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The Nature and Importance of Leadership

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1 The Nature and Importance of Leadership
Chapter One The Nature and Importance of Leadership

2 The Meaning of Leadership
Leadership is the ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to achieve organizational goals


4 Leadership Defined Interpersonal influence directed through communication toward goal attainment An act that causes others to act or respond in a shared direction The principle dynamic force that motivates and coordinates the organization in the accomplishment of its objectives A willingness to take blame (as defined by legendary football quarterback Joe Montana)

5 Leadership as a Partnership
Leadership is regarded as a long-term relationship, or partnership, where the leader and the group members are connected in such a way that the power between them is balanced

6 Four Things Are Needed Exchange of purpose A right to say no
Joint accountability Absolute honesty

7 Management Management is more formal and scientific than leadership
Management relies on universal skills Management is a set of explicit tools and techniques Management is based on reasoning and testing Management involves the functional or administrative aspects of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling

8 Leadership Leadership deals with the interpersonal aspects of a manager’s job Leadership involves having a vision of what an organization can become Leadership requires eliciting cooperation and teamwork Leadership produces change, often to a dramatic degree A leader creates a vision to direct the organization

9 Leader Manager Visionary Passionate Creative Flexible Inspiring
Innovative Courageous Imaginative Experimental Independent Shares Knowledge Rational Consulting Persistent Problem solving Tough-minded Analytical Structured Deliberative Authoritative Stabilizing Centralizes knowledge

10 Leadership Matters The results of one study showed
transactional leadership was not significantly related to performance charismatic leadership was slightly, positively related to performance in an uncertain environment, charismatic leadership was more strongly related to performance


12 The Impact of Leadership
Leadership does make a difference Research from Michael Maccoby Southwest Airlines Studies of senior managers Attribution theory – the process of attributing causality to events

13 The Impact of Leadership
Formal leadership does not make a difference Leadership has a smaller impact on outcomes than do forces in the situation There are three major arguments against the importance of leadership substitutes for leadership leadership irrelevance complexity theory

14 Substitutes for Leadership
Closely knit teams of highly trained individuals Intrinsic satisfaction Computer technology Professional norms Substitutes for leadership and leadership function

15 Leader Irrelevance Factors outside the leader’s control have a larger impact on business than do leadership actions Leaders have unilateral control over a only a few resources Firms choose leaders whose values are compatible with those of the firm

16 Complexity Theory Holds that organizations are complex systems that cannot be explained by the usual rules of nature Leaders and managers can do little to change the course of the system Managers cannot predict which business strategies or product mixes will survive Managers can only scramble or innovate in order to adapt to outside forces

17 Leadership Roles Research has identified nine roles that can be classified as part of the leadership function of management: Figurehead Team Builder Spokesperson Team Player Negotiator Coach Entrepreneur Strategic Planner Technical Problem Solver

18 Satisfactions of Leaders
A feeling of power and prestige A chance to help others grow and develop High income Respect and status A feeling of “being in on” things An opportunity to control money and other resources

19 Dissatisfactions and Frustrations of Leaders
Too much uncompensated overtime Too many “headaches” Not enough authority Loneliness Too many problems involving people Too much organizational politics The pursuit of conflicting goals

20 A Framework for Understanding Leadership
The leadership framework can be expressed in terms of a simple formula: L = f (l, gm, s) The formula shows that the leadership process is a function of the leader, group members, and other situational variables

21 SOURCE: Managing Today. by Stephen P
SOURCE: Managing Today! by Stephen P. Robbins, © 1997 Reprinted by permission of Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J.

22 Leadership Effectiveness
Leadership effectiveness refers to attaining desirable outcomes such as productivity, quality, and satisfaction in a given situation Whether or not the leader is effective depends on four sets of variables

23 Skill Development in Leadership
Leadership skills are in high demand Leadership skills are listed as the top attributes executives are seeking in candidates for management jobs Developing leadership skills is more complex than developing structured skills and can be acquired, using a general learning model

24 Essential Qualities of Effective Followers
Self-management Commitment Competence and focus Courage

25 Traits, Motives, and Characteristics of Leaders
Chapter Two Traits, Motives, and Characteristics of Leaders

26 Universal Theory of Leadership
Certain leadership traits are universally important; that is, they apply in all situations


28 Leadership Characteristics Categories
Personality traits Motives Cognitive factors

29 Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
General personality traits Task-related personality traits

30 Strengths and Limitations of the Trait Approach
STRENGHTS Leaders possess personal characteristics that differ from non leaders. Concentrate on selecting leaders with certain characteristics. LIMITATIONS Does not tell us which traits are needed in which situation. Do not know how much of a trait is the right amount.

31 General personality traits

32 General Personality Traits of Effective Leaders

33 Task-Related personality traits

34 Emotional Intelligence
… refers to the ability to do such things as understand one’s feelings, have empathy for others, and regulate one’s emotions to enhance one’s quality of life.


