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Web Caches 張燕光 資訊工程系 成功大學

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1 Web Caches 張燕光 資訊工程系 成功大學 ykchang@mail.ncku.edu.tw

2 Introduction HTTP What is a Web Cache? How Web Cache Works? Internet Cache Protocol (ICP) The Centralized Protocol The Distributed Protocol Conclusion Future Works

3 HTTP Tim Berners-Lee invented HTTP/1.0, the most popular protocol on Internet Request-Response Model Request method, headers, and response status HTTP/1.1 –Cache Control

4 Request Origin Server directly Web Browser HTTP Request Web Browser Web Server Web Browser

5 Definition A web cache is a place where temporary copies of objects are kept. –Essentially, once the object pointed to by a URL has been cached, subsequent requests for the URL will result in the cached copy being returned, and little or no extra network traffic. Ideas from: CPU cache, File system cache, An Internet component have been caching for a long time DNS(Domain Name System)

6 Web Caching Proxy Cache data close to the clients Proxy cache sits between origin web servers and clients receive requests from clients –service the requests locally if valid copy of the requested objects exist in the cache –otherwise, get the requested objects for the clients and save a copy of the object locally

7 Adding a cache proxy Web Browser HTTP Request Web Browser Web Server Web Browser Cache Server Cache Server HTTP Request

8 Web Caching: Advantages [I] Reduce latency: –take less time to get an object from caching proxy than origin server (popular objects) –Because of traffic reduction, not cached pages can be retrieved relatively faster than no-cache environment, due to less network traffic and lesser server load Reduce traffic, network congestion, or bandwidth consumption: the popular objects are only gotten from origin server once

9 Web Caching: Advantages [II] Reduce the load of remote web server: –by means of disseminating data among caches over the Internet Robustness of web service: if remote web server is down (or network partitioning), cached copy can be used in stead for most of static data

10 Web Caching: Advantages [III] A side effect: easy to get aggregate access pattern for analysis the cache may be pre-loaded with the relevant URLs Cache may be a control point for uses inside an institution with bandwidth management, QOS, access control, etc.

11 Web Caching: Disadvantages [I] a client might be looking at stale data due to the lack of proper proxy updating, access latency may increase in the case of a cache miss due to extra proxy processing. –Hence, cache hit rate should be maximized and the cost of a cache miss should be minimized when designing a caching system. –ExampleExample A single proxy is a single point of failure.

12 Web Caching: Disadvantages [II] A single proxy cache is always a bottleneck. –A limit has to be set for # of clients a proxy can serve. –An efficiency lower bound (i.e. the proxy system is ought to be at least as efficient as using direct contact with the remote servers) should also be enforced. –Which page to be removed from its cache? (cache placement and replacement) Reducing hits on the original remote server might disappoint information providers, since they cannot maintain a true hits log of their pages. –Cache-busting technique (RFC 2227)RFC 2227 –Hence, they might decide not to allow their documents to be cacheable. distributed among proxies? (control information distribution)

13 Web Caching: Disadvantages [III] Can confuse logging and access control, e.g. on subscription services. Potential invasion of your privacy another service you have to find the time to set up and maintain! May have to justify cost of extra hardware. require expertise you don't have - e.g. Unix or Windows NT/2000

14 Isolated Cache Browser cache –only serves the users using the same computer on which the browser resides (Netscape, IE, Mosaic, …) –useful when the user clicks the ‘Back’ button Proxy Cache (Caching proxy) –similar, but in a large scale Web server-side cache It may cause confusion if not aware of its existence (e.g. dynamic CGI, user updates on the server, etc., reload may not work)

15 Where is Web Cache? Main Memory Cache Disk Cache No CPU Cache (too small)

16 How Web Cache Works? All caches have a set of rules: –How to determine if the copy in the cache is fresh or not (Expiration model in HTTP/1.1) –How to check if the copy in the cache is consistent with the one in the origin server (validation model in HTTP 1.1) –When to serve the requested object from the cache if the copy in the cache is fresh or even not fresh (Cache-Control in HTTP/1.1) –When to save the objects in the cache (Cache- Control in HTTP/1.1)

17 How Web Cache Works?(cont.) If object's headers tell cache not to keep the object, it won't. Also, if no validator is present, most caches will mark the object as uncacheable. If the object is authenticated or secure, it won't be cached. If an object is stale, the origin server will be asked to validate the object, or tell the cache whether the copy that it has is still good.

