belonging to a culture unitary and not articulated in separated subjects. Motor and sporting sciences belonging to a culture unitary and not articulated in separated subjects.
FINAL GOALS 1. To create a curriculum of physical education based on standard shared in the European ambit. 2. To elaborate a training program for the educators of infant school in order to enrich (implement) the new curriculum of physical education. FINAL GOALS 1. To create a curriculum of physical education based on standard shared in the European ambit. 2. To elaborate a training program for the educators of infant school in order to enrich (implement) the new curriculum of physical education. Educational didactic aims To stimulate the children to express motor experiences so that they can develop the body awareness, the space/time coordinates, the equipoise, the basic motor skills. To improve self-esteem and self-confidence - To develop physical skills according to the age. - To develop imagination through games, plays and the use of fit materials. - To develop social behaviour through aimed activities. Educational didactic aims To stimulate the children to express motor experiences so that they can develop the body awareness, the space/time coordinates, the equipoise, the basic motor skills. To improve self-esteem and self-confidence - To develop physical skills according to the age. - To develop imagination through games, plays and the use of fit materials. - To develop social behaviour through aimed activities. Goals professional development To create a European dimension of teaching. To compare the national curricular contents related to physical and sporting education of partner countries. To propose to political decision-makers National and European standards of physical education. To acquire instruments to formulate personalized standards of physical education. Goals professional development To create a European dimension of teaching. To compare the national curricular contents related to physical and sporting education of partner countries. To propose to political decision-makers National and European standards of physical education. To acquire instruments to formulate personalized standards of physical education. THE OPERATIVE PROJECT
Innovative aspects of the project To organize educational environment of learning aimed at the enhancement of: - Previous experiences. - Personal rhythm of development. - Cognitive style. Systematic record of each child’s progresses. Care for the interdisciplinarity in the awareness of culture and person unit. Innovative aspects of the project To organize educational environment of learning aimed at the enhancement of: - Previous experiences. - Personal rhythm of development. - Cognitive style. Systematic record of each child’s progresses. Care for the interdisciplinarity in the awareness of culture and person unit.
LENGHT AND PHASES OF THE PROJECT FIRST YEAR Elaboration of a physical educational plan based on standards shared in European compass and its translation into four languages (Greek, English, Italian, Finnish). Training in service of the teachers (two seminars: at Jyvaskyla and Tessalonika). SECOND YEAR Realization of the physical education program. Exchange of observations and information. Meeting in London of all the participants. Collection of data of internal evaluation and transmission of data to external estimators. THIRD YEAR Elaboration of final program by university professors. Care of editions of books and articles. Spreading by web site of Tessalonika University.
EVALUATION OF THE PROJECT The project will be valued before starting, during its implementation and after the conclusion of the operating program. Quality indicators of the evaluations: Formativity; Combination between internal and external evaluations.
DIVULGATION Through a text composed by 120/140 pages and written in English to be given to schools, universities, and school deparments of partner countries. Further the results will be spread by specialistic magazines for educators and presented within European and worldwide conferences. The Greek academy for physical education will prepare a website devoted to the project.
DESCRIPTION OF A LEARNING ROUTE AND EVALUATION OF REALIZED PROCESS OF PROFESSIONAL MEDIATION
P.E.CU.P. (Educational and NATIONAL DIRECTIONS (General Goals) P.E.CU.P. To foster for him/herself and (Educational and others physical, psychological professional profile and moral well-being. of the student) NATIONAL DIRECTIONS Ripening of identity (General Goals) Conquest of autonomy Development of competences IDEATIONAL PHASE IDEATIONAL PHASE RIFERIMENTI NORMATIVI DOCUMENTI MINISTERIALI 43
Specific Learning goals (stated by Italian National Directions) articuleted according to experience areas: “The self and the other” To reinforce autonomy, self-esteem, identity. “Body, motion and health” To move skillfully in an enviroment and, during a game, controlling and coordinating the motion of limbs. To move oneself spontaneously, in guided way, in group, and to express oneself on the base of sounds, noises, directions. To control affectivity and emotions according to age in order to elaborate it again by the body and motion. To ripen competences of fine and global motricity. “To explore, to know and to plan” To touch, to look, to listen, to smell, to taste something and to tell what has been touched, looked, listened, smelt, tasted … To comment, to find out links, to infer, to make hypothesis explaining problems. “Fruition and production of messages” To listen, to understand and to retell. To use the body to imitate. To speak, to relate, to dialogue with adults and contemporaries interchanging adults and contemporaries interchanging informations, impressions, feelings, and informations, impressions, feelings, and judgments. judgments.
PROBABLE FORMATIVE AIMS To manifest sintality by realizing collective motor games. To attune body movements and music. To develop team spirit. To simbolize score. To perform democratic choices. To work creatively in group. To enjoy for the help given to others. EXPECTED COMPETENCES Congruent to formative aims and to be exercised in different contexts.
