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Unit10 1. Quote Mark Twain: The man who does not read good books has no advantage over the man who cannot read them. Cultural information Cultural information.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit10 1. Quote Mark Twain: The man who does not read good books has no advantage over the man who cannot read them. Cultural information Cultural information."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Unit10

3 1. Quote Mark Twain: The man who does not read good books has no advantage over the man who cannot read them. Cultural information Cultural information 1 Cultural information

4 2. Books that changed my life — Reviews of books that help you build new skills Cultural information 2 Cultural information “Books that changed my life” is a blog. The blogger lives in Stockholm, Sweden. His hope with this site is not only to share non-fiction book recommendations but to share books of an exceptional quality. In the same way he hopes that the readers will help him and share their very best suggestions. Here is a list of books that teach the blogger practical skills. They might not be the best written books or the most exiting ones but he thinks they are in a class of

5 their own on their respective subjects. His focus of this list is to show the readers the extremely rare informative tomes that will help them to learn skills that are useful in life, in contrast to the much more common works of fiction that simply helps them avoid going insane from all the craziness and stress they must put up with their life or the non-fiction that expose you to new ideas or random facts. [Making money] Active Value Investing by Vitaly Katsenelson Essential Negotiation by Gavin Kennedy Cultural information 3 Cultural information

6 Cultural information 4 Cultural information [Understand people] How to win friends and influence people by Dale Carnegie [Creating] Techniques of the selling writer by Dwight Swain On Directing Film by David Mamet

7 Main idea Global Reading- Main idea1 Main idea Structural analysis 1. What does this narrative text tell us? This text first tells us about the most indelible experiences the writer went through when she lived an isolated life as a child in the remote Chinese countryside. Next, the text describes and relates how she discovered and read and digested Dickens’ novels. Then, it highlights the ways in which the writer benefited immensely from Dickens.

8 Global Reading- Main idea2 Main idea Structural analysis 2. What is the main purpose of the writer? The writer’s main purpose is to emphasize that she is immensely grateful to Charles Dickens, for she has been enlightened a great deal by him, and that Dickens’ novels, which deal with real life and real people and explore significant and permanent topics, constitute a rewarding heritage of mankind, and therefore are well worth reading and studying.

9 Structural analysis Structural analysis 1 1. How is the first paragraph associated with the last one? In the first paragraph the writer makes it clear that she has owed Charles Dickens a heavy debt by reading his novels. And the only way to honor her obligation is to write down what Charles Dickens did for her. In the last paragraph, the writer says she was deeply influenced by him. Thus, the concluding part of the narrative text is naturally connected with the beginning part. Main idea Structural analysis

10 2. Work out the structure of the text by completing the table. Paragraph(s)Main idea It introduces the setting and the relationship between the writer and Charles Dickens. The writer recalls her isolated childhood life in a remote Chinese countryside, her unpleasant experiences and the painful feeling she had because she was a foreigner. Structural analysis 2 Main idea Structural analysis

11 Structural analysis 3 Paragraph(s)Main idea The writer narrates and describes her experiences as a voracious reader. The writer highlights Dickens’ great influence upon her. Main idea Structural analysis

12 I have long looked for an opportunity to pay a certain debt which I have owed since I was seven years old. Debts are usually burdens, but this is no ordinary debt, and it is no burden, except as the feeling of warm gratitude may ache in one until it is expressed. My debt is to an Englishman, who long ago in China rendered an inestimable service to a small American child. That child was myself and that Englishman was Charles Dickens. I know no better way to meet my obligation than to write down what Charles Dickens did in China for an American child. A Debt to Dickens Detailed reading1 Detailed reading 1

13 First, you must picture to yourself that child, living quite solitary in a remote Chinese countryside, in a small mission bungalow perched upon a hill among the rice fields in the valleys below. In the near distance wound that deep, treacherous, golden river, the Yangtse, and some of the most terrifying and sinister, as well as the most delightful and exciting moments of that child’s life, were spent beside the river. She loved to crawl along its banks upon the rocks or upon the muddy flats and watch for the lifting of the huge four-square nets that hung into the moving yellow flood, and see out of that flood come perhaps again and again an empty net, but sometimes great flashing, twisting silver bodies of fish. Detailed reading2.1 Detailed reading 2

14 Detailed reading2.2 Detailed reading She lingered beside villages of boat folk, and saw them live, the babies tied to a rope and splashing in the shallower waters. But she saw babies dead thrown into the deep waters. She wandered small and alien among the farm folk in the earthen houses among the fields. She accepted a bowl of rice and cabbage often at meal time and sat among the peasants on the threshing floor about the door and ate, usually in silence, listening and listening, answering their kindly, careless questions, bearing with shy, painful smiles their kind teasing laughter at her yellow curls and unfortunate blue eyes,

15 Detailed reading3.1 Detailed reading which they thought so ugly. She was, she knew, very alien. Upon the streets of the great city where sometimes she went she learned to accept the cry of foreign devil, and to realize she was a foreign devil. She grew from a very tiny child into a bigger child, still knowing she was alien. However kindly the people about her might be, and they were much more often kind than not, she knew that she was foreign to them. And she wondered very much about her own folk and where they were and how they looked and at what they played. 3

16 Detailed reading3.2 Detailed reading But she did not know. In the bungalow were her parents, very busy, very, very busy, and when she learned her lessons in the morning quickly, they were too busy to pay much heed to her and so she wandered about a great deal, seeing and learning all sorts of things. She had fun. But very often she used to wonder, “Where are the other children like me? What is it like in the country where they live?” She longed very much, I can remember, to have some of them to play with. But she never had them.

17 To this small, isolated creature there came one day an extraordinary accident. She was an impossibly voracious reader. She would like to have had children’s books, but there were none, and so she read everything, — Plutarch’s Lives and Foxe’s Martyrs, the Bible, church history, and the hot spots in Jonathan Edwards’s sermons, and conversations out of Shakespeare, and bits of Tennyson and Browning which she could not understand at all. Then one day she looked doubtfully at a long row of somber blue books on a very high shelf. They were quite beyond her reach. Detailed reading4.1 Detailed reading 4

18 Later she discovered this was because they were novels. But being desperate she put a three-cornered bamboo stool on top of a small table and climbed up and stared at the binding sand in faded black titles she read Oliver Twist, by Charles Dickens. She was then a little past seven years old. It was a very hot August day, in the afternoon about three o’clock, when the household was asleep, all except the indefatigable parents, and they were very, very busy. She took Oliver Twist out of its place — it was fat and thick, for Hard Times was bound with it — and in great peril descended, and stopping in the pantry for a pocket full of peanuts, Detailed reading4.2 Detailed reading

19 she made off to a secret corner of the veranda into which only a small, agile child could squeeze, and opened the closely printed pages of an old edition, and discovered her playmates. How can I make you know what that discovery was to that small, lonely child? There in that corner above the country road in China, with vendors passing beneath me, I entered into my own heritage. I cannot tell you about those hours. I know I was roused at six o’clock by the call to my supper, and I looked about dazed, to discover the long rays of the late afternoon sun streaming across the valleys. Detailed reading5.1 Detailed reading 5

20 Detailed reading5.2 Detailed reading I remember twice I closed the book and burst into tears, unable to bear the tragedy of Oliver Twist, and then opened it quickly again, burning to know more. I remember, most significant of all, that I forgot to touch a peanut, and my pocket was still quite full when I was called. I went to my supper in a dream, and read as late as I dared in my bed afterward, and slept with the book under my pillow, and woke again in the early morning. When Oliver Twist was finished, and after it Hard Times, I was wretched with indecision. I felt I must read it all straight over again, and yet I was voracious for that long row of blue books. What was in them? I climbed up again,

21 Detailed reading6.1 Detailed reading finally, and put Oliver Twist at the beginning, and began on the next one, which was David Copperfield. I resolved to read straight through the row and then begin at the beginning once more and read straight through again. This program I carried on persistently, over and over, for about ten years, and after that I still kept a Dickens book on hand, so to speak, to dip into and feel myself at home again. Today I have for him a feeling which I have for no other human soul. He opened my eyes to people, he taught me to love all sorts of people, high and low, rich and poor, the old and little children. 6

22 Detailed reading6.2 Detailed reading He taught me to hate hypocrisy and pious mouthing of unctuous words. He taught me that beneath gruffness there may be kindness, and that kindness is the sweetest thing in the world, and goodness is the best thing in the world. He taught me to despise money grubbing. People today say he is obvious and sentimental and childish in his analysis of character. It may be so, and yet I have found people surprisingly like those he wrote about — the good a little less undiluted, perhaps, and the evil a little more mixed. And I do not regret that simplicity of his, for it had its own virtue. The virtue was a great zest for life.

