4Leadership DefinedInterpersonal influence directed through communication toward goal attainmentAn act that causes others to act or respond in a shared directionThe principle dynamic force that motivates and coordinates the organization in the accomplishment of its objectivesA willingness to take blame (as defined by legendary football quarterback Joe Montana)
5Leadership as a Partnership Leadership is regarded as a long-term relationship, or partnership, where the leader and the group members are connected in such a way that the power between them is balanced
6Four Things Are Needed Exchange of purpose A right to say no Joint accountabilityAbsolute honesty
7Management Management is more formal and scientific than leadership Management relies on universal skillsManagement is a set of explicit tools and techniquesManagement is based on reasoning and testingManagement involves the functional or administrative aspects of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling
8LeadershipLeadership deals with the interpersonal aspects of a manager’s jobLeadership involves having a vision of what an organization can becomeLeadership requires eliciting cooperation and teamworkLeadership produces change, often to a dramatic degreeA leader creates a vision to direct the organization
10Leadership Matters The results of one study showed transactional leadership was not significantly related to performancecharismatic leadership was slightly, positively related to performancein an uncertain environment, charismatic leadership was more strongly related to performance
12The Impact of Leadership Leadership does make a differenceResearch from Michael MaccobySouthwest AirlinesStudies of senior managersAttribution theory – the process of attributing causality to events
13The Impact of Leadership Formal leadership does not make a differenceLeadership has a smaller impact on outcomes than do forces in the situationThere are three major arguments against the importance of leadershipsubstitutes for leadershipleadership irrelevancecomplexity theory
14Substitutes for Leadership Closely knit teams of highly trained individualsIntrinsic satisfactionComputer technologyProfessional normsSubstitutes for leadershipand leadership function
15Leader IrrelevanceFactors outside the leader’s control have a larger impact on business than do leadership actionsLeaders have unilateral control over a only a few resourcesFirms choose leaders whose values are compatible with those of the firm
16Complexity TheoryHolds that organizations are complex systems that cannot be explained by the usual rules of natureLeaders and managers can do little to change the course of the systemManagers cannot predict which business strategies or product mixes will surviveManagers can only scramble or innovate in order to adapt to outside forces
17Leadership RolesResearch has identified nine roles that can be classified as part of the leadership function of management:Figurehead Team BuilderSpokesperson Team PlayerNegotiator CoachEntrepreneur Strategic PlannerTechnical Problem Solver
18Satisfactions of Leaders A feeling of power and prestigeA chance to help others grow and developHigh incomeRespect and statusA feeling of “being in on” thingsAn opportunity to control money and other resources
19Dissatisfactions and Frustrations of Leaders Too much uncompensated overtimeToo many “headaches”Not enough authorityLonelinessToo many problems involving peopleToo much organizational politicsThe pursuit of conflicting goals
20A Framework for Understanding Leadership The leadership framework can be expressed in terms of a simple formula:L = f (l, gm, s)The formula shows that the leadership process is a function of the leader, group members, and other situational variables
22Leadership Effectiveness Leadership effectiveness refers to attaining desirable outcomes such as productivity, quality, and satisfaction in a given situationWhether or not the leader is effective depends on four sets of variables
23Skill Development in Leadership Leadership skills are in high demandLeadership skills are listed as the top attributes executives are seeking in candidates for management jobsDeveloping leadership skills is more complex than developing structured skills and can be acquired, using a general learning model
24Essential Qualities of Effective Followers Self-managementCommitmentCompetence and focusCourage
25Traits, Motives, and Characteristics of Leaders Chapter TwoTraits, Motives, and Characteristics of Leaders
26Universal Theory of Leadership Certain leadership traits are universally important; that is, they apply in all situations
29Personality Traits of Effective Leaders General personality traitsTask-related personality traits
30Strengths and Limitations of the Trait Approach STRENGHTSLeaders possess personal characteristics that differ from non leaders.Concentrate on selecting leaders with certain characteristics.LIMITATIONSDoes not tell us which traits are needed in which situation.Do not know how much of a trait is the right amount.
38The WICS Model of Leadership in Organizations This model of leadership encompasses and synthesizeswisdomintelligence, andcreativityto explain leadership effectiveness
39The Influence of Heredity and Environment on Leadership Does heredity or environment contribute more to leadership effectiveness?Are leaders born or made?Do you have to have the right stuff to be a leader?