46 DIDACTIC PATTERNS: Didactics by concepts. DIDACTIC METHODS: Active, iconic, analogic, symbolic methods. DIDACTIC TECHNIQUES: Motor and simulation games. VERIFICATION: By systematic observations and structural tests. ORGANIZATION: Collective activity for the entire class and individual verification. LENGTH: 7 hours for the active phase and 14 hours for ideational and documentation phases SPACES: Class -room and gym. INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIALS: Parachute, circles, balls, school items.
EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY SCHOOL SERVICE: On the base of the following indicators: Scientificity of didactic patterns, mediators, techniques, ways of verification and evaluation. Methodological pluralism. Internal and external sharing. Advertisement of the route. EVALUATION OF PUPILS’ COMPETENCES: By questionnaires addressed to families.
1ª Situation: 2ª Situation: 3ª Situation: 4ª Situation: PLANNED LEARNING SITUATION: NUMBER FOUR Let’s play with a parachute Like robots Let’s play bowling Traps
N° 25 PUPILS SO DIVIDED:n. 8 MALES n. 17 FEMALES n. 4 FOREIGN AGE: PUPILS 4 YEARS OLD: n. 17 PUPILS 5 YEARS OLD: n. 8
Teacher:Children, now, are we motionless or in motion? Children:We are motionless because we are sitting. Teacher:What is motion? Matilde:When we are in gym. Giada:No, motion is running. Federica:Granny always says “I cannot move about because I am aching all over”. REFLECTION UPON PROFESSIONAL AND MEDIATION ACTIVITY (AFTER THE ACTIVITY PHASE) ANALYSIS OF THE PUPILS’ STARTING SITUATION: CLINIC CONVERSATION Clinic conversation prepares a formative contract, it helps teachers to understand the spontaneous knowledge of children and stimulates them to reflect upon it. The teacher makes children sit in circle and acts as a stimulator. MOTION, FRIENDSHIP AND WELLBEING
Gaia: When I am in Marettimo I swim. Sara:I have learnt to do somersaults. Marco:On television I watched Spiderman who climbs up skyscrapers to save people. Elena:Spiderman performes dangerous things that we should not do. Teacher:Is it better watching television or moving? Martina:I watch TV when I stay at home. Alessandro: I go to gym when I don’t go to school. Giorgia:I like school because we play. Teacher:When you do motion games how do you feel? Ivana:I am well. Aidid:Mammy suggests me not to run because I get a temperature.
Danilo: You always like running. I like playing with my friends. Teacher: What kind of games do you play with your friends? Danilo: We play ball or parachute or we play skittles. Elena: I too like doing exercises together with my friends; I give my toys to a friend of mine. Giovanni: I am afraid they can break my toys. Teacher: Your schoolmates are your friends? Irene: My friend’s name is Maria. Federica: My friend’s name is Francesco. Danilo: My friend’s names are Ivana, Giada, Giorgia, Matilde, my brother, my cousin.
COGNITIVE MATRIX All children Distinguish motion activities and sedentary activities Give examples concerning motion activities All children Links up motion with Spiderman Marco Understands that some motions are dangerous Elena Links up motion with wellbeing IvanaAiddid Links up motion with ill (temperature) Danilo Links up wellbeing, moving and group games Elena Irene Federica Link up friendship with a person only Danilo Links up friendship with a group of people
1ª LEARNING SITUATION: LET’S PLAY WITH A PARACHUTE Alter the formative contract stipulation the teacher stirs the parachute game. The parachute is like a big colorated umbrella which the children can manoeuvre together using suitable handles. A group of 5 children in the middle of the room opens the parachute, the other children sitting in circle out of the edge of the parachute and manoeuvre it grasping the handles. After the command of the teacher the children lift and pull down the parachute. The game is repeated by a variant: the children scrunch up pieces of different coloured crepe paper, throw them to the centre of the parachute and make them “dance” with a simultaneous moviment. EVALUATION OF THE REALIZED ROUTE AND DOCUMENTATION
EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF THE ACTIVITY The group has manouevred the parachute working in synergy. Through the physical contact with the playmates the group situated under the parachute has won the fear of danger caused by the darkness and weight above their head. All the children have reinforced the space/time coordinates. THE CHILDREN LIFT THE PARACHUTE
2 ª LEARNING SITUATION: LIKE ROBOTS After sharing some social rules (listening silently, without pushing their playmates …) The teacher stimulates the children immagination describing the window of a toy shop where some robots are displayed. Then she proposes a simulation game; this game consists in pretending to be some robots that remain motionless. The teacher goes on saying that when it is night and the shop is close the robots start on moving to the sound of a music. At the break of day the music slowly turns\down and makes room for silence. So the children move ever more slowly until they stop.
EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF THE ACTIVITY Collective simulation. Execution of creative moviment inside a group. Respect of shared rules. All the children participated with enthusiasm, without any episode of indiscipline or isolation. ROBOTS IN THE WINDOW OF A TOY SHOP THE ROBOTS MOVE
3 ª LEARNING SITUATION: LET’S PLAY BOWLING After the formative contract stipulation the children are divided into three teams; every team has to choose a name (the team’s name is expression of syntality) and a team captain who will record the score on a paper using conventional or invented symbols. Every player can throw the ball four times against some cardboards attached to the tables and for his team scores a number of points corresponding to the number of shifted cardboards.