18 How Web Cache Works?(cont.) A cached object is considered fresh (that is, able to be sent to a client without checking with the origin server): –If it has an expiry time or other age-controlling directive set, and is still within the fresh period. –If a browser cache has already seen the object, and has been set to check once a session. –If a proxy cache has seen the object recently, and it was modified relatively long ago. Fresh documents are served directly from the cache, without checking with the origin server.

19 CHU proxy hit ratio Hit ratio (%) Proxy.chu.edu.tw Cache Size 3G3G4G4G5G5G6G6G7G7G2G2G1G1G0 50 10 20 30 40 60 70

20 DEC proxy hit ratio Hit ratio (%) DEC Cache Size 3G3G4G4G5G5G6G6G7G7G2G2G1G1G0 50 10 20 30 40 60 70

21 Hit Ratio Cache hit ratio of backbone server > local Increase as the number of users Image > other type pages Small > large file

22 Increase Hit Ratio Buy a larger disk Internet accelerator (replaces browsers cache with its own larger one), plus it notifies you when the content has changed Prefetching, DNS resolution caching, persistent connections, optimizations and advertisement blocking Refresh, filtering (link)link

23 Configuration Netscape has its own disk based caching mechanism, but this does not seem to be suitable for sharing between multiple users. Internet Explorer: There are a variety of methods of configuring proxy mode, depending on the Operating System and Internet Explorer version you're running. –Some versions also support the Netscape proxy auto-configuration (PAC) format, which requires the browser to download a JavaScript program from a pre-configured URL.proxy auto-configuration (PAC)

24 Configure Proxy in Netscape

25

26 Netscape Configuration files –(Note) you may find that you have no netscape.ini in 32-bit version, or just an empty file of this name. It looks as though all of the Netscape configuration info is being stored in the Registry, though it's not clear exactly where. Wais_ProxyPort=8001 Ftp_ProxyPort=3128 Gopher_ProxyPort=3128 Http_ProxyPort=3128 No_Proxy=ac.uk,org.uk Gopher_Proxy=wwwcache.camford.ac.uk FTP_Proxy=wwwcache.camford.ac.uk HTTP_Proxy=wwwcache.camford.ac.uk Wais_Proxy=wwwcache.camford.ac.uk Windows: In the Proxy Information section of netscape.ini

27 Netscape Configuration files FTP_PROXY: wwwcache.camford.ac.uk:3128 HTTP_PROXY: wwwcache.camford.ac.uk:3128 GOPHER_PROXY: wwwcache.camford.ac.uk:3128 WAIS_PROXY: wwwcache.camford.ac.uk:8001 NO_PROXY: ac.uk,org.uk Unix: In home directory as.netscape-preferences in version 1 and netscape/preferences in version 2 and above The variable PROXY_MODE is used to control whether proxying is enabled, and if so whether a static list of proxy servers is used, or a JavaScript program :- 0 - no proxying of requested URLs, 1 - manual proxy configuration, 2 - download proxy autoconfiguration JavaScript, e.g. PROXY_MODE: 2 PROXY_URL: http://www.camford.ac.uk/p.pac Indicates that the proxy autoconfiguration script http://www.camford.ac.uk/p.pac should be used.

28 Proxy Auto Configuration One single institutional proxy is not enough –Single point of failure –Pages need different proxy to get faster responses –Make proxies transparent to users proxy auto-configuration (PAC) is supported by Netscape and IEproxy auto-configuration (PAC) –Javascript code (a subset)

29 PAC example function FindProxyForURL(url, host) { if (url.substring(0, 5) == "http:") { return "PROXY x.xx.xxx:p; DIRECT"; } else if (url.substring(0, 6) == "https:") { return "PROXY y.yy.yyy:q; DIRECT";} else if (url.substring(0, 4) == "ftp:") { return "PROXY z.zz.zzz:r; DIRECT";} else {return "DIRECT"; } } A complete example: proxy.chu.edu.tw/proxy.pacproxy.chu.edu.tw/proxy.pac

30 Example #1: Use proxy for everything except local hosts All hosts which aren't fully qualified, or the ones that are in local domain, will be connected to directly. Everything else will go through w3proxy:8080. If the proxy goes down, connections become automatically direct. function FindProxyForURL(url, host){ if (isPlainHostName(host) || dnsDomainIs(host,".netscape.com")) return "DIRECT"; else return "PROXY w3proxy.netscape.com:8080; DIRECT"; } Note: This is the simplest and most efficient autoconfig file for cases where there's only one proxy.