23 Detailed reading7 Detailed reading If he saw everything black and white, it was because life rushed out of him strong and clear, full of love and hate. He gave me that zest, that immense joy in life and in people, and in their variety. This is what Charles Dickens did for me. His influence I cannot lose. He had made himself a part of me forever. 7

24 Paragraph 1 Questions 1) How do you interpret the debt which the writer has owed since she was seven years old? Detailed reading1--Quesion 1.1 According to the context, the debt the writer has owed is not a sum of unpaid money, instead, it is her feeling of warm gratitude to Charles Dickens, who long ago in China rendered an inestimable service to her. Detailed reading

25 Paragraph 1 Questions 2) In the eyes of the writer, what is the best way to pay her debt to Charles Dickens? Detailed reading1--Quesion 1.2 As far as the writer can see, the best way to express her heartfelt thanks to Dickens is to write down what Charles Dickens did for her in China a long time ago. Detailed reading

26 Paragraph 2 Question What is the message that is stressed in the second paragraph? Detailed reading1--Quesion 2 While living in that remote rural area, the narrator as a small child was very alien to the people and was laughed playfully at and thought of as ugly and even unfortunate by them. Detailed reading

27 Paragraph 3 Questions 1) What is the message this is repeatedly emphasized? Detailed reading1--Quesion 3.1 The repeated message is that as she grew into a bigger child, she still felt that she was alien and foreign to the people around. Detailed reading

28 Detailed reading1--Quesion 3.2 The main idea of Paragraph 3 is that as she still felt alien, and as her parents were too busy to pay any heed to her, she longed very much to have companions, but she had none. Detailed reading Paragraph 3 Questions 2) What is the main idea of Paragraph 3?

29 Paragraph 4 Question Why did the narrator say, “She was an impossible voracious reader”? Detailed reading1--Quesion 4 There were no books suitable for her to read in that remote village. Since she had the desire to read, she searched and read all the books she could find instead of being frustrated. Detailed reading

30 Paragraph 5 Question How does the narrator describe the way she read the novel Oliver Twist? Detailed reading1--Quesion 5 One day, the author discovered the book named Olive Twist by Charles Dickens. She buried herself reading the book all day. Detailed reading

31 Dickens was a man of simplicity and has a great zest for life, and also a man full of hate and love. Paragraph 6 Questions 1) In what ways was the narrator greatly benefited or enlightened by Dickens? He opened her eyes to people, and taught her to love all sorts of people, to hate hypocrisy and pious mouthing of unctuous words. He gave her an immense zest for life, that immense joy in life and in people, and in their variety. In short, the narrator learned many invaluable things from Charles Dickens. 2) What comments does the narrator make on Dickens? Detailed reading1--Quesion 6.1 Detailed reading

32 “He opened my eyes to people, he taught me to love all sorts of people, high and low, rich and poor, the old and little children. He taught me to hate hypocrisy and pious mouthing of unctuous words. He taught me that beneath gruffness there may be kindness, and that kindness is the sweetest thing in the world, and goodness is the best thing in the world. He taught me to despise money grubbing.” These sentences are characterized by parallelism, by virtue of which they are fluid and smooth, expressive and impressive. Detailed reading1--Quesion 6.2 Detailed reading Paragraph 6 Questions 3) Point out the sentences in Paragraph 6 that are parallel to each other. What rhetorical effect can parallelism product?

33 The first sentence of Paragraph 7 plays the function of connecting the concluding part naturally with the beginning part of the text. 2) What is the main idea of this paragraph? The last paragraph emphasizes that Dickens has exerted a lasting influence upon the narrator, and that Dickens has become part of her forever. Paragraph 7 Questions 1) What is the textual function of the first sentence of this paragraph? Detailed reading1--Quesion 7.1 Detailed reading

34 render: v. cause sb. or sth. to be in a particular condition; give sth. to sb. or do sth., because it is your duty or because sb. expects you to Detailed reading1– render 1 e.g. He was rendered almost speechless by the news. It is an obligation of ours to render assistance to those in need. Detailed reading Derivation: rendering: n.

35 Detailed reading1– render 2 Detailed reading His fatness renders him unable to touch his toes. Translation: 他很胖,连自己的脚趾也够不着。 You will be expected to render an account of money that is owed. 请你发出借欠清单。

36 inestimable: adj. too great, precious, etc. to be estimated Detailed reading1– inestimable e.g. Your advice has been of inestimable value to us. The value of your assistance is inestimable. Detailed reading Synonym: invaluable

37 obligation: sth. that must be done because of a duty or promise Detailed reading1– obligation 1 e.g. You can look around the shop with no obligation to buy. We attended the party more out of a sense of obligation than anything else. 我们参加那个聚会是迫于人情,而并无别的原因。 Detailed reading Derivations: oblige: v. obliged: adj.

38 Detailed reading1– obligation 2 Detailed reading Everyone has a legal obligation to provide the tax office with details of their earnings. Translation: Collocation: under an obligation (to): having a duty (to) e.g.We are invited, but we are under no obligation to go. 每个人都有法律义务向税务局提供自己的收入详情。

39 My debt is to an Englishman, who long ago in China rendered an inestimable service to a small American child. Paraphrase: I cherish the feeling of warm gratitude towards an Englishman, who did an invaluable service to a small American child a long time ago in China. Detailed reading1-- My debt is to an … Detailed reading Explanation: 我亏欠了一个英国人的恩情,很久以前在中国,他为 一个美国小女孩提供了无价的帮助。

40 e.g. Teachers have an obligation to treat all students equally. Parents are under a legal obligation to educate their children. something that must be done because of a duty or promise I know no better way to meet my obligation than to write down what Charles Dickens did in China for an American child. Paraphrase: As far as I can see, the best way to express my warm gratitude to Charles Dickens is to put in black and white the inestimable service he rendered in China to an American child. Detailed reading1-- I know no better … Detailed reading Explanation: obligation

41 solitary: adj. spending a lot of time alone; doing sth. without any companion Detailed reading1-- solitary e.g. One solitary tree grew on the mountainside. Pandas are solitary creatures. Detailed reading Synonym: alone Antonyms: sociable; accompanied

42 treacherous: adj. behaving with treachery, (showing signs of) betraying a person or cause secretly; dangerous, esp. when seeming to be safe Detailed reading1-- treacherous e.g. We cannot trust treacherous people. The ice on the lake is treacherous, not as strong or thick as it looks. Detailed reading Derivation: treachery: n. Synonym: unreliable

43 linger: v. stay for a long time and be reluctant to leave; be slow; dawdle Detailed reading1– linger 1 e.g. She lingered after the concert, hoping to meet the star. They lingered over coffee and missed the train. Detailed reading Derivations: lingerer: n. lingering: adj. Synonyms: stay; remain

44 Detailed reading1– linger 2 Detailed reading Collocations: linger about/around/on The pain lingered on for weeks. Translation: 病痛持续了好几个星期。 事情是过去了,但人们对此记忆犹新。 The event is over, but the memory lingers on.

45 alien: adj. foreign; strange; unfamiliar; contrary Detailed reading1– alien 1 e.g. As she stayed in an alien land, she lived in an alien environment. Such principles are alien to our religion. Detailed reading Derivation: alienate: v

46 Detailed reading1– alien 2 Detailed reading Collocation: alien to: very different in nature or character, esp. so different as to cause dislike or opposition e.g.Their ideas are quite alien to our way of thinking. Antonym: native

47 heed: v. give attention to; consider seriously Detailed reading1– heed e.g. She didn’t heed my warning/advice. Their offspring do not heed to what they say. Detailed reading Derivations: heed: n. heedful: adj. heedless: adj. Collocations: pay heed to take heed (of sth.)

48 First, you must picture to yourself that child, living quite solitary in a remote Chinese countryside, in a small mission bungalow perched upon a hill among the rice fields in the valleys below. Paraphrase: First, you need to form a mental image of that child, who was living a very lonely life in a distant Chinese rural area, and whose family lived in a small one- story house in a settlement where missionaries had their homes, the small one-story house located on a hill among the rice fields in the valleys below. Detailed reading1– First, you must picture 1 … Detailed reading

49 It is to be noted that the modal verb must in this sentence indicates the narrator’s advice or recommendation to readers, and that the adjective “solitary” functions as subject complement, telling readers that the child was lonely when living in a remote Chinese countryside. Explanation: Detailed reading1– First, you must picture 2 … Detailed reading

50 She lingered beside villages of boat folk, and saw them live, the babies tied to a rope and splashing in the shallower waters. Paraphrase: She stayed near villages of fishermen and their families, reluctant to leave. She witnessed how they lived. She saw their babies fastened with a rope and sitting or standing in the shallower waters and playing with water. Detailed reading1– She lingered beside 1 … Detailed reading

51 她流连于渔民聚集的村落,观看他们的生活,许多婴 儿都用绳子系着在浅滩里戏水。 Detailed reading1– She lingered beside 2 … Detailed reading Explanation: Waters means a mass of water in a river, lake, etc.; a sea or a large area of water near or belonging to a particular country. e.g. The waters of the lake flow out over a large waterfall. The ship is moving through the stormy waters of the Atlantic. The ship drifted into Turkish territorial waters. The species are found in inland waters. Translation:

52 She wandered small and alien among the farm folk... Paraphrase: She walked slowly and aimlessly among the farming people. As a small child whose parents were from an alien land, she was strange and foreign to the local farmers. Detailed reading1– She wandered … Detailed reading Explanation: Attention should be paid again to the adjectives “small” and “alien” that serve as subject complements in this sentence, meaning that she was small and alien when wandering among the farm folk. Translation: 她,一个外国小孩,漫无目标地游走在村民中 ……

53 More often than not means “very frequently; usually”. More often than not the trains are crowded during the Spring Festival. When it is foggy, the buses are late more often than not. However kindly the people about her might be, and they were much more often kind than not, she knew that she was foreign to them. Paraphrase: No matter how kindly and friendly the people around her might be, and they were very often kind indeed, she knew that she was alien to them. Detailed reading1– However kindly 1 … Detailed reading Explanation:

54 无论周围的人们对她多友善,他们通常对她的确相当 的友善,她知道自己对于他们仍是外国人。 Detailed reading1– However kindly 2 … Detailed reading Translation:

55 And she wondered very much about her own folk and where they were and how they looked and at what they played. Paraphrase: She wished very much to know about other children of her own culture; she was anxious to know their whereabouts and their appearances and the way they played. Detailed reading1– And she wondered … Detailed reading Explanation: Note the repetition of “and” in the sentence. It is repeatedly employed to emphasize her anxious state of mind and the chain of her psychological activities at that time.

56 Pay heed to means “pay attention to”; “take notice of”. You should pay much heed to the doctor’s advice. Their offspring do not pay much heed to what they say. … they were too busy to pay much heed to her and so she wandered about a great deal, seeing and learning all sorts of things. Paraphrase: As her parents were so much preoccupied with their own work that they paid little attention to her, she often walked about slowly and aimlessly, observing and getting to know all kinds of things. Detailed reading1– … they were too 1 … Detailed reading Explanation:

57 …… 他们太忙以至于不能很好地关心她,因此她常常 四处徘徊,观看和学习各种各样的事物。 Detailed reading1– … they were too 2 … Detailed reading Translation:

58 She longed very much, I can remember, to have some of them to play with. But she never had them. Paraphrase: It’s still clear in my mind that she wanted very much to play with some other children like her. But she had none of them to play with. Detailed reading1– She longed very much … Detailed reading Translation: 我记得她很渴望能和一群像她一样的孩子游戏,但她 却从来没有这样的玩伴。

59 It is an obligation of ours to render assistance to those in need. He is a solitary sort of fellow. She lingered outside the school after everyone else had gone home. Cruelty was quite alien to his nature. You should pay much heed to the doctor’s advice. Detailed reading1– Activity 1 Detailed reading Activity: Making a Story Directions: Sit in rows or lines of five. The students in the first row / line are given one sentence, which they should recite to the next students. The sentences will be passed on until the last students, who will come to the blackboard to write down the sentences.

60 isolate: v. separate; single; solitary; standing alone Detailed reading1– isolate 1 e.g. Several villages have been isolated by the floods. The poor girl from an isolated village was deeply impressed by the tall buildings in the city. Detailed reading Derivations: isolation: n. isolated: adj. Collocations: isolate sth. (from sth.) in isolation

61 Children are carefully insulated from harmful experiences The royal family is insulated from many of the difficulties faced by ordinary people. 普通百姓面临的许多难处皇室成员都不必面对。 Detailed reading1– isolate 2 Detailed reading 科学家们已分离出引起这种流行病的病毒。 Translation: Comparison: isolate, insulate insulate: protect sb./sth. from the unpleasant effects of sth. e.g. Scientists have isolated the virus causing the epidemic.

62 voracious: adj. having an extremely strong desire to do or have a lot of sth. Detailed reading1-- voracious e.g. Teenagers usually have voracious appetites. She is a voracious reader of biographies. Detailed reading Derivation: voracity: n. adj. Synonym: greedy

63 A funeral is a sombre occasion. somber: (BrE: sombre) adj. dark-colored; dull and dismal; sad and serious Detailed reading1-- somber e.g. She prefers to wear somber clothes. You could see a sombre expression on his face that day. Detailed reading Derivation:somberness: n. Synonyms:serious; grave; dark Translation: 葬礼是个悲伤的场合。

64 desperate: adj. feeling or showing great despair and ready to do anything regardless of danger; in great need (of sth./to do sth.) Detailed reading1– desperate 1 e.g. The prisoners grew more desperate with the approaching date of execution. She is desperate for money. Detailed reading Derivation: desperation: n. Collocation: desperate for sth./to do sth.

65 Detailed reading1– desperate 2 Detailed reading Have you got some water? I’m desperate for a drink. Translation: 你有水吗?我很想喝点。 我很想见到她。 I’m desperate to see her.

66 peril: n. serious danger, esp. of death; a dangerous thing or circumstance These birds are able to survive the perils of the Arctic winter. 这些鸟能在北极的严冬中生存。 The bicycle has no breaks. If you ride it, you will be in mortal peril. Derivation: perilous: adj. Detailed reading1– peril 1 e.g. Detailed reading

67 Detailed reading1– peril 2 Detailed reading at one’s peril: with a risk of harm to oneself (used esp when advising sb. not to do sth.) in peril of one’s life: in danger of death Collocations: danger Synonym:

68 descend: v. come or go down; lead downwards The sun descended behind the hills. The Queen descended the stairs. Derivations: descendant: n. descended: adj. Collocations: descend on/upon: (of a group of people) to attack; to arrive, esp. in large numbers, to visit or stay with, often unexpectedly. descend to: to lower oneself to Detailed reading1– descend 1 e.g. Detailed reading

69 Detailed reading1– descend 2 Detailed reading ascend Antonym: I want to talk about all these points in descending order of importance. Translation: 我将按照重要性的程度先后谈谈这几点。

70 agile: adj. able to move quickly and easily Monkeys are agile, hence the idiom “as agile as a monkey”. This little boy has an agile mind. Derivation: agility: n. Synonym: nimble Detailed reading1-- agile e.g. Detailed reading

71 我警告你,他一旦被惹怒是非常可怕的 ! rouse: v. (fml) waken The noise roused me from/out of a deep sleep. The speaker tried to rouse his listeners to action. Derivation: rousing: adj. Collocations: rouse from/out of rouse to Translation: I warn you, he’s dangerous when he’s roused! Detailed reading1-- rouse e.g. Detailed reading

72 wretched: adj. very unhappy, miserable or pitiable; causing unhappiness or misery He is in bed with a bad cold, feeling rather wretched. What wretched weather! Derivation:wretchedness: n. Translation: I feel wretched about having to disappoint her. Detailed reading1-- wretched e.g. Detailed reading 我因不得不让她失望而深感懊丧。 Why can’t that wretched child behave himself? 那孩子真讨人嫌,为什么他就不能规规矩矩的呢?

73 indecision: n. hesitation; the state of being unable to make a decision She was standing outside the house in an agony of indecision. At a critical moment, we should act decisively instead of being seized with indecision. Derivation: indecisive: adj. Detailed reading1-- indecision e.g. Detailed reading Antonym: decision

74 resolve: v. decide firmly; determine; make a decision Once she has resolved on doing it, you won’t get her to change her mind. He resolved to work harder. Synonym: determine Collocations: resolve on resolve to Detailed reading1– resolve 1 e.g. Detailed reading

75 Detailed reading1– resolve 2 Detailed reading The committee resolved on appointing a new secretary. Translation: 委员会决议任命新的书记。 The Senate resolved, by 70 votes to 30, to accept the President’s budget proposals. 参议院以七十票对三十票通过决议同意总统的预算草案。

76 zest: n. a feeling of being enthusiastic, eager, excited, interested, etc. Her zest for life is as great as ever. He entered into our plans with terrific zest. Derivation: zestful: adj. Synonym: enthusiasm: n. Detailed reading1– zest 1 e.g. Detailed reading

77 Detailed reading1– zest 2 Detailed reading The element of risk gave an added zest to the adventure. Translation: 这种冒险成分给探险活动平添了几分乐趣。 The danger of being caught gave a certain zest to the affair. 做这种事情有被发现的危险,但这倒增加了刺激性。

78 To this small isolated creature, there came one day an extraordinary accident. Paraphrase: One day, something quite unusual happened to this little lonely girl. Detailed reading1– To this small Detailed reading Translation: 有一天,这个孤独的小女孩遇到了件不平常的事。

79 She was an impossibly voracious reader. Paraphrase: She had an unbelievably strong appetite for reading. Detailed reading1– She was an Detailed reading Translation: 对于读书,她的贪婪难以想象。 Explanation: When used together with a person, the word “impossible” or “impossibly” usually indicates a meaning of behaving in a very unreasonable and annoying way. Therefore, the writer used “impossibly” here to emphasize that she had an unbelievably strong desire for reading.