36 Leadership Motives

37 Cognitive Factors and Leadership

38 The WICS Model of Leadership in Organizations
This model of leadership encompasses and synthesizes wisdom intelligence, and creativity to explain leadership effectiveness

39 The Influence of Heredity and Environment on Leadership
Does heredity or environment contribute more to leadership effectiveness? Are leaders born or made? Do you have to have the right stuff to be a leader?

40 Nature versus Nurture Are leaders born or are they made? Both.
Individuals inherit a basic capacity to develop personality traits and mental ability that sets an outer limit on how extensively these traits can be developed Environmental influences, in turn, determine how much of an individual’s potential will be developed

41 Summary The universal theory of leadership asserts that certain personality traits, leader motives, and cognitive factors contribute to leadership effectiveness Personality traits include both general traits and task-related traits Leaders can often be distinguished by their needs or motives

42 Summary (cont’d) Mental ability is important for leadership success
Traits, motives, and characteristics required for leadership are a combination of heredity and environment Traits do appear to distinguish leaders from nonleaders and effective leaders from less-effective leaders

43 Charismatic and Transformational Leadership
Chapter Three Charismatic and Transformational Leadership

44 Charisma Defined Charisma has been defined various ways
Charisma is a Greek word meaning “divinely inspired gift” In leadership, charisma is a special quality of leaders whose purposes, powers, and extraordinary determination differentiate them from others


46 Charisma: A Relationship Between the Leader and Group Members
Key to charismatic leadership is the interaction between leader and group members Charismatic qualities must be attributed to the leader by group members Charismatic leaders use impression management to cultivate their relationships with group members

47 The Effects of Charisma
Group members trust the leader’s beliefs have beliefs similar to those of the leader accept the leader unquestioningly have affection for the leader willingly obey the leader identify with and attempt to emulate the leader

48 The Effects of Charisma (cont’d)
Group members have emotional involvement in the mission have heightened goals feel that they will be able to accomplish, or to contribute to the accomplishment of the mission

49 Halpert’s Dimensions of Charisma

50 Types of Charismatic Leaders (cont’d)
Office-holder charismatics attain their charisma from the position they hold Personal charismatics gain esteem from others’ faith in them as people Divine charismatics are endowed with a gift of divine grace

51 Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders
Visionary Masterful communication skills Ability to inspire trust Able to make group members feel capable Energy and action orientation Emotional expressiveness and warmth Romanticize risk Unconventional strategies Self-promoting personality Dramatic and unique

52 Vision in Charismatic Leadership
Vision is the ability to imagine different and better conditions and ways to achieve them A vision is a lofty, long-term goal Charismatic leaders inspire others with their vision

53 Communication Management by Inspiration Management by Anecdote
Using metaphors and analogies to appeal to the intellect, imagination, and values of group members Gearing language to different audiences Management by Anecdote Inspiring and instructing team members by telling fascinating stories

54 Techniques for Developing Charisma
Create visions for others Be enthusiastic, optimistic, and energetic Be sensibly persistent Remember names of people Make an impressive appearance Be candid Display an in-your-face attitude

55 The Development of Charisma
Developing some of the traits, characteristics, and behaviors of charismatic people, a person can increase his or her charisma, such as: Create visions for others Be enthusiastic Being persistent Remember names of people

56 Development of Charisma
Make an Impressive Appearance Being candid Display an In-Your-Face Attitude

57 Transformational Leadership
Investing managers with a sense of urgency Committing to greatness Adopting a long-range perspective and concurrently observing organizational issues from a broad rather than a narrow perspective.

58 How Transformations Take Place

59 Attributes of Transformational Leaders
Charismatic Create a vision Encourage the personal development of their staff Provide supportive leadership Practice empowerment Innovative thinking Lead by example

60 Four qualities of a Transformational Leader
Charismatic Inspirational leadership Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration

61 Transformational Leadership
The transformational leader helps bring about major, positive changes Transformational leaders move group members beyond their self-interests for the good of the group, organization, or society

62 Charismatic and Transformational Leadership
Achieve a comprehensive understanding of the meaning and types of charismatic leaders. Describe many of the traits and behaviors of charismatic leaders. Explain the communication style of charismatic leaders.

63 Concerns About Charismatic Leadership
According to the concept of leadership polarity, leaders are often either revered or vastly unpopular Charisma may not be necessary for leadership effectiveness Charismatic leadership has a dark side Some charismatic and transformational leaders neglect their social responsibility

64 Summary Charisma is a special quality of some leaders that differentiates them from others Charismatic leaders often contribute to group members’ attributions of their charismatic qualities through impression management The effects of charismatic leadership can be organized into three dimensions: referent power, expert power, and job involvement

65 Summary (cont’d) There are five types of charismatic leaders: socialized, personalized, office-holder, personal, and divine Charismatic and transformational leaders are able to articulate a vision in such a way as to inspire others Charisma can be developed There may be a dark side to charismatic leadership

66 Leadership Behaviors, Attitudes, and Styles
Chapter Four Leadership Behaviors, Attitudes, and Styles

67 Ohio State University Studies
Edwin A. Fleishman Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire Identified Two dimensions Initiating Structure Consideration Ohio State University conducted a study into Leadership after World War II. This study was lead by Edwin A. Fleishman. The study identified 1800 specific examples of leadership behavior. The major thrust of the research was to ask team members to respond to a questionnaire designed rate their supervisors. The supervisors were also asked to rate themselves. During this time period right after WWII there was a great deal of interest in leadership but there was no satisfactory theory or definition of leadership factors. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire is famous for introducing two dimensions of leadership, that of initiating structure and consideration, which remain very much a constant in leadership studies even today.