31 Example #2: use the proxy for everything else except local hosts in the netscape.com domain, with the further exception that hosts www.netscape.com and merchant.netscape.com will go through the proxy function FindProxyForURL(url, host) { if ((isPlainHostName(host) || dnsDomainIs(host, ".netscape.com")) && !localHostOrDomainIs(host, "www.netscape.com") && !localHostOrDoaminIs(host, "merchant.netscape.com")) return "DIRECT"; else return "PROXY w3proxy.netscape.com:8080; DIRECT"; }

32 Example #3: subnet-based function FindProxyForURL(url, host) { if (isPlainHostName(host) || dnsDomainIs(host, ".mydomain.com") || isInNet(host, "198.95.0.0", "255.255.0.0")) return "DIRECT"; else return "PROXY proxy.mydomain.com:8080"; }

33 Example #4: Load balancing/routing based on URL patterns function FindProxyForURL(url, host) { if (isPlainHostName(host) ||dnsDomainIs(host,".mydomain.com")) return "DIRECT"; else if (shExpMatch(host, "*.com")) return "PROXY proxy1.mydomain.com:8080; " + "PROXY proxy4.mydomain.com:8080"; else if (shExpMatch(host, "*.edu")) return "PROXY proxy2.mydomain.com:8080; " + "PROXY proxy4.mydomain.com:8080"; else return "PROXY proxy3.mydomain.com:8080; " + "PROXY proxy4.mydomain.com:8080"; }

34 PAC for web server httpd.conf in apache –AddType application/x-ns-proxy-autoconfig.pac

35 How to control cache? HTML Meta TagsMeta Tags –In a document's section -- mark a document as uncacheable, or expire it at a certain time –Meta tags are easy to use, but aren't very effective – read by browser, not proxy –Meta tags resourceMeta tags resource

36 Pragma HTTP Headers (and why they don't work) Many people believe that assigning a Pragma: no- cache HTTP header to an object will make it uncacheable. This is not necessarily true; HTTP specification does not set any guidelines for Pragma response headers; instead, Pragma request headers (the headers that a browser sends to a server) are discussed. Although a few caches may honor this header, the majority won't, and it won't have any effect. Use the HTTP headers

37 Controlling Freshness with the Expires Header We saw it in RFC2616 –Compute freshness –expires: Fri, 30 Oct 1998 14:19:41 GMT

38 Cache-Control Headers max-age=[seconds] - specifies the maximum amount of time that an object will be considered fresh. Similar to Expires, this directive allows more flexibility. [seconds] is the number of seconds from the time of the request you wish the object to be fresh for. s-maxage=[seconds] - similar to max-age, except that it only applies to proxy (shared) caches. public - marks the response as cacheable, even if it would normally be uncacheable. For instance, if your pages are authenticated, the public directive makes them cacheable.

39 Cache-Control Headers no-cache - forces caches (both proxy and browser) to submit request to the origin server for validation before releasing a cached copy, every time. This is useful to assure that authentication is respected (in combination with public), or to maintain rigid object freshness, without sacrificing all of the benefits of caching. must-revalidate - tells caches that they must obey any freshness information you give them about an object. The HTTP allows caches to take liberties with the freshness of objects; by specifying this header, you're telling cache that you want it to strictly follow your rules. proxy-revalidate - similar to must-revalidate, except that it only applies to proxy caches.

40 Validators and Validation Last-Modified-Time Etag If-modified-since If-matched, If-not-matched …

41 Tips:building a cache-aware Site Refer to objects consistently - this is the golden rule of caching. If you serve the same content on different pages, to different users, or from different sites, it should use the same URL. This is the easiest and most effective way to make your site cache-friendly. For example, if you use /index.html in your HTML as a reference once, always use it that way. Use a common library of images and other elements and refer back to them from different places. Make caches store images and pages that don't change often by specifying a far-away Expires header. Make caches recognize regularly updated pages by specifying an appropriate expiration time.