40Nature versus Nurture Are leaders born or are they made? Both. Individuals inherit a basic capacity to develop personality traits and mental ability that sets an outer limit on how extensively these traits can be developedEnvironmental influences, in turn, determine how much of an individual’s potential will be developed
41SummaryThe universal theory of leadership asserts that certain personality traits, leader motives, and cognitive factors contribute to leadership effectivenessPersonality traits include both general traits and task-related traitsLeaders can often be distinguished by their needs or motives
42Summary (cont’d) Mental ability is important for leadership success Traits, motives, and characteristics required for leadership are a combination of heredity and environmentTraits do appear to distinguish leaders from nonleaders and effective leaders from less-effective leaders
43Charismatic and Transformational Leadership Chapter ThreeCharismatic and Transformational Leadership
44Charisma Defined Charisma has been defined various ways Charisma is a Greek word meaning “divinely inspired gift”In leadership, charisma is a special quality of leaders whose purposes, powers, and extraordinary determination differentiate them from others
46Charisma: A Relationship Between the Leader and Group Members Key to charismatic leadership is the interaction between leader and group membersCharismatic qualities must be attributed to the leader by group membersCharismatic leaders use impression management to cultivate their relationships with group members
47The Effects of Charisma Group memberstrust the leader’s beliefshave beliefs similar to those of the leaderaccept the leader unquestioninglyhave affection for the leaderwillingly obey the leaderidentify with and attempt to emulate the leader
48The Effects of Charisma (cont’d) Group membershave emotional involvement in the missionhave heightened goalsfeel that they will be able to accomplish, or to contribute to the accomplishment of the mission
50Types of Charismatic Leaders (cont’d) Office-holder charismatics attain their charisma from the position they holdPersonal charismatics gain esteem from others’ faith in them as peopleDivine charismatics are endowed with a gift of divine grace
51Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders VisionaryMasterful communication skillsAbility to inspire trustAble to make group members feel capableEnergy and action orientationEmotional expressiveness and warmthRomanticize riskUnconventional strategiesSelf-promoting personalityDramatic and unique
52Vision in Charismatic Leadership Vision is the ability to imagine different and better conditions and ways to achieve themA vision is a lofty, long-term goalCharismatic leaders inspire others with their vision
53Communication Management by Inspiration Management by Anecdote Using metaphors and analogies to appeal to the intellect, imagination, and values of group membersGearing language to different audiencesManagement by AnecdoteInspiring and instructing team members by telling fascinating stories
54Techniques for Developing Charisma Create visions for othersBe enthusiastic, optimistic, and energeticBe sensibly persistentRemember names of peopleMake an impressive appearanceBe candidDisplay an in-your-face attitude
55The Development of Charisma Developing some of the traits, characteristics, and behaviors of charismatic people, a person can increase his or her charisma, such as:Create visions for othersBe enthusiasticBeing persistentRemember names of people
56Development of Charisma Make an Impressive AppearanceBeing candidDisplay an In-Your-Face Attitude
57Transformational Leadership Investing managers with a sense of urgencyCommitting to greatnessAdopting a long-range perspective and concurrently observing organizational issues from a broad rather than a narrow perspective.
59Attributes of Transformational Leaders CharismaticCreate a visionEncourage the personal development of their staffProvide supportive leadershipPractice empowermentInnovative thinkingLead by example
60Four qualities of a Transformational Leader CharismaticInspirational leadershipIntellectual stimulationIndividualized consideration
61Transformational Leadership The transformational leader helps bring about major, positive changesTransformational leaders move group members beyond their self-interests for the good of the group, organization, or society
62Charismatic and Transformational Leadership Achieve a comprehensive understanding of the meaning and types of charismatic leaders.Describe many of the traits and behaviors of charismatic leaders.Explain the communication style of charismatic leaders.
63Concerns About Charismatic Leadership According to the concept of leadership polarity, leaders are often either revered or vastly unpopularCharisma may not be necessary for leadership effectivenessCharismatic leadership has a dark sideSome charismatic and transformational leaders neglect their social responsibility
64SummaryCharisma is a special quality of some leaders that differentiates them from othersCharismatic leaders often contribute to group members’ attributions of their charismatic qualities through impression managementThe effects of charismatic leadership can be organized into three dimensions: referent power, expert power, and job involvement
65Summary (cont’d)There are five types of charismatic leaders: socialized, personalized, office-holder, personal, and divineCharismatic and transformational leaders are able to articulate a vision in such a way as to inspire othersCharisma can be developedThere may be a dark side to charismatic leadership
66Leadership Behaviors, Attitudes, and Styles Chapter FourLeadership Behaviors, Attitudes, and Styles
67Ohio State University Studies Edwin A. FleishmanLeader Behavior Description QuestionnaireIdentified Two dimensionsInitiating StructureConsiderationOhio State University conducted a study into Leadership after World War II. This study was lead by Edwin A. Fleishman. The study identified 1800 specific examples of leadership behavior. The major thrust of the research was to ask team members to respond to a questionnaire designed rate their supervisors. The supervisors were also asked to rate themselves.During this time period right after WWII there was a great deal of interest in leadership but there was no satisfactory theory or definition of leadership factors. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire is famous for introducing two dimensions of leadership, that of initiating structure and consideration, which remain very much a constant in leadership studies even today.