68 Consideration Consideration is the degree to which the leader creates an environment of emotional support, warmth, friendliness, and trust.

69 Consideration The leader creates an environment by:
Being friendly and approachable Looking out for the personal welfare of the group Keeping the group abreast of new developments Doing small favors for the group

70 Consideration Leaders who score high on the consideration factor are friendly, trustful, earn respect, and have a warm relationship with team members. Leaders with low scores on the consideration factor typically are authoritarian and impersonal in their relationships with group members. High scores on consideration identify a leader who uses the participative leadership style. While a low score indicates an autocratic leadership style. Leadership styles will be discussed in more detail in chapter 5.

71 Consideration Five questionnaire items measuring the consideration factor are as follows: Do personal favors for people in the work group. Treat all people in the work group as your equal. Be willing to make changes. Back up what people under you do. Do little things to make it pleasant to be a member of the staff.

72 Initiating Structure & Consideration
An important output of research on initiating structure and consideration is to categorize leaders with respect to how much emphasis they place on the two dimensions. The two dimensions are not mutually exclusive. A leader can achieve high or low status on both dimensions.

73 Initiating Structure Initiating structure is the degree to which the leader organizes and defines relationships in the group. Activities include assigning specific tasks, specifying procedures to be followed, scheduling work, and clarifying expectations of team members. Initiating structure is the degree to which leaders organizes and defines relationships in the group by activities such as assigning specific tasks, specifying procedures to be followed, scheduling work, and clarifying expectations of the team members. Basically it is how well the leader runs the team. I’m sure everyone has at one time or another been part of a team where the leader was disorganized. Maybe he/she was not specific on the goals of the team, or maybe he/she did not pay close attention to scheduling so that team meetings caused conflicts with other teams or departments. If you have experienced a team leader like this you will appreciate the initiating structure.

74 Initiating Structure Self-assessment items measuring initiating structure are as follows: Try out your own new ideas in the work group. Encourage the slow-working people in the group to work harder. Emphasize meeting deadlines. Meet with the group at regularly scheduled times. See to it that people in the work group are working up to capacity. These are ways that initiating structure can be measured in leaders.

75 Initiating Structure Leaders who score high on the initiating structure dimension: Define the relationship between themselves and their staff members. Define the role that they expect each staff member to assume. Such leaders also endeavor to establish well-defined channels of communication and ways of getting the job done. Again these are examples of how a leader with a high degree of initiating structure keeps the team focused and on track.

76 Initiating Structure & Consideration
The two behaviors are viewed not as opposite ends of a continuum but as independent variables. Thus the leader can exhibit varying degrees of both initiating structure and consideration at the same time.

77 Low------------------------------------ High
Ohio State Study High Low High Low Low Structure High Consideration High Structure Low Consideration Consideration Structure 6

78 University of Michigan Studies
Rensis Likert Contrasted High & Low Producing Units Two Key Approaches Production Centered Leaders Employee Centered Leaders Unlike the Ohio Study, the University of Michigan study’s two behaviors lie at opposite ends of a continuum. Likert found that employee centered behavior generally tended to be more effective.

79 Production Centered Leaders
Production-centered leaders set tight work standards, organized tasks carefully, and prescribed the work methods to be followed. They also closely supervised the work of group members. The production centered leader could be considered a micromanager because of the way they prescribe the work methods and closely supervise the employees.

80 Employee Centered Leaders
Employee-centered leaders encouraged subordinate participation in goal setting and in other work decisions. They also helped to ensure high performance by engendering trust and mutual respect. These two university studies played an important role in the development of leadership theories. I will be followed by Mike who will discuss Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors.

81 Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors
Adaptability reflects a contingency viewpoint. A tactic is chosen based on the unique circumstances at hand. A leader who was responsible for psychologically immature group members would find it necessary to supervise them closely. If the group members were mature and self-reliant, they would require less supervision. Adaptability is a leadership behavior that includes attention to both task and interpersonal factors.

82 Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors
Since the function of leadership is to produce change, the leader must set the direction of that change. Setting the direction goes beyond planning, which is a management process designed to produce orderly results rather than change. Direction setting is part of creating a vision and strategy. The strategy describes a feasible way of achieving the vision.