80 Then one day she looked doubtfully at a long row of somber blue books on a very high shelf. Paraphrase: Then one day she stared at a long row of dark- colored blue books on a very high shelf, asking herself what kind of books they were. Detailed reading1– Then one day Detailed reading Translation: 有一天她满脸疑惑地盯着一排放在高书架上的深蓝色 书本。

81 burning to know more Paraphrase: wanting to find out something very much Detailed reading1– burning to Detailed reading Translation: 渴求获得更多的知识

82 …, I was wretched with indecision. Paraphrase:..., I felt unhappy because I was unable to decide whether I should read it all straight over again or pick out a new book to read. Detailed reading1– …, I was wretched Detailed reading Translation: ……, 犹豫不决真让我苦恼。

83 We have to pull down the barriers, so to speak, of poverty. The whole of life, so to speak, is involved in the pursuit of the good life. …, and after that I still kept a Dickens book on hand, so to speak, to dip into and feel myself at home again. Paraphrase:..., from then on I almost always had a Dickens book within easy reach to read and feel myself comfortably back once more on familiar territory. Detailed reading1– …, and after that 1 Detailed reading Explanation: so to speak: used when you are saying something in words that do not have their usual meaning e.g.

84 Detailed reading1– …, and after that 2 Detailed reading Translation: ……, 从那以后,我仍然将一本狄更斯的书带在身边, 可以说,这让我沉浸在一种身处家乡的舒适感受中。

85 He taught me to hate hypocrisy and pious mouthing of unctuous words. Paraphrase: He taught me to hate both the act of pretending to be very good and insincere earnestness. Detailed reading1– He taught me 1 Detailed reading Translation: 他教会我憎恨虚假伪善、油腔滑调。 Explanation: The word “mouth”, when used as a verb, is usually derogatory, often in the meaning of saying something that you don't really believe or you don’t understand.

86 Detailed reading1– Activity 2.1 Detailed reading Activity: Making a Story Direction: The class is divided into several groups, and two students from each group take part in this activity. One student will paraphrase or explain the words showed on the screen, and the other one will guess the words. Each pair can use any method to help paraphrasing and guessing, including gestures, sentence examples, etc. The group which can guess the most words within given time wins. Rules: 1) Each group must finish the guessing within one minute. 2) The guesser cannot look at the screen.

87 Detailed reading1– Activity 2.2 Detailed reading isolate peril wretched 3) The one who explains can only speak English and is not allowed to mention the words showed on the screen. Words for reference: desperate rouse zest voracious descend indecision somber agile resolve

88 Consolidation Activities- Vocabulary main Phrase practice Word / Phrase comparison Synonym / Antonym Sentence rephrasing VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

89 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 1 long to do = eager to do 渴望做 e.g. The girl longed to dance before a large crowd. 小女孩渴望在众人面前跳舞。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

90 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 2 long for = desire to have 渴望拥有 e.g. People around the world are longing for peace. 世界各地的人民却渴望和平。 She has been longing for him ever since he left. 自从他离开以后,她一直在想他。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

91 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 3 in peril = in great danger 处于危险之中 e.g. Scientists are racing against time to save the animals in peril. 科学家们正与时间竞赛拯救处于危险之中的动物。 Human being’s hunting put wild animals in peril. 人类的捕猎使野生动物处于危险之中。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

92 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 4 see everything black and white = interpret all things as either right or wrong 认为什么事情都是非对即错 e.g. Students should be taught not to see everything black and white. 要教会学生不能认为什么事情都是非对即错的。 Simon is stubborn and sees everything black and white. 西门很固执,认为什么事情不是对就是错。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

93 I haven’t had a chance to thank him yet. Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison1 gratitude: the state of feeling grateful e.g. I wish to express my gratitude to Dr. Wang for her immense practical help. Group 1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar grateful: showing or expressing thanks, especially to another person e.g.I’m so grateful for all that you’ve done. thank: to tell someone that you are pleased and grateful for something they have done, or to be polite about it e.g.

94 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison2 solitary: a solitary object is alone, with no others near them e.g. He lived in a solitary woodland. Group 2 singular: used when talking or writing about one thing e.g. This is a singular point of view that makes all the difference over a lifetime. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar e.g.We have exclusive access to the library archives. exclusive: available or belonging only to particular people, and not shared

95 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison3 Group 2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening e.g.He was all alone in the middle of the hall. Grammar alone: when you are alone, you are not with any other people

96 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison4 Group 3 burst into: to suddenly begin to do something e.g.Much to my surprise my little son burst into songs. burst out: to suddenly say something in a forceful way VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar e.g.“I don’t believe it!” she burst out angrily. burst in: to interrupt something by entering a room, in a way that embarrasses you or other people e.g.I’m sorry to burst in on you like this.

97 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison5 wander: to walk around slowly in a relaxed way or without any clear purpose or direction e.g. We spent the morning wandering around the old part of the city. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening linger: if you linger somewhere, you stay there for a longer time than is necessary e.g. This is a dreary little town where few would choose to linger. Grammar Group 4

98 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison6 haunt: if the soul of a dead person haunts a place, it appears there often e.g. The pub is said to be haunted by the ghost of a former landlord. loaf: to avoid activity, especially work e.g. Those who loaf all day and do nothing are social parasites. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 4

99 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison7 dig into: to try to find out about something unknown or secret e.g.He had been digging into her past. dip into: put the hand into a container in order to take something out of it e.g. Ask the children to guess what’s in each container by dipping their hands in. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 5 probe into: to ask questions in order to find things out e.g.The scientist probed into the secret of chemsitry.

100 I didn’t realize putting on a play involved so much work. Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison8 resolve: if you resolve to do something, you make a firm decision to do it e.g. She resolved to report the matter to the hospital’s nursing manager. solve: to find an answer to a problem VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 6 e.g. This strategy could cause more problems than it solves. involve: if an activity or situation involves something, that thing is part of it or a result of it e.g.

101 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison9 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar revolve: if you say that one thing revolves around another thing, you mean that the second thing is the main feature or focus of the first thing Group 6 e.g.My life revolves around my job.

102 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison10 make off: to leave quickly, usually in order to escape e.g.The burglars made off before the police arrived. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 7 make away: to steal something and take it away with you e.g.Thieves made away with the contents of the safe. make out: to see, hear or understand something or someone with difficulty e.g.I can’t make out your writing.

103 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison11 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening on hand: close by and ready when needed e.g.Our staff are always on hand to help. Grammar Group 8 in hand: if something is in hand, it is being done or dealt with e.g. She seemed to have things in hand by the time her husband returned. by hand: done or made by a person rather than a machine e.g.We had to wash our clothes by hand.

104 sociable, accompanied, collective Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym1 Give synonyms or antonyms of the word underlined in each sentence in the sense it is used. 1. My debt is to an Englishman, who long ago in China rendered an inestimable service to a small American child. Synonyms:invaluable, matchless, precious 2. You must picture to yourself that child, living quite solitary in a remote Chinese countryside. Antonyms: VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

105 Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar 3. In the near distance wound that deep, treacherous, golden river, the Yangtse. Synonyms:unreliable, untrustworthy 4. She loved to see out of that flood come perhaps again and again an empty net, but sometimes great flashing, twisting silver bodies of fish. Antonyms:full, plenty, abundant 5. They were too busy to pay much heed to her. Synonyms:attention, notice, regard

106 Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym3 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar 6. She took Oliver Twist out of his place and in great peril descended. Antonyms:ascend, rise, arise 7. She lingered beside villages of boat folk, and saw them live. Synonyms:stay, remain 8. She was, she knew, very alien. Antonyms:native, familiar, local

107 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation1 Rephrase each of the following sentences with the word given in brackets. 1. The law says you must ensure your child receives a proper education. (obligation) You have the legal obligation to ensure your child receives a proper education. ______________________________________________________ 2. The large amount of time they spent getting the engine into perfect condition was surprising. (immense) VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar They spent a surprisingly immense amount of time getting the engine into perfect condition. ______________________________________________________

108 3. Sorry to arrive all of a sudden like this, but we had no time to phone. (descend) Sorry to descend on you like this, but we had no time to phone. ______________________________________________________ 4. Mark and I managed to clean up the house before our parents got home. (straighten) Mark and I managed to straighten up the house before our parents got home.______________________________________________________ Consolidation Activities- Word derivation2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Rephrase each of the following sentences with the word given in brackets.

109 5. I think I must be coming down with flu — I’ve been feeling low and ill all day. (wretched.) I think I must be coming down with flue — I’ve been feeling wretched all day. ______________________________________________________ 6. The government made a decision to take further actions against corruption. (resolve) The government resolved to take further actions against corruption. ______________________________________________________ Rephrase each of the following sentences with the word given in brackets. Consolidation Activities- Word derivation3 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

110 8. There’s one rule for her and another rule for everyone else and it’s sheer double dealing. (hypocrisy) There’s one rule for her and another rule for everyone else and it’s mere hypocrisy. ______________________________________________________ 7. The young English teacher thought so highly of poetry that he taught it with extreme enthusiasm. (missionary) The young English teacher thought so highly of poetry that he taught it with missionary zeal. __________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Consolidation Activities- Word derivation4 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Rephrase each of the following sentences with the word given in brackets.