68ConsiderationConsideration is the degree to which the leader creates an environment of emotional support, warmth, friendliness, and trust.
69Consideration The leader creates an environment by: Being friendly and approachableLooking out for the personal welfare of the groupKeeping the group abreast of new developmentsDoing small favors for the group
70ConsiderationLeaders who score high on the consideration factor are friendly, trustful, earn respect, and have a warm relationship with team members.Leaders with low scores on the consideration factor typically are authoritarian and impersonal in their relationships with group members.High scores on consideration identify a leader who uses the participative leadership style. While a low score indicates an autocratic leadership style. Leadership styles will be discussed in more detail in chapter 5.
71ConsiderationFive questionnaire items measuring the consideration factor are as follows:Do personal favors for people in the work group.Treat all people in the work group as your equal.Be willing to make changes.Back up what people under you do.Do little things to make it pleasant to be a member of the staff.
72Initiating Structure & Consideration An important output of research on initiating structure and consideration is to categorize leaders with respect to how much emphasis they place on the two dimensions.The two dimensions are not mutually exclusive.A leader can achieve high or low status on both dimensions.
73Initiating StructureInitiating structure is the degree to which the leader organizes and defines relationships in the group.Activities include assigning specific tasks, specifying procedures to be followed, scheduling work, and clarifying expectations of team members.Initiating structure is the degree to which leaders organizes and defines relationships in the group by activities such as assigning specific tasks, specifying procedures to be followed, scheduling work, and clarifying expectations of the team members.Basically it is how well the leader runs the team.I’m sure everyone has at one time or another been part of a team where the leader was disorganized. Maybe he/she was not specific on the goals of the team, or maybe he/she did not pay close attention to scheduling so that team meetings caused conflicts with other teams or departments. If you have experienced a team leader like this you will appreciate the initiating structure.
74Initiating StructureSelf-assessment items measuring initiating structure are as follows:Try out your own new ideas in the work group.Encourage the slow-working people in the group to work harder.Emphasize meeting deadlines.Meet with the group at regularly scheduled times.See to it that people in the work group are working up to capacity.These are ways that initiating structure can be measured in leaders.
75Initiating StructureLeaders who score high on the initiating structure dimension:Define the relationship between themselves and their staff members.Define the role that they expect each staff member to assume.Such leaders also endeavor to establish well-defined channels of communication and ways of getting the job done.Again these are examples of how a leader with a high degree of initiating structure keeps the team focused and on track.
76Initiating Structure & Consideration The two behaviors are viewed not as opposite ends of a continuum but as independent variables. Thus the leader can exhibit varying degrees of both initiating structure and consideration at the same time.
77Low------------------------------------ High Ohio State StudyHighLow HighLowLow StructureHigh ConsiderationHigh StructureLow ConsiderationConsiderationStructure6
78University of Michigan Studies Rensis LikertContrasted High & Low Producing UnitsTwo Key ApproachesProduction Centered LeadersEmployee Centered LeadersUnlike the Ohio Study, the University of Michigan study’s two behaviors lie at opposite ends of a continuum. Likert found that employee centered behavior generally tended to be more effective.
79Production Centered Leaders Production-centered leaders set tight work standards, organized tasks carefully, and prescribed the work methods to be followed.They also closely supervised the work of group members.The production centered leader could be considered a micromanager because of the way they prescribe the work methods and closely supervise the employees.
80Employee Centered Leaders Employee-centered leaders encouraged subordinate participation in goal setting and in other work decisions.They also helped to ensure high performance by engendering trust and mutual respect.These two university studies played an important role in the development of leadership theories.I will be followed by Mike who will discuss Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors.
81Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors Adaptability reflects a contingency viewpoint.A tactic is chosen based on the unique circumstances at hand.A leader who was responsible for psychologically immature group members would find it necessary to supervise them closely.If the group members were mature and self-reliant, they would require less supervision.Adaptability is a leadership behavior that includes attention to both task and interpersonal factors.
82Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors Since the function of leadership is to produce change, the leader must set the direction of that change.Setting the direction goes beyond planning, which is a management process designed to produce orderly results rather than change.Direction setting is part of creating a vision and strategy.The strategy describes a feasible way of achieving the vision.
83Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors Effective leaders consistently hold group members to high standards of performance.Setting such standards increases productivity.People tend to live up to the expectations set for them by superiors.This is called the Pygmalion effect, and it works in a subtle, almost unconscious wayWhen a managerial leader believes that a group member will succeed, the manager communicates this belief without realizing it.Conversely, when a leader expects a group member to fail, that person will not disappoint the manager.