83 Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors
Effective leaders consistently hold group members to high standards of performance. Setting such standards increases productivity. People tend to live up to the expectations set for them by superiors. This is called the Pygmalion effect, and it works in a subtle, almost unconscious way When a managerial leader believes that a group member will succeed, the manager communicates this belief without realizing it. Conversely, when a leader expects a group member to fail, that person will not disappoint the manager.

84 An Effective Leader … is one who helps group members attain productivity, including high quality and customer satisfaction.


86 Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors
Combined with risk taking, a bias for action is also an important leadership behavior. To bring about constructive change, the leader must take risks and be willing to implement these risky decisions.

87 Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors
The leader who provides hands-on guidance helps the group accomplish important tasks and, at the same time, group members learn important skills. Too much guidance of this nature, however, can be a symptom of poor delegation and micromanagement.

88 Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors
Giving group members frequent feedback on their performance is another vital leadership behavior. The leader can rarely influence the actions of group members without appropriate performance feedback. Feedback of this nature has two aspects. Group members are informed how well they are doing so that they can take corrective action if needed. Positive feedback serves as a reinforcer that prompts group members to continue favorable activities.

89 Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors
Stability of Performance: Effective leaders are steady performers, even under heavy workloads and uncertain conditions. Remaining steady under conditions of uncertainty contributes to effectiveness because it helps team members cope with the situation. When the leader remains calm, group members are reassured. Stability is helpful because it helps the managerial leader appear professional and cool under pressure.

90 Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors
A tough question is one that makes a person or group stop and think about why they are doing or not doing something. Group members are forced to think about the effectiveness of their activities. The beauty of a tough question is that it encourages people to ask themselves, “Why didn't I think of that? It seems so obvious.”

91 Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors
A strong customer orientation is natural in a consumer products business but can be equally important for an industrial company. Effective leaders are strongly interested in satisfying the needs of customers, clients, or constituents. This approach helps inspire employees to satisfy customers.

92 Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors
Alignment and Mobilization of People Getting people pulling in the same direction and working together smoothly is more of a communications challenge than a problem of organization design. To get people pulling together, it is necessary to talk to more people than would be required in organizing. Alignment enables people to have a clear sense of direction because they are pursuing a vision.

93 Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors
A new concept of the leader's role, concert building, involves both aligning and mobilizing. The concert builder functions as an orchestra leader. His or her goal is to produce a system that is self-evaluating, self-correcting, self-renewing, and ongoing. The system can be thought of as a large modern orchestra. Professionals play quite different instruments and perform separate, and often very difficult, tasks. The work of each must be integrated with the work of others to make up the whole.

94 Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors
Inspiration Based on surveys and focus groups, the Forum Group has identified five inspiring practices: Promoting the development of people's talents Recognizing the contribution of others Enabling others to feel like leaders Stimulating others' thinking Building enthusiasm about projects and assignments Being inspired is an emotional process that is triggered by a variety of behaviors on the part of a leader.

95 Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors
Satisfaction of Human Needs To inspire people, effective leaders motivate people by satisfying higher-level needs. Motivation and inspiration energize people by satisfying needs for achievement, a sense of belonging, recognition, self-esteem, and a feeling of control over one's life. A strictly managerial rather than leadership-approach would be to push people in the right direction through control mechanisms. An example would be suspending people who did not achieve work quotas.

96 Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors
A major approach to making meaningful work for people is to formulate the right vision and strategy. Formulating a vision and strategy helps involve group members in goal accomplishment. Employees can also find meaning in their work if the leader employs a basic tactic such as explaining how a particular job helps the company or society.

97 Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors
Emotional Support & Encouragement Supportive behavior toward team members usually increases leadership effectiveness. A supportive leader gives frequent encouragement and praise. One of the many work-related ways of encouraging people is to allow them to participate in decision making. Emotional support generally improves morale and sometimes improves productivity.

98 Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors
Leader's help promote values and principles that contribute to the welfare of individuals and organizations. These deal directly with the emotions and attitudes of people, and indirectly with the task. Steven Covey, who is widely quoted for his uplifting messages, advises that an organization's mission statement must be for all good causes. Leaders who believe in these good causes will then espouse principles and values that lead people toward good deeds in the workplace.

99 Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors
A servant leader serves constituents by working on their behalf to help them achieve their goals, not the leader's own goals. The idea behind servant leadership, as formulated by Robert K. Greenleaf, is that leadership derives naturally from a commitment to service. Serving others, including employees, customers, and community, is the primary motivation for the servant leader.

100 Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors
A servant leader is a moral leader. Place service before self-interest. Listen first to express confidence in others. Inspire trust by being trustworthy. Focus on what is feasible to accomplish. Lend a hand.

101 360-Degree Feedback In 360-degree feedback, a formal evaluation of superiors is based on input from people who work for and with them. Three hundred and sixty-degree feedback is also referred to as multisource feedback or multirater feedback. Three hundred and sixty-degree feedback is more frequently used for leadership and management development than for performance evaluation.