42 Tips:building a cache-aware Site If a resource (especially a downloadable file) changes, change its name. That way, you can make it expire far in the future, and still guarantee that the correct version is served; the page that links to it is the only one that will need a short expiry time. Don't change files unnecessarily. If you do, everything will have a falsely young Last-Modified date. For instance, when updating your site, don't copy over the entire site; just move the files that you've changed. Use cookies only where necessary - cookies are difficult to cache, and aren't needed in most situations. If you must use a cookie, limit its use to dynamic pages.

43 Tips:building a cache-aware Site Minimize use of SSL - because encrypted pages are not stored by shared caches, use them only when you have to, and use images on SSL pages sparingly. use the Cacheability Engine - it can help you apply many of the concepts in this tutorial.Cacheability Engine Cacheability check

44 Writing Cache-Aware Scripts By default, most scripts won't return a validator (e.g., a Last-Modified or ETag HTTP header) or freshness information (Expires or Cache-Control). While some scripts really are dynamic (meaning that they return a different response for every request), many (like search engines and database- driven sites) can benefit from being cache-friendly

45 Writing Cache-Aware Scripts Generally speaking, if a script produces output that is reproducable with the same request at a later time (whether it be minutes or days later), it should be cacheable. If the content of the script changes only depending on what's in the URL, it is cacheble; if the output depends on a cookie, authentication information or other external criteria, it probably isn't.

46 Writing Cache-Aware Scripts The best way to make a script cache-friendly (perform better) is to dump its content to a plain file whenever it changes. Web server can treat it like any other Web page, generating and using validators, which makes your life easier. Remember to only write files that have changed, so Last-Modified times are preserved. Another way to make a script cacheable in a limited fashion is to set an age-related header for as far in the future as practical. Although this can be done with Expires, it's probably easiest to do so with Cache- Control: max-age, which will make the request fresh for an amount of time after the request.

47 Writing Cache-Aware Scripts If you can't do that, you'll need to make the script generate a validator, and then respond to If-Modified- Since and/or If-None-Match requests. This can be done by parsing the HTTP headers, and then responding with 304 Not Modified when appropriate. Unfortunately, this is not a trival task. Don't count on all requests from a user coming from the same host, because caches often work together. Generate Content-Length response headers.

48 Writing Cache-Aware Scripts If you have to use scripting, don't POST unless it's appropriate. The POST method is (practically) impossible to cache; if you send information in the path or query (via GET), caches can store that information for the future. POST, on the other hand, is good for sending large amount of information to the server (which is why it won't be cached; it's very unlikely that the same exact POST will be made twice). Don't embed user-specific information in the URL unless the content generated is completely unique to that user.

49 Apache run httpd –l: print a list of available modules mod_expires and mod_headers. mod_expires mod_headers -enable-module=expires and -enable- module=headers arguments to configure mod_expires automatically calculates and inserts a Cache-Control:max-age header as appropriate.

50 Apache.htaccess ### activate mod_expires ExpiresActive On ### Expire.gif's 1 month from when they're accessed ExpiresByType image/gif A2592000 ### Expire everything else 1 day from when it's last modified ### (this uses the Alternative syntax) ExpiresDefault "modification plus 1 day" ### Apply a Cache-Control header to index.html Header append Cache-Control "public, must-revalidate"

51 Problems for Caching [I] How are the cache proxies organized, hierarchically, distributed, or hybrid? (caching system architecture) Where to place a cache proxy in order to achieve optimal performance? (replacement) What can be cached in the caching system, data, connection, or computation? (caching contents) How do proxies cooperate with each other? (proxy cooperation)

52 Problems for Caching [II] What kind of data/information can be shared among cooperated proxies? (data sharing) How does a proxy decide where to fetch a page requested by a client? (cache resolution & routing) How does a proxy decide what and when to prefetch from Web server or other proxies to reduce access latency in the future? (prefetching)

53 Problems for Caching [III] How does a proxy manage which page to be stored in its cache and which page to be removed from its cache? (cache placement and replacement) How does a proxy maintain data consistency? (cache coherency) How is the control information (e.g. URL routing information) distributed among proxies? (control information distribution) How to deal with data which is not cacheable? (dynamic data caching)

54 Problems for Caching [IV] How to reconstruct the requested pages? How to cache a process (code for execution) instead of data? (concept of “Active”)

55 Properties of caching systems I Fast access: –From users’ point of view, access latency is an important measurement of the quality of Web service. A desirable caching system should aim at reducing Web access latency. In particular, it should provide user a lower latency on average than those without employing a caching system.. Transparency. –A Web caching system should be transparent for the user, the only results user should notice are faster response and higher availability.