84An Effective Leader… is one who helps group members attain productivity, including high quality and customer satisfaction.
86Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors Combined with risk taking, a bias for action is also an important leadership behavior.To bring about constructive change, the leader must take risks and be willing to implement these risky decisions.
87Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors The leader who provides hands-on guidance helps the group accomplish important tasks and, at the same time, group members learn important skills.Too much guidance of this nature, however, can be a symptom of poor delegation and micromanagement.
88Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors Giving group members frequent feedback on their performance is another vital leadership behavior.The leader can rarely influence the actions of group members without appropriate performance feedback.Feedback of this nature has two aspects.Group members are informed how well they are doing so that they can take corrective action if needed.Positive feedback serves as a reinforcer that prompts group members to continue favorable activities.
89Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors Stability of Performance: Effective leaders are steady performers, even under heavy workloads and uncertain conditions.Remaining steady under conditions of uncertainty contributes to effectiveness because it helps team members cope with the situation.When the leader remains calm, group members are reassured.Stability is helpful because it helps the managerial leader appear professional and cool under pressure.
90Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors A tough question is one that makes a person or group stop and think about why they are doing or not doing something.Group members are forced to think about the effectiveness of their activities.The beauty of a tough question is that it encourages people to ask themselves, “Why didn't I think of that? It seems so obvious.”
91Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors A strong customer orientation is natural in a consumer products business but can be equally important for an industrial company.Effective leaders are strongly interested in satisfying the needs of customers, clients, or constituents.This approach helps inspire employees to satisfy customers.
92Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors Alignment and Mobilization of PeopleGetting people pulling in the same direction and working together smoothly is more of a communications challenge than a problem of organization design.To get people pulling together, it is necessary to talk to more people than would be required in organizing.Alignment enables people to have a clear sense of direction because they are pursuing a vision.
93Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors A new concept of the leader's role, concert building, involves both aligning and mobilizing.The concert builder functions as an orchestra leader. His or her goal is to produce a system that is self-evaluating, self-correcting, self-renewing, and ongoing.The system can be thought of as a large modern orchestra.Professionals play quite different instruments and perform separate, and often very difficult, tasks.The work of each must be integrated with the work of others to make up the whole.
94Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors InspirationBased on surveys and focus groups, the Forum Group has identified five inspiring practices:Promoting the development of people's talentsRecognizing the contribution of othersEnabling others to feel like leadersStimulating others' thinkingBuilding enthusiasm about projects and assignmentsBeing inspired is an emotional process that is triggered by a variety of behaviors on the part of a leader.
95Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors Satisfaction of Human NeedsTo inspire people, effective leaders motivate people by satisfying higher-level needs.Motivation and inspiration energize people by satisfying needs for achievement, a sense of belonging, recognition, self-esteem, and a feeling of control over one's life.A strictly managerial rather than leadership-approach would be to push people in the right direction through control mechanisms.An example would be suspending people who did not achieve work quotas.
96Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors A major approach to making meaningful work for people is to formulate the right vision and strategy.Formulating a vision and strategy helps involve group members in goal accomplishment.Employees can also find meaning in their work if the leader employs a basic tactic such as explaining how a particular job helps the company or society.
97Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors Emotional Support & EncouragementSupportive behavior toward team members usually increases leadership effectiveness.A supportive leader gives frequent encouragement and praise.One of the many work-related ways of encouraging people is to allow them to participate in decision making.Emotional support generally improves morale and sometimes improves productivity.
98Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors Leader's help promote values and principles that contribute to the welfare of individuals and organizations.These deal directly with the emotions and attitudes of people, and indirectly with the task.Steven Covey, who is widely quoted for his uplifting messages, advises that an organization's mission statement must be for all good causes.Leaders who believe in these good causes will then espouse principles and values that lead people toward good deeds in the workplace.
99Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors A servant leader serves constituents by working on their behalf to help them achieve their goals, not the leader's own goals.The idea behind servant leadership, as formulated by Robert K. Greenleaf, is that leadership derives naturally from a commitment to service.Serving others, including employees, customers, and community, is the primary motivation for the servant leader.
100Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors A servant leader is a moral leader.Place service before self-interest.Listen first to express confidence in others.Inspire trust by being trustworthy.Focus on what is feasible to accomplish.Lend a hand.
101360-Degree FeedbackIn 360-degree feedback, a formal evaluation of superiors is based on input from people who work for and with them.Three hundred and sixty-degree feedback is also referred to as multisource feedback or multirater feedback.Three hundred and sixty-degree feedback is more frequently used for leadership and management development than for performance evaluation.