102 360-Degree Feedback

103 Leadership Style The relatively consistent pattern of behavior that characterizes a leader Often based on the dimensions of initiating structure and consideration Examples: “He’s a real command-and-control type,” “she’s a consensus leader.”

104 Participative Leadership
Participative leaders share decision making with group members (“trickle-up leadership”) Three subtypes: Consultative leaders confer with group members Consensus leaders strive for consensus among group members Democratic leaders confer final authority to the group

105 Leadership Grid Styles
The Leadership Grid is a framework for specifying the extent of a leader’s concern for production and people Benchmark Leadership Grid styles include: Authority-Compliance (9,1) Country Club Management (1,9) Impoverished Management (1,1) Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5) Team Management (9,9)

106 The Managerial Grid Concern for People Concern for Production
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Concern for People Concern for Production (low) (high) The Managerial Grid 1,9 pattern “Country club” environment 9,9 pattern Team management- the ideal style 5,5 pattern Middle-of-the-road management 9,1 pattern Task management 1,1 pattern impoverished management

107 Entrepreneurial Leadership Characteristics
Strong achievement drive and sensible risk-taking High degrees of enthusiasm and creativity Tendency to act quickly when opportunity arises Constant hurry combined with impatience Visionary perspective

108 Entrepreneurial Leadership Characteristics (cont’d)
Dislike of hierarchy and bureaucracy Preference for dealing with external customers Eye on the future

109 Gender Differences in Leadership Style
One researcher concluded that men tended toward a command-and-control style. In contrast, women tended toward a transformational style, relying heavily on interpersonal skills. While researchers found leadership style differences between men and women, on the dimension of overall effectiveness, the sexes were perceived the same.

110 Contingency and Situational Leadership
Chapter Five Contingency and Situational Leadership

111 Contingency Approach Leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces, including group member characteristics.


113 Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
The best style of leadership is determined by situational factors Leadership style may be relationship-motivated or task-motivated Leadership style is relatively enduring and difficult to change Leaders should be matched to situations according to their style

114 Figure 5-1 Summary of Findings From Fiedler’s Contingency Theory

115 Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
This model holds that the best style of leadership is determined by the situation in which the leader is working. Classifies a manager's leadership style as relationship-motivated, task-motivated, or intermediate style (semi-independent). Once leaders understand their particular leadership style, they should work in situations that match their style. -Research conducted found that skills of small company CEO’s were centered on production oriented areas, and were stronger in measures of coping with difficulties and emergencies and in handling outside contracts -Research confirmed that the environment of the entrepreneur requires them to perform tasks that their Fortune 500 counterparts delegate to others -Large company CEO’s had better-developed interpersonal skills. Scored higher than the small company CEO’s in communications, developing group cooperation and teamwork, developing employee potential and supervisory practices; overall better measures in leadership and group participation.

116 Measuring Leadership Style: The Least Preferred Coworker Scale
LPC scale measures the degree to which a leader describes favorably or unfavorably their least preferred coworker (could work the least well with). Self Assessment Quiz 5-1 Leadership style is a relatively permanent aspect of behavior and difficult to modify. -The organization should help managers match leadership styles and situations.

117 Measuring Leadership Situation
Theory classifies situations as high, moderate and low control. More control exercised by the leader, the more favorable the situation is for them. Control Classifications: Leader-member relations Task Structure Position Power Leader member relations measures how well the group and the leader get along. Task structure measures how clearly the procedures, goals and evaluation of the job are defined. Position Power measures the leaders authority to hire, fire, discipline and grant salary increases. **The leader has the most control in situations in which their relationship with members is the best.


119 The Leader-Match Concept and Overall Findings
The effectiveness of leadership depends on matching leaders to situations in which they can exercise more control. Task-motivated leaders: perform best in situations of high and low control. These leaders perform best in situations highly favorable for exercising control since they can work on relationships and not the task.

120 The Leader-Match Concept and Overall Findings
Relationship-motivated: perform best in situations of moderate control. They can work well on relationships and not get involved in overmanaging. **Participative Leaders are needed in the presence of a situation with an unclear task, or dealing with unmotivated or an uncooperative group. Figure 6.1, p.153: Summary of findings on which the leader match concept is based. -         Look first at Situational Characteristics at top; -         Leader member relations can be good or poor -         Task structure can be high or low -         Position power may be strong or weak -         Eight possible situations 1-8 and range from very favorable for exercising control to (1-3) to very unfavorable for exercising control (8). -         Bottom show the leadership style most strongly associated with effective group performance in each situation. -         Ex: Task motivated (Low LPC) leaders perform the best in situations of high control and low control -         Relationship motivated (High LPC) performs the best when the situation gives the leader moderate control. - Sociodependent (Medium LPC) performs best in high control.