56 Properties of caching systems II Robustness. –From users’ prospect, robustness means availability - important measurement of quality of Web service. Users desire to have Web service available whenever they want. The robustness has three aspects. 1.It’s desirable that a few proxies crash wouldn’t tear the entire system down. The caching system should eliminate the single point failure as much as possible. 2.caching system should fall back gracefully in case of failures. 3.caching system would be design in such a way that it’s easy to recover from a failure.

57 Properties of caching systems III Scalability. –We have seen an explosive growth in network size and density in last decades and is facing a more rapid increasing growth in near future. The key to success in such an environment is the scalability. –We would like a caching scheme to scale well along the increasing size and density of network. –This requires all protocols employed in the caching system to be as lightweight as possible.

58 Properties of caching systems IV Efficiency. There are two aspects to efficiency. –First, how much overhead does the Web caching system impose on network? We would like a caching system to impose a minimal additional burden on the network. This includes both control packets and extra data packets incurred by using a caching system. –Second, the caching system should not adopt any scheme which leads to under-utilization of critical resources in network.

59 Properties of caching systems V Adaptivity. –It’s desirable to make the caching system adapt to the dynamic changing of the user demand and the network environment. The adaptivity involves several aspects: cache management, cache routing, proxy placement, etc. This is essential to achieve optimal performance.

60 Properties of caching systems VI Stability. –The schemes used in Web caching system shouldn’t introduce instabilities into the network. For example, naïve cache routing based on dynamic network information will result in oscillation. Such an oscillation is not desirable since the network is under-utilization and the variance of the access latency to a proxy or server would be very high.

61 Properties of caching systems VII Load balancing. –It’s desirable that the caching scheme distributes the load evenly through the entire network. A single proxy/server shouldn’t be a bottleneck (or hot spot) and thereby degrades the performance of a portion of the network or even slow down the entire service system.

62 Properties of caching systems IIX Ability to deal with heterogeneity. –As networks grow in scale and coverage, they span a range of hardware and software architectures. The Web caching schemes need adapt to a range of network architectures. Simplicity. –Simplicity is always an asset. Simpler schemes are easier to implement and likely to be accepted as international standards. We would like an ideal Web caching mechanism to be simple to deploy.

63 Caching Architecture Performance depends on the size of its client community: the bigger is the user community, the higher the hit rate on caches Therefore, a caching architecture should provide the paradigm for caches to cooperate efficiently with each other Hierarchical, Distributed, and Hybrid

64 Caching Architecture: Hierarchical caches are placed at multiple levels of the network. assume there are 4 levels of caches: bottom, institutional, regional, and national levels first proposed in the Harvest project, other examples are SQUID, Adaptive Web caching, Access Driven cache,

65 Hierarchical Cache Institutional Cache Regional Cache National Cache Origin Server Institutional Cache Regional Cache Clients

66 Hierarchical Cache When a cache is not satisfied by a client cache, the request is redirected to the institutional cache. If the object is not present at the institutional level, the request travels to the regional cache which in turn forwards unsatisfied requests to the national cache. If the object is not in the national cache, the origin server is contacted directly. When the object is found, either at a cache or origin server, it travels down hierarchy, leaving a copy at each of the intermediate caches.

67 Hierarchical Cache with queries Query siblings, parent, and also the origin server.

68 Hierarchical Cache with queries

69 Hierarchical Cache Problems: –To set up the hierarchy, caches often need to be placed at key access points in the network, require significant coordination among participating cache servers. –Large disk space is needed in the higher level cache to obtain a reasonable hit rate. –Tariff based volume charging: not fair for upper level caches. –Differences in levels of Hierarchy. –Every hierarchy level may introduce additional delays. –High level caches may become bottlenecks and have long queuing delays. –Multiple copies of the same document are stored at different cache levels.