103Leadership StyleThe relatively consistent pattern of behavior that characterizes a leaderOften based on the dimensions of initiating structure and considerationExamples: “He’s a real command-and-control type,” “she’s a consensus leader.”
104Participative Leadership Participative leaders share decision making with group members (“trickle-up leadership”)Three subtypes:Consultative leaders confer with group membersConsensus leaders strive for consensus among group membersDemocratic leaders confer final authority to the group
105Leadership Grid Styles The Leadership Grid is a framework for specifying the extent of a leader’s concern for production and peopleBenchmark Leadership Grid styles include:Authority-Compliance (9,1)Country Club Management (1,9)Impoverished Management (1,1)Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5)Team Management (9,9)
106The Managerial Grid Concern for People Concern for Production 987654321Concern for PeopleConcern for Production(low)(high)The Managerial Grid1,9 pattern“Country club”environment9,9 patternTeam management-the ideal style5,5 patternMiddle-of-the-roadmanagement9,1 patternTask management1,1 patternimpoverishedmanagement
107Entrepreneurial Leadership Characteristics Strong achievement drive and sensible risk-takingHigh degrees of enthusiasm and creativityTendency to act quickly when opportunity arisesConstant hurry combined with impatienceVisionary perspective
108Entrepreneurial Leadership Characteristics (cont’d) Dislike of hierarchy and bureaucracyPreference for dealing with external customersEye on the future
109Gender Differences in Leadership Style One researcher concluded that men tended toward a command-and-control style. In contrast, women tended toward a transformational style, relying heavily on interpersonal skills.While researchers found leadership style differences between men and women, on the dimension of overall effectiveness, the sexes were perceived the same.
110Contingency and Situational Leadership Chapter FiveContingency and Situational Leadership
111Contingency ApproachLeaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces, including group member characteristics.
113Fiedler’s Contingency Theory The best style of leadership is determined by situational factorsLeadership style may be relationship-motivated or task-motivatedLeadership style is relatively enduring and difficult to changeLeaders should be matched to situations according to their style
114Figure 5-1 Summary of Findings From Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
115Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness This model holds that the best style of leadership is determined by the situation in which the leader is working.Classifies a manager's leadership style as relationship-motivated, task-motivated, or intermediate style (semi-independent).Once leaders understand their particular leadership style, they should work in situations that match their style.-Research conducted found that skills of small company CEO’s were centered on production oriented areas, and were stronger in measures of coping with difficulties and emergencies and in handling outside contracts-Research confirmed that the environment of the entrepreneur requires them to perform tasks that their Fortune 500 counterparts delegate to others-Large company CEO’s had better-developed interpersonal skills. Scored higher than the small company CEO’s in communications, developing group cooperation and teamwork, developing employee potential and supervisory practices; overall better measures in leadership and group participation.
116Measuring Leadership Style: The Least Preferred Coworker Scale LPC scale measures the degree to which a leader describes favorably or unfavorably their least preferred coworker (could work the least well with).Self Assessment Quiz 5-1Leadership style is a relatively permanent aspect of behavior and difficult to modify.-The organization should help managers match leadership styles and situations.
117Measuring Leadership Situation Theory classifies situations as high, moderate and low control.More control exercised by the leader, the more favorable the situation is for them.Control Classifications:Leader-member relationsTask StructurePosition PowerLeader member relations measures how well the group and the leader get along.Task structure measures how clearly the procedures, goals and evaluation of the job are defined.Position Power measures the leaders authority to hire, fire, discipline and grant salary increases.**The leader has the most control in situations in which their relationship with members is the best.
119The Leader-Match Concept and Overall Findings The effectiveness of leadership depends on matching leaders to situations in which they can exercise more control.Task-motivated leaders: perform best in situations of high and low control.These leaders perform best in situations highly favorable for exercising control since they can work on relationships and not the task.
120The Leader-Match Concept and Overall Findings Relationship-motivated: perform best in situations of moderate control.They can work well on relationships and not get involved in overmanaging.**Participative Leaders are needed in the presence of a situation with an unclear task, or dealing with unmotivated or an uncooperative group.Figure 6.1, p.153: Summary of findings on which the leader match concept is based.- Look first at Situational Characteristics at top;- Leader member relations can be good or poor- Task structure can be high or low- Position power may be strong or weak- Eight possible situations 1-8 and range from very favorable for exercising control to (1-3) to very unfavorable for exercising control (8).- Bottom show the leadership style most strongly associated with effective group performance in each situation.- Ex: Task motivated (Low LPC) leaders perform the best in situations of high control and low control- Relationship motivated (High LPC) performs the best when the situation gives the leader moderate control.- Sociodependent (Medium LPC) performs best in high control.