121 Making the Situation More Favorable for the Leader
Implication of theory is that the leader should modify situations to best match their leadership style; increasing their chances of being effective. -Means of displaying an interest in personal welfare of group members, having meals with them, actively listening to their concerns -Engaging in behaviors related to initiating structure, such as being more specific about expectations, deadlines, showing samples of acceptable work and providing written instructions -Requesting formal authority from higher mgmt, Ex: grant bonuses, recommendations for promotions

122 Path Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
Developed by House, Robert: specifies what the leader must do to achieve high productivity and morals in a given situation. A leader attempts to clarify the path to a goal for a group member so that they receive personal payoffs. Job satisfaction and performance increase.

123 Path Goal Theory of Leadership
Characteristics of Group Member (Contingency Factors) Leadership Style Directive Supportive Participative Achievement Oriented Outcomes Productivity Morale To achieve productivity and morale, the leader chooses 1 of 4 leadership styles depending on the characteristics of group members and demands of the task. (Contingency Factors) Demands of the Task

124 Matching the Leadership Style to the Situation
Directive Supportive Participative Achievement Oriented Environmental Factors: factors that are not within the control of group members but that influence satisfaction and task accomplishment. Leader chooses among four different leadership styles to achieve optimum results in a given situation. Two sets of contingency factors: types of subordinates and type of work they perform. -Means of displaying an interest in personal welfare of group members, having meals with them, actively listening to their concerns -Engaging in behaviors related to initiating structure, such as being more specific about expectations, deadlines, showing samples of acceptable work and providing written instructions -Requesting formal authority from higher mgmt, Ex: grant bonuses, recommendations for promotions -Supportive: leader displays concern for group member’s well being and creates an emotionally supportive climate. (Best suited for group members who are unsure of them) -Participative: leader consults with group members to obtain suggestions and takes the suggestions seriously when decision-making. (Best suited for improving morale of well-motivated employees who perform repetitive tasks.) -Achievement Oriented Style” leader sets challenging goals, pushes for work improvement, and sets high expectations for team members. (this style works well with those working on ambiguous and nonrepetitive tasks.)

125 How The Leader Influences Performance
Recognize or activate group members needs over which the leader has control. Increase personal payoffs to team members for attaining work goals. Make the path to rewards easier by coaching and providing direction. Help group members clarify expectations of how effort will lead to good performance and how performance leads to rewards.

126 How The Leader Influences Performance Continued
Don’t irritate people by instructing them on things they know. Provide structure if missing and supply rewards contingent on adequate performance. Reduce frustrating barriers to reaching goals. Increase opportunity for personal satisfaction if group member performs effectively.

127 The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model
The situational leadership model of Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchard explains how to match the leadership style to the readiness of the group members. Leadership style classified according to amount task and relationship behavior the leader engages in.

128 Situational Leadership II (SLII) Developed by Kenneth H
Situational Leadership II (SLII) Developed by Kenneth H. Blanchard and others Explains how to match leadership style to the capabilities of group members on a given task SLII is designed to increase the frequency and quality of conversations about performance and professional development between managers and group members so that competence is developed, commitment takes place, and turnover among talented workers is reduced

129 Basics Of The Model Task behavior is the extent in which the leader spells out the duties and responsibilities of an individual or group; includes giving directions and setting goals. Relationship behavior is the extent to which the leader engages in two-way or multiway communication.

130 Style 1 High task and low relationship
The "telling" style is very directive because the leader produces a lot of input but a minimum amount of relationship behavior. An autocratic leader would fit here.

131 Style 2- High Task and High Relationship
The "selling" style is very directive, but in a more persuasive, guiding manner. The leader provides considerable input about task accomplishment but also emphasizes human relations.

132 Style 3- High Relationship and Low Task
In the "participating" leadership style, there is less direction and more collaboration between leader and group members. The consultative and consensus subtypes of participative leader generally fit into this quadrant.

133 Style 4- Low Relationship, Low Task
In the "delegating" leadership style, the leader delegates responsibility for a task to a group member and is simply kept informed of progress. If carried to an extreme, this style would be classified as free-rein.

134 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory
Follower readiness: ability and willingness Leader: decreasing need for support and supervision

135 Situational Leadership Theory
Readiness of Followers Behavior of Leaders Unable and Unwilling Clear, Specific Directions Unable and Willing High Task Orientation Able and Unwilling Support & Participation Able and Willing Let Followers Perform Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11

136 Task Behavior (amount of guidance required)
Situational Leadership Theory High (amount of support required) Relationship Behavior Task Behavior (amount of guidance required) Low (able to do job) (unable to do job) Participating Supporting Able/Unwilling Selling Coaching Unable/Willing Delegating Able/Willing Telling Directing Unable/Unwilling Low

137 Relationship Behavior S3 Share Ideas and Facilitate in Decision Making: Participating High Relationship, Low Task S2 Explain decisions and provide opportunity for clarification: Selling High Relationship, High Task Low Relationship,Low Task Turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation: Delegating S4 Low Relationship, High Task Provide specific instructions and closely supervise performance: Telling S1 High Low Task Behavior High