70 Caching Architecture: Distributed there are only caches at the bottom level. In order to decide from which institutional cache to retrieve a miss document, all institutional caches keep meta-data information about the content of every other institutional cache. most of the traffic flows through low network levels, which are less congested and no additional disk space is required at intermediate network levels. In addition, distributed caching allows better load sharing and are more fault tolerant.

71 Caching Architecture: Distributed To make the distribution of the meta-data information more efficient and scalable, a hierarchical distribution mechanism can be employed. However, the hierarchy is only used to distribute directory information about the location of the documents, not actual document copies.

72 Caching Architecture: Distributed a large-scale deployment of distributed caching may encounter several problems: –high connection times, –higher bandwidth usage, –Administrative issues, etc.

73 Caching Architecture: Distributed Approaches –Internet Cache Protocol (ICP) of Squid –Malpani’s multicast approach similar to ICP (1995) –Cache Array Routing Protocol (CARP) –Distributed internet cache (by Povey) –Fully distributed internet cache (by Tewari) –CRISP –Cachemesh –Summary cache/Digest cache –Relais project

74 Cluster-based caching: multicast Adaptive Web cache Dynamic web cache LSAM

75 Hybrid caching architecture ICP is a typical example Documents are fetched from a parent/neighbor cache that has the lowest RTT Rabinovich et.al. limit the cooperation to avoid obtaining pages from distant or slower caches, instead from origin server

76 Caching Architecture Summary Access latency –Isolated cache –Cooperative cache Fixed home or not T isolated = T tcp1 + T lookup + [ T tcp2 ] T co-op = T tcp1 + T lookup + [T remote-lookup + T tcp2 ]

77 Increase Hit Ratio Cooperative caches: use a group of isolated caching proxies through cooperation –If a proxy cache can not find the requested object locally, it first tries to find if any cooperative cache has a copy of the requested object and get it from there, –otherwise, get the requested object from origin server

78 ICP & Squid Squid is the most popular proxy cache It is free and source code is publicly available derived from Harvest Cache single 、 non-blocking request

79 Squid proxying and caching of HTTP; proxying for SSL; FTP, WAIS, Gopher cache hierarchies; transparent caching; HTTP server acceleration; ICP, HTCP, CARP, and Cache Digests; WCCP;ICPHTCP extensive access controls; Delay pools (Bandwith management) SNMP; caching of DNS lookups. An article

80 enhanced service for squid statistics,... cache manager (/cgi-bin/cachemgr.cgi)/cachemgr.cgi see fwdStart() and fwdDispatch() access.log

81 squid.conf See “ OPTIONS WHICH AFFECT THE NEIGHBOR SELECTION ALGORITHM ” –TAG: cache_peer –TAG: cache_peer_domain –TAG: icp_query_timeout (msec) –TAG: hierarchy_stoplist –TAG: no_cache

82 squid.conf See “ OPTIONS WHICH AFFECT THE CACHE SIZE ” –TAG: cache_mem (bytes) –TAG: cache_swap_low (percent, 0-100) –…

83 ICP ICP stands for Internet Cache Protocol ICP is a lightweight protocol that provides a mechanism for a cache to determine which of its peers can best satisfy a given request. ICP messages are transmitted via UDP consisting of a 20-bytes header and a URL. ICP multicasts a query to all other peers whenever a local cache miss occurs

84 ICP (sibling hit) Sibling Master Proxy Sibling Parent Web Server HTTP Request ICP Hit or Miss HTTP Response ICP Query

85 Advantages of ICP ICP replies indicate the current network conditions SRC_RTT feature of ICP: ICMP-based measurement of the network RTT between the neighbor cache and the origin server

86 Disadvantages of ICP The additional delay introduced by the ICP query and reply. –ICP round trip delay 1-3 milliseconds in LAN 40-200 milliseconds in WAN (National) 200- milliseconds in WAN (International) –Squid sets 2 seconds as the timeout for ICP messages

87 Disadvantages of ICP The additional delay (cont.) –remote hit: the fastest response time from the peer caching the requested object –remote miss: the slowest response time from one of the peers heavy traffic –# of ICP is proportional to n 2 * r, where n is the # of caches in the group and r is the request rate