121Making the Situation More Favorable for the Leader Implication of theory is that the leader should modify situations to best match their leadership style; increasing their chances of being effective.-Means of displaying an interest in personal welfare of group members, having meals with them, actively listening to their concerns-Engaging in behaviors related to initiating structure, such as being more specific about expectations, deadlines, showing samples of acceptable work and providing written instructions-Requesting formal authority from higher mgmt, Ex: grant bonuses, recommendations for promotions
122Path Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness Developed by House, Robert: specifies what the leader must do to achieve high productivity and morals in a given situation.A leader attempts to clarify the path to a goal for a group member so that they receive personal payoffs.Job satisfaction and performance increase.
123Path Goal Theory of Leadership Characteristics of Group Member(Contingency Factors)Leadership StyleDirectiveSupportiveParticipativeAchievement OrientedOutcomesProductivityMoraleTo achieve productivity and morale, the leader chooses 1 of 4 leadership styles depending on the characteristics of group members and demands of the task.(Contingency Factors)Demands of the Task
124Matching the Leadership Style to the Situation DirectiveSupportiveParticipativeAchievement OrientedEnvironmental Factors: factors that are not within the control of group members but that influence satisfaction and task accomplishment.Leader chooses among four different leadership styles to achieve optimum results in a given situation.Two sets of contingency factors: types of subordinates and type of work they perform.-Means of displaying an interest in personal welfare of group members, having meals with them, actively listening to their concerns-Engaging in behaviors related to initiating structure, such as being more specific about expectations, deadlines, showing samples of acceptable work and providing written instructions-Requesting formal authority from higher mgmt, Ex: grant bonuses, recommendations for promotions-Supportive: leader displays concern for group member’s well being and creates an emotionally supportive climate. (Best suited for group members who are unsure of them)-Participative: leader consults with group members to obtain suggestions and takes the suggestions seriously when decision-making. (Best suited for improving morale of well-motivated employees who perform repetitive tasks.)-Achievement Oriented Style” leader sets challenging goals, pushes for work improvement, and sets high expectations for team members. (this style works well with those working on ambiguous and nonrepetitive tasks.)
125How The Leader Influences Performance Recognize or activate group members needs over which the leader has control.Increase personal payoffs to team members for attaining work goals.Make the path to rewards easier by coaching and providing direction.Help group members clarify expectations of how effort will lead to good performance and how performance leads to rewards.
126How The Leader Influences Performance Continued Don’t irritate people by instructing them on things they know.Provide structure if missing and supply rewards contingent on adequate performance.Reduce frustrating barriers to reaching goals.Increase opportunity for personal satisfaction if group member performs effectively.
127The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model The situational leadership model of Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchard explains how to match the leadership style to the readiness of the group members.Leadership style classified according to amount task and relationship behavior the leader engages in.
128Situational Leadership II (SLII) Developed by Kenneth H Situational Leadership II (SLII) Developed by Kenneth H. Blanchard and othersExplains how to match leadership style to the capabilities of group members on a given taskSLII is designed to increase the frequency and quality of conversations about performance and professional development between managers and group members so that competence is developed, commitment takes place, and turnover among talented workers is reduced
129Basics Of The ModelTask behavior is the extent in which the leader spells out the duties and responsibilities of an individual or group; includes giving directions and setting goals.Relationship behavior is the extent to which the leader engages in two-way or multiway communication.
130Style 1 High task and low relationship The "telling" style is very directive because the leader produces a lot of input but a minimum amount of relationship behavior.An autocratic leader would fit here.
131Style 2- High Task and High Relationship The "selling" style is very directive, but in a more persuasive, guiding manner.The leader provides considerable input about task accomplishment but also emphasizes human relations.
132Style 3- High Relationship and Low Task In the "participating" leadership style, there is less direction and more collaboration between leader and group members.The consultative and consensus subtypes of participative leader generally fit into this quadrant.
133Style 4- Low Relationship, Low Task In the "delegating" leadership style, the leader delegates responsibility for a task to a group member and is simply kept informed of progress.If carried to an extreme, this style would be classified as free-rein.
134Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Follower readiness: ability and willingnessLeader: decreasing need for support and supervision
135Situational Leadership Theory Readinessof FollowersBehaviorof LeadersUnable and UnwillingClear, Specific DirectionsUnable and WillingHigh Task OrientationAble and UnwillingSupport & ParticipationAble and WillingLet Followers PerformPrentice Hall, 2001Chapter 11
136Task Behavior (amount of guidance required) Situational Leadership TheoryHigh(amount of support required)Relationship BehaviorTask Behavior (amount of guidance required)Low(able to do job)(unable to do job)ParticipatingSupportingAble/UnwillingSellingCoachingUnable/WillingDelegatingAble/WillingTellingDirectingUnable/UnwillingLow
137RelationshipBehaviorS3Share Ideas and Facilitate in Decision Making: ParticipatingHigh Relationship, Low TaskS2Explain decisions and provide opportunity for clarification: SellingHigh Relationship, High TaskLow Relationship,Low TaskTurn over responsibility for decisions and implementation: DelegatingS4Low Relationship, High TaskProvide specific instructions and closely supervise performance: TellingS1HighLow Task Behavior High
138Follower Readiness High Moderate Low R4 Able and Willing R3 Able but unwillingR2Unable but willingR1Unable and unwilling-Readiness refers to the extent to which a group member has the ability and willingness or confidence to accomplish a specific task.-Two components to readiness:Ability: knowledge, experience, and skillWillingness: extent to which the individual or group has the confidence, commitment, and motivation to accomplish a specific task.As group member readiness increase, a leader should rely more on relationship behavior and less on task behavior.Follower DirectedLeader Directed
139Leadership Guidelines RelationshipBehaviorHighR3 Relationship-Low Task: Able but UnwillingHigh Relationship, Low taskR2 Relationship-Selling: Unable but WillingHigh Relationship, High TaskLow Relationship,Low TaskR4 Delegating Able and WillingLow Relationship, High TaskR1 Directive-autocratic: Unable and UnwillingLow Task Behavior High
140Evaluation of Situational Model Builds on other explanations of leadership that emphasize the role of task and relationship behaviors.Utilizes common sense and is intuitively appealing.In reality, leadership situations are less clear than 4 quadrants.Research evidence is mixed; model may hold for only certain types of employees.
141Normative Decision Model Published by Vroom, Yetton, and Jago in 1973 and 1988.Views leadership as a decision making process and specifies type of leadership for a given situation.
142Normative Decision Model Proper decision making style is determined using a decision tree analysis.Styles determined from analysis are:Autocratic I,II (decision by leader alone or with some info from group)Consultative I,II (decision by leader with input from one member or all members)Group II (group makes decision)
143Normative Decision Model Decision tree nodes prompt the following questions, in the order given:Is it an important decision (quality)?Is group commitment important?Do I have enough information?Is the problem structured (well-defined)?Can I make the decision alone and get ‘buy-in”?Does the group share same goals (goal congruence?Is group member conflict an issue?Does the group have enough info to make a decision?
144Cognitive Resource Model Published in 1987 by Fred Fiedler and Joseph Garcia.Theory relating stress and leader’s intelligence/experience.
145Cognitive Resource Model Leader experience more important in high stress situation.Low-stress situation: intelligence and innovation are more valuable trait in leaders.Intellectual leaders more effective if directive.And the obvious: Complex problems best suited for intellectual leaders.
146Research: How Top Level Executives Lead Farkas, Backer, and Wetlaufer published in 1996.Interviewed 163 top executives worldwide; 12,000 pgs. of interviews.
147Research: How Top Level Executives Lead Conclusion: CEO’s usually utilize all approaches, however usually have one dominant approach. Situation determines best approach.
148Crisis Leadership Attributes Be decisiveLead with compassionReestablish the usual work routineAvoid a circle-the-wagons mentalityDisplay optimismBe a transformational leader
149SummaryHersey-Blanchard: Practical in that group members are ‘diagnosed’ prior to choosing best style. Relatively easy concepts to interpret and use (leader behavior and follower readiness) Best choice of five!
150Leadership Ethics and Social Responsibility Chapter SixLeadership Ethics and Social Responsibility
151Ethics and MoralsEthics is the study of moral obligations, or of separating right from wrongEthics can also mean the accepted guidelines of behavior for groups or institutionsMorals are an individual’s determination of what is right or wrong and are influenced by an individual’s values
152Ethical Leadership Behaviors Be honest and trustworthy and have integrity in dealing with othersPay attention to all stakeholdersBuild communityRespect the individualAccomplish silent victories
154Factors Contributing to Ethical Differences Leader’s level of greed, gluttony, and avariceLeader’s level of moral developmentPreconventional levelConventional levelPostconventional levelSense of entitlementSituationCharacter
155Evaluating Ethics of a Decision Guidelines Is it right?Is it fair?Who gets hurt?Would you be comfortable if the details of your decision or actions were made public?What would you tell your child, sibling, or young relatives to do?How does it smell?