138 Follower Readiness High Moderate Low R4 Able and Willing R3
Able but unwilling R2 Unable but willing R1 Unable and unwilling -Readiness refers to the extent to which a group member has the ability and willingness or confidence to accomplish a specific task. -Two components to readiness: Ability: knowledge, experience, and skill Willingness: extent to which the individual or group has the confidence, commitment, and motivation to accomplish a specific task. As group member readiness increase, a leader should rely more on relationship behavior and less on task behavior. Follower Directed Leader Directed

139 Leadership Guidelines
Relationship Behavior High R3 Relationship-Low Task: Able but Unwilling High Relationship, Low task R2 Relationship-Selling: Unable but Willing High Relationship, High Task Low Relationship,Low Task R4 Delegating Able and Willing Low Relationship, High Task R1 Directive-autocratic: Unable and Unwilling Low Task Behavior High

140 Evaluation of Situational Model
Builds on other explanations of leadership that emphasize the role of task and relationship behaviors. Utilizes common sense and is intuitively appealing. In reality, leadership situations are less clear than 4 quadrants. Research evidence is mixed; model may hold for only certain types of employees.

141 Normative Decision Model
Published by Vroom, Yetton, and Jago in 1973 and 1988. Views leadership as a decision making process and specifies type of leadership for a given situation.

142 Normative Decision Model
Proper decision making style is determined using a decision tree analysis. Styles determined from analysis are: Autocratic I,II (decision by leader alone or with some info from group) Consultative I,II (decision by leader with input from one member or all members) Group II (group makes decision)

143 Normative Decision Model
Decision tree nodes prompt the following questions, in the order given: Is it an important decision (quality)? Is group commitment important? Do I have enough information? Is the problem structured (well-defined)? Can I make the decision alone and get ‘buy-in”? Does the group share same goals (goal congruence? Is group member conflict an issue? Does the group have enough info to make a decision?

144 Cognitive Resource Model
Published in 1987 by Fred Fiedler and Joseph Garcia. Theory relating stress and leader’s intelligence/experience.

145 Cognitive Resource Model
Leader experience more important in high stress situation. Low-stress situation: intelligence and innovation are more valuable trait in leaders. Intellectual leaders more effective if directive. And the obvious: Complex problems best suited for intellectual leaders.

146 Research: How Top Level Executives Lead
Farkas, Backer, and Wetlaufer published in 1996. Interviewed 163 top executives worldwide; 12,000 pgs. of interviews.

147 Research: How Top Level Executives Lead
Conclusion: CEO’s usually utilize all approaches, however usually have one dominant approach. Situation determines best approach.

148 Crisis Leadership Attributes
Be decisive Lead with compassion Reestablish the usual work routine Avoid a circle-the-wagons mentality Display optimism Be a transformational leader

149 Summary Hersey-Blanchard: Practical in that group members are ‘diagnosed’ prior to choosing best style. Relatively easy concepts to interpret and use (leader behavior and follower readiness) Best choice of five!

150 Leadership Ethics and Social Responsibility
Chapter Six Leadership Ethics and Social Responsibility

151 Ethics and Morals Ethics is the study of moral obligations, or of separating right from wrong Ethics can also mean the accepted guidelines of behavior for groups or institutions Morals are an individual’s determination of what is right or wrong and are influenced by an individual’s values

152 Ethical Leadership Behaviors
Be honest and trustworthy and have integrity in dealing with others Pay attention to all stakeholders Build community Respect the individual Accomplish silent victories


154 Factors Contributing to Ethical Differences
Leader’s level of greed, gluttony, and avarice Leader’s level of moral development Preconventional level Conventional level Postconventional level Sense of entitlement Situation Character

155 Evaluating Ethics of a Decision Guidelines
Is it right? Is it fair? Who gets hurt? Would you be comfortable if the details of your decision or actions were made public? What would you tell your child, sibling, or young relatives to do? How does it smell?

156 Examples of Unethical Leaders (From Table 6-2)
Frank P. Quattrone, former investment banker at CSFB Sanjay Kumar, former CEO of Computer Associates International, Inc. Jeffrey Greenberg, CEO of Marsh & McClellan Companies Kenneth Lay, former chairman and CEO of Enron

157 Social Responsibility
Having obligations to society beyond the company’s economic obligations to owners or stockholders and also beyond those prescribed by law or contract Relates to an organization’s impact on society and goes beyond doing what is ethical

158 Examples of Socially Responsible Actions
Creating a pleasant workplace Guarding the environment Engaging in philanthropy Working with suppliers to improve working conditions


160 Ethical Guidelines for Political Behavior
Unethical Ethical Question 1 Is the action motivated by self-serving interests which exclude the goals of the organization? Question 3 Is the political activity fair and equitable? Yes Yes No No Unethical The first question that a manager must answer relates to self-interest versus organizational goals. Ethical actions are consistent with the organization’s goals. The second question regards the rights of others. The department head who goes to the mailroom during lunch and reads the mail directed to the purchasing manager has violated that person’s privacy rights. The final question pertains to standards of equity and justice. The manager who inflates the performance evaluation of a favored employee and deflates the evaluation of a disfavored employee has treated the latter unfairly. When faced with ethical dilemmas, answering these questions can help managers act ethically. Yes Question 2 Does the political action respect individual rights? No Unethical Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter 12