88 Round trip delay of the ICP Round Trip Delay (msec) mi6.chu 1500 100 1000 500 cs1.chumi7.chu mi8.chucs2.chu proxy.ncu proxy.nsysu Round trip delay of the ICP query/reply from a workstation to various Squid servers. 20 1300 500 300 250 50 30 40 20

89 The Centralized protocol (CRISP) Solve the heavy traffic problem of ICP allocate a server as the index server recording a complete directory of cache contents of all the peers Only one query message to the index server instead of multicasting to all the peers

90 Centralize (index hit) Master Proxy Local Server 2 Index Server Web Server Local Server 1 HTTP Request HTTP Response Index Request Index Response

91 Centralize (index miss) Master Proxy Local Server 2 Index Server Web Server Local Server 1 HTTP Request HTTP Response Index Request Index Response Index Update

92 The Distributed Protocol Solve the additional delay problem of ICP Every peer records a complete directory of cache contents of all the peers Every time a peer getting a new object, it informs all the other peer about the new object

93 Distributed (remote hit) Master Proxy Local Server 2 Web Server Local Server 1 HTTP Request HTTP Response

94 Distributed (miss) Master Proxy Local Server 2 Web Server Local Server 1 HTTP Request HTTP Response Index Update

95 Comparisons No cache sharing: isolated cache simple cache sharing: ICP Single-copy cache sharing: –CRISP –The Distributed Protocol

96 ws C1 ws C2 ws Cn Ci L1 L2 L0 Li Structure of the cooperative caching server. Index server

97 Comparisons Hit ratio (%) Proxy.chu.edu.tw Cache Size 3G3G4G4G5G5G6G6G7G7G2G2G1G1G0 50 10 20 30 40 60 70 Effective cache size h eff

98 # of HTTP messages generated by a request. ICP, the centralized, and proposed protocol L2L1L0 (I) local hit 200 (II)remote hit 420 (III) miss 422

99 # of ICP messages generated by a request. ICPCentralizedproposed L2 L1 L2L1LiL2 L1 (I) local hit 0000000 (II) remote hit 2(n-1) 22200 (III) miss 2(n-1) 333 n-1

100 ICP: average # of HTTP messages L0: HL0 = 2(1-h eff )*n*r L1: HL1 = 2(n-1)/n *h eff *r+2(1-h eff )r+2/n(n-1)r L2: HL2 = HL1 + 2r L1/L2: IL=2(n-1)[n-1/n *h eff +(1-h eff )+1-h eff /n] ICP: average # of UDP messages

101 CRISP: average # of HTTP messages The same as ICP L1/L2: IL=2(n-1)/n *h*r+(1-h)*3*r Li: [(n-1)/n*2+(1-h)*3]*n*r CRISP : average # of UDP messages

102 DIST: average # of HTTP messages The same as ICP L1/L2: 2*(1-h)*(n-1)*r DIST : average # of UDP messages

103 Comparisons Average number of ICP messages n = 5 n = 4 h= 0.50.40.30.50.4 0.3 ICP(L1/L2)>14.4 >14.7 >15.0 >10.5 >10.8 >11.1 Cent(L1/L2) 2.32.442.582.252.42.55 Cent(Li) 11.512.212.999.610.2 Proposed 44.85.633.64.2

104 Comparisons Average number of HTTP messages n = 5 n = 4 h 0.50.40.30.50.4 0.3 L0 5 6 7 4 4.8 5.6 L12.62.482.362.52.42.3 L2 4.64.484.364.54.44.3

105 Implementation Modify squid 2.0 introduce a new type ICP message: I_Have

106 Conclusion of Proposed Totally remove the additional delay for remote cache lookup Suitable for a cooperative cache of less than 6 peers

107 Distributed Internet Cache Povey’97 Upper level servers only store the directory of documents cached in the leaf caches in its subtree

108 Distributed Internet Cache Povey’97

109

110 Summary Cache Use k hash functions and m-bit bit vector to store the directory info instead of URL- to-proxy-ID mapping (ID=1..n proxy servers) –Each proxy needs (n -1) m-bit vectors –Suppose 1G disk cache, each page ~ 32K: Total 32K page entries in cache 32K*40 bytes (URL length ~ 40 bytes and ignoring ID storage) for each proxy’s direcotry Total 1280K*(n-1) bytes for each proxy to store the cache info of all other n-1 proxies –For SC: m/8 * (n-1) bytes