156Examples of Unethical Leaders (From Table 6-2) Frank P. Quattrone, former investment banker at CSFBSanjay Kumar, former CEO of Computer Associates International, Inc.Jeffrey Greenberg, CEO of Marsh & McClellan CompaniesKenneth Lay, former chairman and CEO of Enron
157Social Responsibility Having obligations to society beyond the company’s economic obligations to owners or stockholders and also beyond those prescribed by law or contractRelates to an organization’s impact on society and goes beyond doing what is ethical
158Examples of Socially Responsible Actions Creating a pleasant workplaceGuarding the environmentEngaging in philanthropyWorking with suppliers to improve working conditions
161Creating an Ethical and Socially Responsible Culture Providing strategic leadership of ethics and social responsibilityEstablishing written codes of ethical conductDeveloping formal mechanisms for dealing with ethical problemsAccepting whistleblowersProviding training in ethics and social responsibilityPlacing company interests over personal interests
162Ethics and Performance High ethics and social responsibility are related to good financial performanceThe relationship between social responsibility and financial performance may be a virtuous circle. Corporate social responsibility and corporate financial performance may feed and reinforce each other
163SummaryKey principles of ethical leadership include having honesty and integrity, paying attention to all stakeholders, building community, respecting the individual, and accomplishing silent victories
164Summary (cont’d)Three factors responsible for differences in ethics and morality include the leader’s level of greed, gluttony, and avarice, the leader’s level of moral development, and the situation
165Summary (cont’d)A leader or manager should seek answers to a series of important questions before reaching a decision about an issue that is not clearly ethical or unethicalUnethical behaviors have had detrimental effects on many companies
166Summary (cont’d)A leader can encourage ethical behavior by promoting social responsibilityEthical behavior is related to financial performance
167Power, Politics, and Leadership Chapter SevenPower, Politics, and Leadership
168Power, Empowerment, and Delegation Power is the potential or ability to influence decisions and control resources.
169Four Bases of Position Power Legitimate power is the lawful right to make a decision and expect complianceReward power stems from having the authority to give employees rewards for complianceCoercive power is the power to punish for noncomplianceInformation power stems from formal control over the information people need
170Sources of Personal Power Expert power is the ability to influence others through specialized knowledge, skills, or abilitiesReferent power is the ability to influence others through desirable traits and characteristicsPrestige power is power stemming from one’s status and reputation
171Sources and Types of Power Position PowerPersonal PowerPower Stemming from OwnershipPower Stemming from Providing ResourcesPower Derived from Capitalizing on OpportunityPower Stemming from Managing Critical ProblemsPower Stemming from being close to Power
172Ownership Power A leader’s strength of ownership power depends on how closely the leader is linked to shareholders and board membershow much money he or she has invested in the firm
173Power From Capitalizing on Opportunity Power can be derived from being in the right place at the right time and taking the appropriate actionIt pays to be “where the action is.”
174Power from Being Close to Power The closer a person is to power, the greater power he or she exertsThe higher a unit reports in a firm’s hierarchy, the more power it possesses
175Empowerment refers to passing decision-making authority and responsibility from management to group members.Delegation is the assignment of formal authority and responsibility for accomplishing a specific taskto another person.
176Empowerment… refers to passing decision-making authority and responsibility from managers to group members. Almost any form of participative management, shared decision making, and delegation can be regarded as empowerment.
178Tactics for becoming an Empowering Leader Foster Initiative and ResponsibilityLink work Activities to the Goals of the OrganizationProvide Ample InformationAllow Group Members to Choose MethodsEncourage Self-LeadershipImplement Team-Based HR PoliciesEstablish Limits to EmpowermentContinue to lead.
179Guidelines For Effective Delegation Assign duties to the right peopleDelegate the whole taskGive as much info as neededRetain some important tasks for yourselfObtain feedbackDelegate both pleasant and unpleasant tasksStep back from the detailsEvaluate and reward performance
180Contributing Factors to Organizational Politics Pyramid-shaped Organization StructureSubjective standards of performanceEnvironmental uncertainty and turbulenceEmotional insecuritiesMachiavellian tendenciesDisagreements that prevent rational decision making
181Ethical Political Tactics and Strategies Gaining PowerBuilding Relationships for Political PowerAvoiding Political Blunders
182Power-Gaining Strategies Develop power contactsControl vital informationStay informedControl lines of communicationBring in outside expertsMake a quick showingRemember that everyone expects to be paid backBe the first to accept reasonable changes
184Relationship-Building Strategies Display loyaltyManage your impressionAsk satisfied customers to contact your bossBe courteous, pleasant, and positiveAsk adviceSend thank-you notes to large numbers of peopleFlatter others sensibly
185Potential Political Blunders Criticizing the boss in a public forumBypassing the bossDeclining an offer from top managementPutting your foot in your mouthNot conforming to the company dress code
186Unethical Political Tactics and Strategies Back StabbingEmbrace or DemolishSetting a Person Up for FailureDivide and RulePlaying Territorial GamesCreating and Resolving a False Catastrophe
188Exercising Control Over Dysfunctional Politics Be aware of its causes and techniquesAvoid favoritismSet good examples at the top of the organizationEncourage goal congruenceThreaten to discuss questionable information in a public forumHire people with integrity