111 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- obligation 1 obligation n. duty 任务,义务 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar 1. e.g. Are we under obligation to provide financial support to the company?

112 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- immense VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar immense adj. huge 巨大的 2. e.g.Curiosity is a treasure with immense value.

113 e.g.The sun descended behind the mountain. Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- descend VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar descend v. move downward 下降 3. descend on: call on sb. without notice 突然到来 e.g.Visitors descend on us and ruin the day.

114 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- straighten VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar e.g. She twitched the corner of the blanket to straighten it. straighten v. make clean 弄直 4. straighten up: make straight 弄干净 e.g.You’d better straighten up your house.

115 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- wretched VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar e.g. The wretched boy was begging along the street again. wretched adj. poor, miserable 可怜不幸的 5.

116 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- resolve VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar e.g.He resolved that nothing can hold him back. resolve v. decide 决心 6.

117 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- missionary VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening e.g.Our missionary work had an important breakthrough. missionary adj. related to religious mission 与传教有 关的,有使命的 7.

118 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- hypocrisy VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening e.g.We are so fed up with his hypocrisy. hypocrisy n. insincerity 伪善,虚伪 8.

119 Consolidation Activities- Vocabulary main VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening The passive voice Subordination

120 A passive construction occurs when you make the object of an action into the subject of a sentence. That is, whoever or whatever is performing the action is not the grammatical subject of the sentence. The Passive is formed: Passive Subject + To Be + Past Participle. If the agent is important (the person, company or thing that does the action), use “by”. If it is not definite and does not carry any essential information, it can be omitted. Consolidation Activities- Grammar1 1. The passive voice VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

121 Consolidation Activities- Grammar2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar e.g. Houses are built. My bike was stolen. ※ Only verbs that take an object can be used in the passive voice.

122 1. People were surprised to find that an enormous hole (cut) in the steel door by the burglars. 2. It’s high time that he (tell) to stop behaving like a child. 3. As she (climb) the ladder, it slipped sideways and she fell off it. 4. I know a new film (show) at the cinema these days. Consolidation Activities- Grammar3 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Practice Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the verbs given. had been cut ______________ was told _________ was climbing ______________ are being shown __________________

123 5. I know a new film (show) at the cinema in two days. 6. I know a new film (show) at the cinema recently. Consolidation Activities- Grammar4 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar will be shown _______________ has been shown __________________

124 Consolidation Activities- Grammar5 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar The past tense is used to show the hypothetical meaning.

125 Consolidation Activities- Grammar6 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar The active voice is used because the subject of the sentence is the one who performs the action.

126 Consolidation Activities- Grammar7 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar The present continuous tense is used because “these days” refers to a period of time in which an action is continuously being performed.

127 Consolidation Activities- Grammar8 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar “In two days” refers to sometime in the future.

128 Consolidation Activities- Grammar9 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar The adverb “recently” is a marker of present perfect tense.

129 2. Subordination Subordination (abbreviated variously subord, sbrd, subr or sr) is a complex syntactic construction in which one or more clauses are dependent on the main clause. Dependent clauses are also called “subordinate clauses”. Subordinate clauses are introduced by a subordinating conjunction, such as, after, although, as much as, as long as, as soon as, because, before, if, in order that, lest, since, so that, than, that, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, whether, and while, etc. Consolidation Activities- Grammar10 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

130 Consolidation Activities- Grammar11 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar e.g. I don’t know if George is awake yet. George overslept because his alarm clock was broken.

131 Since no one is against the proposal, we will adopt it. Consolidation Activities- Grammar12 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar 2. No one is against the proposal. We will adopt the proposal. Practice Join the two sentences into one, using the words and phrases given. 1. You will hurry up. You will miss the bus. You will miss the bus unless you hurry up. in order that unless as since when until

132 Consolidation Activities- Grammar13 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar 4. It was raining hard. We had to be indoors. As it was raining hard, we had to be indoors. 3. The train had left. I reached the station. I didn’t reach the station until the train had left. in order that unless as since when until 5. You are crossing the street. You must be careful. When you are crossing the street, you must be careful.

133 Consolidation Activities- Grammar14 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar I sent the letter by air mail in order that it might reach him in time. in order that unless as since when until 6. I sent the letter by air mail. It might reach him in time.

134 Consolidation Activities- Translation1 1. 有许多志愿者为北京 2008 奥运会提供了有价值的服务。 (render a service to) If you render a service to a person or an institution, you do good to it; make contribution to it or help it. Many volunteers rendered a valuable service to the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Translate the following sentences into English.

135 The only service a friend can really render is to keep up your courage by holding up to you a mirror in which you can see a noble image of yourself. Consolidation Activities- Translation2 Practice : Translate the following sentences into English. 以后如有机会,我们将乐于为贵公司提供同样的服务,作 为对这次协助的报答。 朋友唯一能提供的真正服务,就是拿起一面镜子,让你看 见自己高贵的影像,使你鼓起勇气,坚持下去。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Should opportunity occur, it would give us great pleasure to be able to render you a similar service as the return for the assistant.

136 Consolidation Activities- Translation3 2. 世界经济处于危急状态,各国政府必须采取紧急措施应 对。 (desperate) desperate: adj. necessary VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar The world economy is in a desperate situation, so all governments must take desperate measures to cope with.

137 Consolidation Activities- Translation4 Practice : Translate the following sentences into English. 一个亡命之徒为了达到自己的目的什么事都做得出来。 在之后的危机环境下,政府愈加增发钞票。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar A desperate man will stop at nothing to get what he wants. In the desperate circumstances which followed, the government issued ever more notes.

138 Consolidation Activities- Translation5 3. 我花了很长的时间才开始感觉到对英语能运用自如。 (feel at home) If you feel at home in something, you are good at it, you can use it with great ease or it is under your disposal. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar It was a long time before I began to feel at home in English.

139 Although I’ve never worked for a bank before, I feel quite at home there. Practice : Translate the following sentences into English. 西德维尔很快就在球队找到了熟悉的感觉,在这里他找到了 很多朋友。 为了使这里更像家的感觉,他们把墙壁装饰了一通,还在 墙上写了一些格言。 Steve is already beginning to feel at home with his new team mates. He already knew a number of them. To make themselves feel more at home, they decorated the walls with sayings. 尽管我以前从未在银行工作过,但我觉得在银行工作非常 舒适自在。 Consolidation Activities- Translation6 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

140 Consolidation Activities- Translation7 4. 由于经济衰退,有些中小企业家可以说是债台高筑。 (so to speak) “So to speak” means to use a manner of speaking; figuratively speaking: We still don’t have our heads above water, so to speak. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Because of the financial recession, some of small- and medium-size enterprises are, so to speak, up to their necks in debt.

141 The history of mankind has been, so to speak, a freedom seeking and realizing history. Consolidation Activities- Translation8 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Practice : Translate the following sentences into English. 也可以说她过的是一种天真烂漫的生活。 可以说,人的一生都在追求美好的生活。 She was in a state of innocence, so to speak. The whole life, so to speak, is involved in the pursuit of good life. 人类社会的历史可以说就是人类不断追求和实现自由的历史。

142 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Dictation Fill in the blanks

143 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Dictation You will hear a passage read three times. At the first reading, you should listen carefully for its general idea. At the second reading, you are required to write down the exact words you have just heard (with proper punctuation). At the third reading, you should check what you have written down.

144 Dictation It is simple enough to say / that since books have classes / — fiction, biography, poetry / — we should separate them / and take from each what it is right / that each should give us. / Yet few people ask from books / what books can give us. / Most commonly we come to books / with blurred and divided minds, / asking of fiction that it shall be true, / of poetry that it shall be false, / of biography that it shall be flattering, / of history that it shall enforce our own prejudices. / If we could banish all such preconceptions when we read, / that would be an admirable beginning. / Do not dictate to your author: / try to become him. / Be his fellow- worker and accomplice. Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

145 The habit of reading is one of the greatest resources of mankind; we enjoy reading books that belong to us much more than if they are borrowed. A borrowed book is a (1) in the house; it must be treated with punctiliousness, with a (2) considerate formality. You must see that it sustains no (3) ; it must not suffer while under your roof. You cannot leave it carelessly, you cannot make it, you cannot turn down the (4), you cannot use it familiarly. And then, some day, (5) this is seldom done, you really ought to return it. Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills Fill in each blank in the passage below with ONE word you think appropriate. guest ______ certain ________ damage ________ pages _______ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar although __________

146 But your own books belong to you; you treat them with that affectionate (6) that annihilates formality. Books are for use, not for show; you should own no book that you are afraid to (7) up, or afraid to place on the table, wide open and face down. A good reason for marking favorite pages in books is that this (8) enables you to remember more easily the significant sayings, to refer to them quickly, and then in late years, it is like visiting a forest (9) you once blazed a trail. You have the pleasure of going over the old ground, and recalling both the intellectual scenery and your own (10) self. Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar intimacy __________ mark ______ practice __________ where _______ earlier ________