111 SC: Experiments Wisconsin Proxy Benchmark 1.0: –a collection of client processes that issue requests following patterns observed in real traces including request size distribution and temporal locality and a collection of server processes that delay the replies to emulate latencies in the Internet

112 SC: Experiments 10 Sun Sparc 10 Mbs Ethernet –4 sparc: 4 proxy running Squid 75 MB cache –4 sparc: 30 processes on each processes issue requests with no thinking time in between and the requested document size follow the Pareto distribution with alpha=1.1 and k=3.0 –2 sparc: act as servers each with 15 servers listing on different ports two different cache hit ratios 25% and 40% Using netstat we collect the number of UDP datagrams sent and received the TCP packets sent and received and the total number of IP packets handled by the Ethernet network interface

113 SC: Experiments

114 SC: Bloom filter H1(URL) = P1 H2(URL) = P2 H3(URL) = P3 H4(URL) = P4 … Hk(URL) = Pk Hn () is a hash function, e.g. MD5 1 1 1 1 Bit vector V m bits

115 SC: Bloom filter After inserting n keys (nk bits), the probability that a particular bit is still 0 is (1-1/m) So, the probability of a false positive is kn ( 1- (1-1/m) ) kn k

116 SC: Bloom filter Update: –Update whole SC Threshold: when the digests differ beyond a threshold, say, 5% or 10%, Regular time intervals: every say 5 mins, –Piggybacking update notifications

117 SC: update delay impact

118 SC: Bloom filter Deletion operation for local digest: –For each bit in the m-bit vector, use an l -bit counter to record the number of times that a particular bit is turned on by different URLs –l = 4 by experience –If deletion is not supported, cache summary must be rebuilt from scratch on a periodic basis to erase stale bits and prevent bit pollution

119 Cache Digest Similar to summary cache

120 Beyond Hierarchy Design principles –Minimize the number of hops to locate and access data Separate data and metadata, hints, and cache-to-cache transfer –Do not slow down misses Location-hints –Share data among many caches Separate data paths and metadata paths, location-hints –Cache data close to clients Push caching

121 Hierarchy Delay

122 Beyond Hierarchy Cache Miss Rates

123 Beyond Hierarchy

124

125 CARP implemented in Microsoft® Proxy Server 2.0. (discontinued on March 31, 2001) Philosophically, protocols like ICPv2 are based on dynamic "pinging" of neighboring proxy to locate copies of cached objects. an alternate approach is based on hash-based routing of URLs using known "request resolution path" through a network of proxies that is determined by the URL of the request. An interesting side effect of this deterministic mechanism is that cache duplication is avoided. P.S. Microsoft Proxy was replaced by ISA Server includes a full-featured enterprise firewall and high-performance Web cache plus Proxy Server.

126 CARP For (each char in URL): URL_Hash += _rotl(URL_Hash, 19) + char ; For (each char in MemberProxyName): MemberProxy_Hash += _rotl(MemberProxy_Hash, 19) + char ; Becaues member names are often similar to each other, their hash values are further spread across hash space via the following additional operations: MemberProxy_Hash += MemberProxy_Hash * 0x62531965 ; MemberProxy_Hash = _rotl (MemberProxy_Hash, 21) ;.

127 CARP Hashes are combined by first exclusive or- ing (XOR) the URL hash by the machine name and then multiplying by a constant and performing a bitwise rotation. All final and intermediate values are 32 bit unsigned integers. Combined_Hash = (URL_hash ^ MemberProxy_Hash) ; Combined_Hash += Combined_Hash * 0x62531965 ; Combined_Hash = _rotl(Combined_Hash, 21) ;

128 Hyper Text Caching Protocol HTCP similar to ICP, but contain full HTTP request headers

129 Web Cache Control Protocol Cisco cache engine

130 Future works Reduce the number of messages generated –piggy-back approach with HTTP message Reduce the storage overhead for recording the cache contents of all the peers –bloom filter [Rousskov: digest cache] T = T icp + T lookup + [T remote + T icp ] –prefetch –redirection

131 Future works Reduce wasteful caching overhead –predict what object will not be reused –not-cachable object does not go through proxy QoS –IP basis –per-object basis


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