ACTIVITY EDUCATION VALUE Sharing of rules. Respect of rules. Exercise of democratic choices. Exercise of attentive abilities. Use of symbologies. BOWLING
4 ª LEARNING SITUATION: TRAPS Planned activities: The teacher tells a narrative text whose characters are some children trapped in an enchanted castle by a bad witch. They will be freed by a group of courageous friends. That happens after overcoming some traps prepared in order to stop them inside five rooms; the first room is flooded by water, the second is sprinkled by oil, in the third there is a lion, the fourth is full of holes, the fifth has a lowest ceiling, in the sixth room there are the trapped children. The children play a simulation game “prisoners and liberators” whose realization involves different ways of walking created by the very children to overcome the traps.
ROOM WITH LOWEST CEILING LIBERATION ACTIVITY EDUCATION VALUE The children attentively listened to the narrative text with relevant emotional involvement. During the overcoming of the traps manifested a relevent ability in helping one another and creativity. The different ways of walking were suited to the simulated situation and to the overcoming of difficulties. Ofter overcoming the traps they expressed joy searching a physical contact with the freed schoolmates and among themselves.
VERIFICATION ABOUT THE ACHIEVEMENT OF THE GAOALS The teacher had planned to use of the following tests: Test N° 1: Moving together is: exciting A) boring B) nothing special C) Test N° 2 : I can move in many different ways A) B) C) true false I don’t Know I can move just in a way A) B) C) true false I don’t Know I can move only when my teacher says A) B) C) true false I don’t Know ? ? ?
Test N° 3 : I can speak through motions A) B) C) truefalse I don’t Know Test N° 4: When I work together with my- exciting A) schoolmates I feel: - boring B) - nothing special C) ?
REFLECTION ABOUT VERIFICATION The verification time is very important both for the teacher and for the children. So the teacher, after getting the pupils into a sound-proof classroom, divided them into homogeneous small groups. Then she explained them that it was the moment to think over the things they learned at school during the last days (self-evaluation). The teacher gave to the children a sheet of paper for each verification test. The tests were structured according to the model of a multiple choice questionnaire. Since the infant school children are not able to read, the teacher reads for them and, in order to facilitate the comprehension of the reading, she matches the possible answers with images (smileys or images to be read easily).
Quality indicatorsVerification mode of the indicators Scientificity of didactic patterns, methods and techniques Exam of the enclosed bibliography Methodological pluralismExam of the enclosed documentation Internal sharingExam of minutes of the teachers and principals’ meetings External sharing Exam: - Minutes of the meetings with families (the meetings happened before and after the project) - Acts of the seminars hold in Javaskale, Tessalonika, London (Comenius 2.1 project) EVALUATION OF THE PROCESS
Bosio V. Fabbricatore, Valutazioni – Autoanalisi d’Istituto e valutazione di sistema: pratiche e approfondimenti, Franco Angeli, Mi, 2005 N. Bottani, Insegnanti al timone?, Fatti e parole dell’autonomia scolastica, Bologna, Il Mulino 2003 L. Guasti, Valutazione e innovazione, De Agostani, No, 1996 N. Perella, Guida alla programmazione, CETEM, Milano 1985 T. Loschi, N. Milano, Programmazione per mappe concettuali, Editore, Bologna 1990 Progetto di aggiornamento/formazione per i Direttori Didattici della Regione Sicilia, pubblicato a cura dell’I.R.R.S.A.E., Sicilia, Palermo, Dicembre 1994 Mariangela Colombo Ronzini, Didattica per insegnanti del III Millennium, Edizione T.E.M.I., Bologna 1998 Elio Damiano, “Per Sisifo” distribuito da B.A.I.C.R. (Consorzio Biblioteche Archivio Istituto Culturale di Roma) BIBLIOGRAPHY
R. Musil, L’uomo semza qualità (1930, 1933, 1943), trad. it., Einaudi, Torino 1996 K. R. Popper, Scienza e filosofia (1975), trad. it., Einaudi, Torino 1991 G. nBateson, Dove gli angeli esitano (1987), trad. it., Adelphi, Milano 1990 H. Gardner, Saper comprendere. Discipline di studio e discipline della mente (1999), trad. it., Feltrinelli, Milano 1999 E. Wiesel, Le porte della foresta, Longanesi, Milano 1989 G. Bertagna, Scuola in movimento, Edizioni Angeli 2004
CONCLUSION Quoting Cavafys I wish all colleagues a continuous, human and professional growth: ITHACA When you will start the journey toward Ithaca you must wish that the way may be long fertile in adventures and experience. ……… You always must keep in mind Ithaca and reaching it is the constant thought. ……… Ithaca gave you a fine journey, without it you would never have left. What other are you expecting? And if you find it poor, Ithaca will not disappoint you for that. Become now a wise man with all your experience you will have understood what Ithaca means. C.P. CAVAFY
The project work activity was planned by the principal, Anna Maria Campo. The exemplified operatine route was realized by teacher Maria Luisa Sparta. The typing in activity was made by administrative assistant Francesca Barbera.