147 The habit of reading is one of the greatest resources of mankind; we enjoy reading books that belong to us much more than if they are borrowed. A borrowed book is a (1) in the house; it must be treated with punctiliousness, with a (2) considerate formality. You must see that it sustains no (3) ; it must not suffer while under your roof. You cannot leave it carelessly, you cannot make it, you cannot turn down the (4), you cannot use it familiarly. And then, some day, (5) this is seldom done, you really ought to return it. guest ______ certain ________ damage ________ pages _______ although __________ Consolidation Activities- Hints 1 Here you can use a word meaning “someone new to a place”. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

148 The habit of reading is one of the greatest resources of mankind; we enjoy reading books that belong to us much more than if they are borrowed. A borrowed book is a (1) in the house; it must be treated with punctiliousness, with a (2) considerate formality. You must see that it sustains no (3) ; it must not suffer while under your roof. You cannot leave it carelessly, you cannot make it, you cannot turn down the (4), you cannot use it familiarly. And then, some day, (5) this is seldom done, you really ought to return it. guest ______ certain ________ damage ________ pages _______ although __________ Consolidation Activities- Hints 2 Here you can use a word meaning “a certain amount of”. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

149 The habit of reading is one of the greatest resources of mankind; we enjoy reading books that belong to us much more than if they are borrowed. A borrowed book is a (1) in the house; it must be treated with punctiliousness, with a (2) considerate formality. You must see that it sustains no (3) ; it must not suffer while under your roof. You cannot leave it carelessly, you cannot make it, you cannot turn down the (4), you cannot use it familiarly. And then, some day, (5) this is seldom done, you really ought to return it. guest ______ certain ________ damage ________ pages _______ although __________ Consolidation Activities- Hints 3 The book deserves good care and no ruins. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

150 The habit of reading is one of the greatest resources of mankind; we enjoy reading books that belong to us much more than if they are borrowed. A borrowed book is a (1) in the house; it must be treated with punctiliousness, with a (2) considerate formality. You must see that it sustains no (3) ; it must not suffer while under your roof. You cannot leave it carelessly, you cannot make it, you cannot turn down the (4), you cannot use it familiarly. And then, some day, (5) this is seldom done, you really ought to return it. guest ______ certain ________ damage ________ pages _______ although __________ Consolidation Activities- Hints 4 The book is read page by page. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

151 The habit of reading is one of the greatest resources of mankind; we enjoy reading books that belong to us much more than if they are borrowed. A borrowed book is a (1) in the house; it must be treated with punctiliousness, with a (2) considerate formality. You must see that it sustains no (3) ; it must not suffer while under your roof. You cannot leave it carelessly, you cannot make it, you cannot turn down the (4), you cannot use it familiarly. And then, some day, (5) this is seldom done, you really ought to return it. guest ______ certain ________ damage ________ pages _______ although __________ Consolidation Activities- Hints 5 Here you can use a word meaning “despite”. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

152 But your own books belong to you; you treat them with that affectionate (6) that annihilates formality. Books are for use, not for show; you should own no book that you are afraid to (7) up, or afraid to place on the table, wide open and face down. A good reason for marking favorite pages in books is that this (8) enables you to remember more easily the significant sayings, to refer to them quickly, and then in late years, it is like visiting a forest (9) you once blazed a trail. You have the pleasure of going over the old ground, and recalling both the intellectual scenery and your own (10) self. intimacy __________ mark ______ practice __________ where _______ earlier ________ Consolidation Activities- Hints 6 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Here you can use a word meaning “close tie”.

153 But your own books belong to you; you treat them with that affectionate (6) that annihilates formality. Books are for use, not for show; you should own no book that you are afraid to (7) up, or afraid to place on the table, wide open and face down. A good reason for marking favorite pages in books is that this (8) enables you to remember more easily the significant sayings, to refer to them quickly, and then in late years, it is like visiting a forest (9) you once blazed a trail. You have the pleasure of going over the old ground, and recalling both the intellectual scenery and your own (10) self. intimacy __________ mark ______ practice __________ where _______ earlier ________ Consolidation Activities- Hints 7 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar You may write on the book.

154 But your own books belong to you; you treat them with that affectionate (6) that annihilates formality. Books are for use, not for show; you should own no book that you are afraid to (7) up, or afraid to place on the table, wide open and face down. A good reason for marking favorite pages in books is that this (8) enables you to remember more easily the significant sayings, to refer to them quickly, and then in late years, it is like visiting a forest (9) you once blazed a trail. You have the pleasure of going over the old ground, and recalling both the intellectual scenery and your own (10) self. intimacy __________ mark ______ practice __________ where _______ earlier ________ Consolidation Activities- Hints 8 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Here you can use a word meaning “behavior”.

155 But your own books belong to you; you treat them with that affectionate (6) that annihilates formality. Books are for use, not for show; you should own no book that you are afraid to (7) up, or afraid to place on the table, wide open and face down. A good reason for marking favorite pages in books is that this (8) enables you to remember more easily the significant sayings, to refer to them quickly, and then in late years, it is like visiting a forest (9) you once blazed a trail. You have the pleasure of going over the old ground, and recalling both the intellectual scenery and your own (10) self. intimacy __________ mark ______ practice __________ where _______ earlier ________ Consolidation Activities- Hints 9 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Here you can use a word to lead an attributive clause.

156 But your own books belong to you; you treat them with that affectionate (6) that annihilates formality. Books are for use, not for show; you should own no book that you are afraid to (7) up, or afraid to place on the table, wide open and face down. A good reason for marking favorite pages in books is that this (8) enables you to remember more easily the significant sayings, to refer to them quickly, and then in late years, it is like visiting a forest (9) you once blazed a trail. You have the pleasure of going over the old ground, and recalling both the intellectual scenery and your own (10) self. intimacy __________ mark ______ practice __________ where _______ earlier ________ Consolidation Activities- Hints 10 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Here you can use a word meaning “previous”.

157 Consolidation Activities- Oral activities VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Giving a talk Having a discussion

158 Consolidation Activities- Oral activities Giving a talk Imagine yourself to be the seven-year-old Pearl Buck, living in a place south of the Yangtze River. Suppose one day you have spent the whole day with the local people. Tell what you saw, heard, and did, basing your talk on the content of the second paragraph. You could probably begin your talk with “My dad and mom are busy, very, very busy. They have no time to spend on me. So I often walk out and wander along the river, sometimes for one or two hours, sometimes for a half or even a whole day. Now let me share with you what I saw, heard and did today.” VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

159 Consolidation Activities- For your reference1 You may use the following words or expressions in your talk: For your reference: VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar solitary, rice fields, deep and treacherous and golden river, muddy fats, huge four-square nets, moving yellow flood, flashing, silver fish, villages of boat folk, shallower waters, threshing, rice and cabbage at meal time, answer careless questions, kind teasing laughter, alien.

160 Consolidation Activities- Oral activities Having a discussion As English majors, you must have read Charles Dickens either in the original or in Chinese, or have seen a movie or a TV play based on one of his novels, or at least have heard about him and his major novels. Have a discussion in groups of five or six, sharing information with your fellow students about Charles Dickens and his works. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

161 For your reference: ● I like Dickens’ quotes very much. For example, “Love makes the world go round.” “Industry is the soul of business and the keystone of prosperity.” “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times; it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness; it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity; it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness; it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair; we had everything before us, we had nothing before us; we were all going directly to Heaven, we were all going the other way.” Consolidation Activities- For your reference1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

162 ● I like Hard Times very much. It was written specifically to challenge the prevailing view of his society, that is, practicality and facts were more important than feelings and persons. In this novel, Dickens despised the ruthlessness in business and public educational systems. He laid part of the charge for the heartlessness of Englishmen under the utilitarian philosophy. He taught me to despise money grubbing and to sympathize with the poor and innocent people. Consolidation Activities- For your reference2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

163 ● I think Dickens’ most novels were written based on his personal experience. You see, he was born in Portsmouth to a clerk. When he was young, his father was imprisoned in the prison for debtors and at age twelve he began working in a blacking warehouse. It was a miserable time for the young Dickens, and its themes recur frequently in his novels, and the mistreatment of children and child labor are common subjects. Consolidation Activities- For your reference3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

164 Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Misplaced modifiers Practice

165 Consolidation Activities- Writing Misplaced Modifiers The meaning of English sentences depends largely on word order. The modifiers, whether they are single words, phrases, or clauses should point clearly to the words they modify. A misplaced modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that is improperly separated from the word it modifies or describes. Because of the separation, sentences with this error often sound awkward, ridiculous, or confusing. Furthermore, they can be downright illogical. Generally speaking, misplaced modifiers may fall into the following several categories. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

166 Example: Misplaced: Only owls can see in the darkness. [Other animals cannot see in the darkness.] Clear: Owls can see only in the darkness. [Owls cannot see in daytime.] Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar A. Misplaced limiting adverbs In standard written English, limiting modifiers, such as almost, even, hardly, just, nearly, merely, only, scarcely, simply etc., restrict or limit the meaning of the words they modify. They are usually placed immediately before the words they modify. The moving of such modifiers can change the meaning of a sentence.