161 Creating an Ethical and Socially Responsible Culture
Providing strategic leadership of ethics and social responsibility Establishing written codes of ethical conduct Developing formal mechanisms for dealing with ethical problems Accepting whistleblowers Providing training in ethics and social responsibility Placing company interests over personal interests

162 Ethics and Performance
High ethics and social responsibility are related to good financial performance The relationship between social responsibility and financial performance may be a virtuous circle. Corporate social responsibility and corporate financial performance may feed and reinforce each other

163 Summary Key principles of ethical leadership include having honesty and integrity, paying attention to all stakeholders, building community, respecting the individual, and accomplishing silent victories

164 Summary (cont’d) Three factors responsible for differences in ethics and morality include the leader’s level of greed, gluttony, and avarice, the leader’s level of moral development, and the situation

165 Summary (cont’d) A leader or manager should seek answers to a series of important questions before reaching a decision about an issue that is not clearly ethical or unethical Unethical behaviors have had detrimental effects on many companies

166 Summary (cont’d) A leader can encourage ethical behavior by promoting social responsibility Ethical behavior is related to financial performance

167 Power, Politics, and Leadership
Chapter Seven Power, Politics, and Leadership

168 Power, Empowerment, and Delegation
Power is the potential or ability to influence decisions and control resources.

169 Four Bases of Position Power
Legitimate power is the lawful right to make a decision and expect compliance Reward power stems from having the authority to give employees rewards for compliance Coercive power is the power to punish for noncompliance Information power stems from formal control over the information people need

170 Sources of Personal Power
Expert power is the ability to influence others through specialized knowledge, skills, or abilities Referent power is the ability to influence others through desirable traits and characteristics Prestige power is power stemming from one’s status and reputation

171 Sources and Types of Power
Position Power Personal Power Power Stemming from Ownership Power Stemming from Providing Resources Power Derived from Capitalizing on Opportunity Power Stemming from Managing Critical Problems Power Stemming from being close to Power

172 Ownership Power A leader’s strength of ownership power depends on
how closely the leader is linked to shareholders and board members how much money he or she has invested in the firm

173 Power From Capitalizing on Opportunity
Power can be derived from being in the right place at the right time and taking the appropriate action It pays to be “where the action is.”

174 Power from Being Close to Power
The closer a person is to power, the greater power he or she exerts The higher a unit reports in a firm’s hierarchy, the more power it possesses

175 Empowerment refers to passing decision-making authority and responsibility from management to group members. Delegation is the assignment of formal authority and responsibility for accomplishing a specific task to another person.

176 Empowerment … refers to passing decision-making authority and responsibility from managers to group members. Almost any form of participative management, shared decision making, and delegation can be regarded as empowerment.

177 Effective Empowering Practices

178 Tactics for becoming an Empowering Leader
Foster Initiative and Responsibility Link work Activities to the Goals of the Organization Provide Ample Information Allow Group Members to Choose Methods Encourage Self-Leadership Implement Team-Based HR Policies Establish Limits to Empowerment Continue to lead.

179 Guidelines For Effective Delegation
Assign duties to the right people Delegate the whole task Give as much info as needed Retain some important tasks for yourself Obtain feedback Delegate both pleasant and unpleasant tasks Step back from the details Evaluate and reward performance

180 Contributing Factors to Organizational Politics
Pyramid-shaped Organization Structure Subjective standards of performance Environmental uncertainty and turbulence Emotional insecurities Machiavellian tendencies Disagreements that prevent rational decision making

181 Ethical Political Tactics and Strategies
Gaining Power Building Relationships for Political Power Avoiding Political Blunders

182 Power-Gaining Strategies
Develop power contacts Control vital information Stay informed Control lines of communication Bring in outside experts Make a quick showing Remember that everyone expects to be paid back Be the first to accept reasonable changes


184 Relationship-Building Strategies
Display loyalty Manage your impression Ask satisfied customers to contact your boss Be courteous, pleasant, and positive Ask advice Send thank-you notes to large numbers of people Flatter others sensibly

185 Potential Political Blunders
Criticizing the boss in a public forum Bypassing the boss Declining an offer from top management Putting your foot in your mouth Not conforming to the company dress code

186 Unethical Political Tactics and Strategies
Back Stabbing Embrace or Demolish Setting a Person Up for Failure Divide and Rule Playing Territorial Games Creating and Resolving a False Catastrophe


188 Exercising Control Over Dysfunctional Politics
Be aware of its causes and techniques Avoid favoritism Set good examples at the top of the organization Encourage goal congruence Threaten to discuss questionable information in a public forum Hire people with integrity

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