167 Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar B. Misplaced phrases Phrases can appear at the beginning of a sentence, inside a sentence, or at the end. But we should be careful that they modify only what we intend them to modify. Example: Misplaced: In utter despair we could imagine what a man would do. [We are in despair.] Clear: We could imagine what a man in utter despair would do. [A man is in despair.]

168 Example: Misplaced: The customer sent back the food to the cook that was spoiled. [The cook was spoiled.] Clear: The customer sent back to the cook the food that was spoiled. [The food was spoiled.] Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar C. Misplaced clauses Adjective clauses usually come immediately after the noun they modify. When they are placed otherwise, the sentence may sound awkward, and its meaning may be obscure.

169 Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar D. Squinting modifiers Squinting modifiers refer to those that may be understood to modify either a preceding word or a following one, leaving the reader uncertain about what it is intended to modify. A modifier can modify only one grammatical element in a sentence. It cannot serve two elements at once.

170 Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Example: Squinting: The teacher said on Monday she will return our essays. [Did the teacher say on Monday or would she return the essays on Monday?] Clear: On Monday the teacher said that she will return our essays. [She said on Monday.] The teacher said that she will return our essays on Monday. [She would return the essay on Monday.]

171 Example: Awkward: You should now begin to, if you wish to pass the exam, work harder. Improved: If you wish to pass the exam, you should now begin to work harder. Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar E. Awkward splitting of verb phrases A verb phrase consists of an auxiliary plus a main verb, as in will call, was going, had been writing. Such phrases constitute close grammatical units. We regularly insert single-word adverbs in them without causing awkwardness: Jane had almost completed her assignment. But when longer word groups interrupt verb phrases, the result is almost always awkward.

172 Consolidation Activities- Writing Practice Each of the following sentences contains a misplaced modifier. Put it in the right place. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Revised: Tonight, he said he’d call me. / He said he’d call me tonight. Tonight is a squinting modifier. It is not clear whether he said tonight or he would call me tonight. 1. He said tonight he’d call me.

173 Consolidation Activities- Writing 2. Dancing joyfully on the lawn, the mother found her kids. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Revised: The mother found her kids dancing joyfully on the lawn. Dancing is misplaced. It is the kids instead of the mother who are dancing.

174 Consolidation Activities- Writing 3. Professor Brown taught a class on modern films that the students enjoyed. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Revised: The students enjoyed Professor Brown’s class on modern films. That clause is misplaced. Students enjoyed the class instead of the films.

175 Consolidation Activities- Writing 4. A more challenging, as we see it, curriculum could be offered. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Revised: As we see it, a more challenging curriculum could be offered. The phrase challenging curriculum is separated awkwardly.

176 Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening 5. The young man needs someone to guide him onto the right path badly. Revised: The young man badly needs someone to guide him onto the right path. The adverb badly should be placed immediately before the word it modifies.

177 Consolidation Activities- Listening VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Attraction of a Bookshop Listen to the following passage and supply the missing information. Time spent in a bookshop can be most enjoyable, whether you are a book-lover or merely you are there to. You may even have entered the shop just to a sudden shower. Whatever the reason, you can soon become totally. The desire to pick up a book with an attractive dust jacket is irresistible, although this ought not to be followed, as you might end up with. buy a book as a present __________________________ find shelter from ___________________ unaware of your surroundings ___________________ ______________ method of selection ______________________ a rather dull book ____________________

178 You soon become in some book or other, and usually it is only much later that you realize you have spent far too much time there and must to keep some — without buying a book, of course. This opportunity to of everyday life is, I think, the of a bookshop. There are not many places where it is possible to do this. You can such places. If it is a good shop, no assistant will approach you with, “Can I help you, sir?” You needn’t buy anything if you don’t want. In a bookshop an assistant should until you have finished browsing. Consolidation Activities- Listening VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar engrossed ___________ dash off _________ forgotten appointment _________________________ escape the realities ______________________ main attraction _________________ wander round _______________ to your heart’s content __________________________ the inevitable greeting ______ _____________________ remain in the background ____________________________

179 Consolidation Activities- Listening VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Then, and only then, are his services necessary. Of course you may want to find out where is, but when he has, the assistant should and look as if he is not interested in. You have to be careful not to be attracted by in a bookshop. It is very easy to enter the shop looking for a book and to come out carrying a copy of the. This sort of thing can be very dangerous. Apart from a huge account, you can waste a great deal of time wandering from section to section. a particular section _____________________ led you there _______________ retire carefully _________________ selling a single book ______________________ the variety of books ______________________ on ancient coins __________________ latest best-selling novel ___________________________ running up ____________

180 Time spent in a bookshop can be most enjoyable, whether you are a book-lover or merely you are there to buy a book as a present. You may even have entered the shop just to find shelter from a sudden shower. Whatever the reason, you can soon become totally unaware of your surroundings. The desire to pick up a book with an attractive dust jacket is irresistible, although this method of selection ought not to be followed, as you might end up with a rather dull book. Consolidation Activities- Script Attraction of a Bookshop VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

181 You soon become engrossed in some book or other, and usually it is only much later that you realize you have spent far too much time there and must dash off to keep some forgotten appointment — without buying a book, of course. This opportunity to escape the realities of everyday life is, I think, the main attraction of a bookshop. There are not many places where it is possible to do this. You can wander round such places to your heart’s content. If it is a good shop, no assistant will approach you with the inevitable greeting, “Can I help you, sir?” You needn’t buy anything if you don’t want. In a bookshop an assistant should remain in the background until you have finished browsing. Consolidation Activities- Script VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

182 Consolidation Activities- Script VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Then, and only then, are his services necessary. Of course you may want to find out where a particular section is, but when he has led you there, the assistant should retire carefully and look as if he is not interested in selling a single book. You have to be careful not to be attracted by the variety of books in a bookshop. It is very easy to enter the shop looking for a book on ancient coins and to come out carrying a copy of the latest best-selling novel. This sort of thing can be very dangerous. Apart from running up a huge account, you can waste a great deal of time wandering from section to section.

183 Section Five Further Enhancement Text IIMemorable quotes Lead-in questions Text Questions for discussion

184 Lead-in questions 1. What kind of books do you like to read most? 2. What do you think of “A book is a friend that will never turn its back upon us”? Lead-in questions Text IIMemorable quotes

185 A man may usually be known by the books he reads as well as by the company he keeps; for there is a companionship of books as well as of men; and one should always live in the best company, whether it be of books or of men. Companionship of Books Text1 Text IIMemorable quotes Samuel Smiles 1

186 A good book may be among the best of friends. It is the same today that it always was, and it will never change. It is the most patient and cheerful of companions. It does not turn its back upon us in times of adversity or distress. It always receives us with the same kindness; amusing and instructing us in youth, and comforting and consoling us in age. Men often discover their affinity to each other by the love they have each for a book — just as two persons sometimes discover a friend by the admiration which both have for a third. There is an old proverb, “Love me, love my dog.” But there is more wisdom in this, Text2 Text IIMemorable quotes 2 3

187 Text3 Text IIMemorable quotes “Love me, love my book.” The book is a truer and higher bond of union. Men can think, feel, and sympathize with each other through their favorite author. They live in him together, and he in them. “Books,” said Hazlitt, “wind into the heart; the poet’s verse slides in the current of our blood. We read them when young, we remember them when old. We feel that it has happened to ourselves. They are to be had very cheap and good. We breathe but the air of books.” 4

188 A good book is often the best urn of a life enshrining the best that life could think out; for the world of a man’s life is, for the most part, but the world of his thoughts. Thus the best books are treasuries of good words, the golden thoughts, which, remembered and cherished, become our constant companions and comforters. “They are never alone,” said Sir Philip Sidney, “that are accompanied by noble thoughts.” The good and true thought may in times of temptation be as an angel of mercy purifying and guarding the soul. It also enshrines the germs of action, for good words almost always inspire to good works. Text4 Text IIMemorable quotes 5 6

189 Books possess an essence of immortality. They are by far the most lasting products of human effort. Temples and statues decay, but books survive. Time is of no account with great thoughts, which are as fresh today as when they first passed through their author’s minds ages ago. What was then said and thought still speaks to us as vividly as ever from the printed page. The only effect of time has been to sift out the bad products; for nothing in literature can long survive but what is really good. Text5 Text IIMemorable quotes 7

190 Books introduce us into the best society; they bring us into the presence of the greatest minds that have ever lived. We hear what they said and did; we see them as if they were really alive; we sympathize with them, enjoy with them, grieve with them; their experience becomes ours, and we feel as if we were in a measure actors with them in the scenes which they describe. The great and good do not die even in this world. Embalmed in books, their spirits walk abroad. The book is a living voice. It is an intellect to which one listens. Hence we ever remain under the influence of the great men of old. The imperial intellects of the world are as much alive now as they were ages ago. Text6 Text IIMemorable quotes 8 9

191 Samuel Smiles 1 Text IIMemorable quotes Samuel Smiles ( ) was a Scottish author and reformer. Smiles is best known today as the writer of books praising virtues of self-help, and biographies praising the achievements of “heroic” engineers. Smiles’s self-help books have been cited as influential on the New Thought Movement in late 19th century America and England, and, in particular, on the career of the New Thought author Orison Swett Marden, who said that his early ambition had been to become “the Samuel Smiles of America.” Most of Smiles’s biographies were contained in the four-volume work, Lives of the Engineers, but he also wrote many other biographies. He selected the topics of his biographies as a means of emphasizing his

192 Samuel Smiles 2 Text IIMemorable quotes thesis of self-help. These works have come to exemplify Victorian values for the modern reader. He received some criticism in his own time from socialists because of his emphasis on individual achievement. He was a prolific author of books and articles.

193 … there is a companionship … Text IIMemorable quotes … there is a companionship of books as well as of men; … (Paragraph 1): There are some books you enjoy spending your time reading just as there are some people you enjoy spending time with; … companionship: when you are with someone you enjoy being with, and are not alone e.g. When Stan died, I missed his companionship. Mrs. Greene keeps dogs for companionship and security.

194 …, whether it be … Text IIMemorable quotes …, whether it be of books or of men. (Paragraph 1): … no matter whether the company should be that of books or that of men. Here the verb be is in the subjunctive. The subjunctive is a verb form or a set of verb forms in grammar, used in a few cases to express doubt, wishes, etc. In very formal language (e.g. legal documents), be is sometimes used after if and whatever. e.g. If any person be found guilty … … whatever be the reason

195 It does not turn its … Text IIMemorable quotes It does not turn its back upon us in times of adversity or distress. (Paragraph 2): It does not refuse to help us when we are in serious trouble or when we feel extremely unhappy. turn one’s back on: (often derog.) avoid; go away from, esp. when one should stay e.g. My explanation of the saying “A friend in need is a friend indeed” is that a person who never turns his/her back on you who are in need of help is a real friend.

196 Love me, love my … Text IIMemorable quotes Love me, love my dog. (Paragraph 3): If you love someone, you must accept everything about them, even their faults or weakness. This is a proverb similar in meaning to the Chinese saying “ 爱屋及乌 ”. And in the text, “ Love me, love my book” is the writer’s wise twist of the proverb to express his idea that true friends should cherish similar feelings about certain books.

197 The book is a truer … Text IIMemorable quotes The book is a truer and higher bond of union. (Paragraph 3): The book joins one person and his / her friends together by offering a means of “talking” with and understanding each other through their favorite author.

198 “Books,” said Hazlitt, “wind into the heart; the poet’s verse slides in the current of our blood. We read them when young, we remember them when old. We feel that it has happened to ourselves. They are to be had very cheap and good. We breathe but the air of books.” (Paragraph 4): In Hazlitt’s opinion, good books gradually gain our love and trust; the poet’s verse produces a surprisingly emotional effect on us without our conscious realization. Good books always appeal to us: we enjoy reading them in our youth and we maintain their noble ideas in our old age. We feel that the problems of people we meet in books are like our own. Books can be easily obtained and they express everlasting truth. We get the fullest possible value from what we read. “Books,” said Hazlitt … Text IIMemorable quotes

199 A good book is often … Text IIMemorable quotes A good book is often the best urn of a life enshrining the best that life could think out; … (Paragraph 5): A good book preserves and exposes us to broad human values and wisdom of human civilization. If a tradition, right, etc. is enshrined in something, it is preserved and protected so that people will remember and respect it. e.g. The right of free speech is enshrined in the Constitution. Memories of happier days were enshrined in the old man’s heart.

200 “They are never alone,” … Text IIMemorable quotes “They are never alone,” said Sir Philip Sidney, “that are accompanied by noble thoughts.” (Paragraph 5): Sir Philip Sidney believed that those that are enjoying morally wor- thy ideas never feel lonely.

201 The good and true … Text IIMemorable quotes The good and true thought may in times of temptation be as an angel of mercy purifying and guarding the soul. (Paragraph 6): The good and true thought may help one to know all about good and evil or right and wrong, remove evil from one’s soul, and guide one’s behavior. temptation: a strong desire to have or do something even though you know you should not e.g. She thought of taking a day off work, but resisted the temptation. I finally gave in to the temptation and had a cigarette.

202 It also enshrines … Text IIMemorable quotes It also enshrines the germs of action, … (Paragraph 6): It is also a source of inspiration for good works, … The germ of an idea, theory, feeling, etc. is the early stage of an idea, theory, feeling, etc. that may develop into something bigger and more important. e.g.The germ of a story began to form in his mind.

203 Books possess an essence …. Text IIMemorable quotes Books possess an essence of immortality. (Paragraph 7): Books boast an eternal life, i.e. they will be passed on from generation to generation.

204 Time is of no … Text IIMemorable quotes Time is of no account with great thoughts, … (Paragraph 7): Good books are beyond time and place, … of great/no account: of great/no importance e.g.His opinion is of no account in my research.

205 Books introduce us … Text IIMemorable quotes Books introduce us into the best society; they bring us into the presence of the greatest minds that have ever lived. (Paragraph 8): Books usher us into the best society, where we find ourselves in front of the most important thinkers, people of letters, philosophers, etc. that have ever lived in this world.

206 … as if we were … Text IIMemorable quotes … as if we were in a measure actors with them in the scenes which they describe. (Paragraph 8): … as though we played various roles, to some degree, with the writers in the scenes they depict. in a measure: to a degree e.g. Drunkenness is in a measure responsible for traffic accidents.

207 Embalmed in books … Text IIMemorable quotes Embalmed in books, their spirits walk abroad. (Paragraph 9): Preserved in their books, authors can still speak to us after death. abroad: over a wide area; everywhere e.g. Corporations do not want their commercial secrets spread abroad.

208 The imperial intellects … Text IIMemorable quotes The imperial intellects of the world are as much alive now as they were ages ago. (Paragraph 9): Great thoughts of the world gain everlasting power and authority, appealing to readers of all generations.

209 Questions for discussion Questions for discussion1 1. Why is a good book the most patient and cheerful of companions? A good book offers the reader a means of communication with the author, we find pleasure in learning about life and possible solutions to our problems in a good book. Through it, we sometimes understand situations which are hard to understand in real life. Text IIMemorable quotes

210 Questions for discussion Questions for discussion2 Text IIMemorable quotes 2. What are the essential qualities of a good book? Good books beyond time and place expose us to the accumulated wisdom of human civilization. They see into the very depths of our souls and guide our behavior. They point out evils in society and challenge us to seek social or political reforms. They express feelings that people anywhere might have at any time and provide knowledge about unfamiliar subjects or give new insights into familiar ones.

211 Questions for discussion Questions for discussion3 Text IIMemorable quotes 3. How does the good and true thought act as an angel of mercy? It may help to purify and exalt one’s narrow, selfish and petty personal aims of life into a noble and meaningful purpose of life. 4. Why are good works immortal? Good work speak to us about broad human values besides the meaningful words and phrases used. These values are universal and have a far-reaching impression.

212 Questions for discussion Questions for discussion4 Text IIMemorable quotes 5. According to the author, what is the ultimate goal of reading a good book? The ultimate goal of reading a good book is to be able to understand it, to evaluate it, and to use it for one’s needs. A good book expand our experiences and abilities and to find new interests.

213 Guidance: Art has not always been what we think it is today. An object regarded as art today may not have been perceived as such when it was first made, nor was the person who made it necessarily regarded as an artist. Art may be described as the use of skill and imagination in the creation of aesthetic objects, environments, or experiences — rather than what it is i.e. “work of art” It is difficult to define art, while as a matter of fact art plays a large part in making our lives infinitely rich. Memorable Quotes Read the following quotes and find out what do they have in common regarding “art”. Text IIMemorable quotes

214 Memorable Quotes Text IIMemorable quotes Friedrich von Schiller (1759 – 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, historian and playwright. Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (1839 – 1881) was an innovator of Russian music in the romantic period.

215 e.g. He got the offer from P&G and Unilever; he prefer the former over the latter. Memorable Quotes 1. Art is the right hand of nature. The latter only gave us being, but the former made us men. — Friedrich von Schiller Text IIMemorable quotes Art is the right hand of nature. Nature only gave us the body, while art gave us spirit and then we became men with thought. the former … the latter: being the first of the two mentioned … being the second of the two mentioned

216 Art is created not for the art itself, but for acting as a way to communicate with people. address: to speak to sb. directly Memorable Quotes Text IIMemorable quotes 2. Art is not an end in itself, but a means of addressing humanity. — M.P. Mousorgsky e.g. President Obama addresses the nation on education reform.

217 Notation type here


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