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CHAPTER 4 Examples/ Exemplification. An example is a specific instance or fact that is used to support an idea or a general statement illustrate 1.“An.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 4 Examples/ Exemplification. An example is a specific instance or fact that is used to support an idea or a general statement illustrate 1.“An."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 4 Examples/ Exemplification

2 An example is a specific instance or fact that is used to support an idea or a general statement illustrate 1.“An example is a specific instance or fact that is used to support an idea or a general statement.” “Writers frequently use examples to explain or illustrate a main idea” (73). illustratesupport 2.“Examples in an essay can both illustrate and support the thesis”... by providing “evidence in the form of actual situations that illustrate the thesis,” thus helping “convince the reader that the thesis is valid” (74).

3 Sentence Structures : Sentence Structures : 1. To take an example/instance from 1. To take an example/instance from English, the word “inconceivable” is written as one word but consists of three morphemes. such as 2. Institutions such as schools play a significant role in the establishment of young people’s cultural identity. e.g.exempli gratia 3. People with tooth decay should avoid sweet foods, e.g. (exempli gratia) cake, chocolate, and ice cream.

4 can be best illustrated by the fact that 4. This theory can be best illustrated by the fact that proficient learners build up an extensive vocabulary by constant reading. shows exemplifies, illustrates 5. The current event shows (exemplifies, illustrates) this concept. 6. The following example will serve to clarify the negative effects 6. The following example will serve to clarify the negative effects on children watching TV. i. e., id est 7. Senior officers—i. e., anyone with the rank of colonel or above—get their own administrative staff. (id est = that is to say)

5 The most common types of supporting the thesis 1. Brief Examples 1. Brief Examples: relating brief examples drawn from one’s own personal experiences or direct observations. 2. Extended Examples: 2. Extended Examples: longer, more detailed narratives of events that have involved you or people you know. 3. Statistics: 3. Statistics: If statistics are used fairly and correctly and are drawn from reliable resources, they are the most credible and effective type of support. 4. Expert Opinion or Testimony: 4. Expert Opinion or Testimony: information from or statements by authorities on the subject about which you are writing.

6 (A) (A) People, at least the ones in my town, seem to have become ruder as the population has increased. Yesterday, several drivers came up behind me gestured rudely even though I was driving 10 miles per hour over the speed limit. The other day, as my friend and I were sitting on the seawall, watching the sunset listening to the ocean waves, a rollerblader with a boom box going full blast sat down next to us. When we politely asked him to turn off his radio, he cursed at us and skated off. Every day, I see perfectly healthy people parking in spaces reserved for the handicapped, smokers lighting up in no-smoking areas and refusing to leave when asked, and people shoving their way into lines at movie theaters and grocery stores.

7 (B) (B) The senseless, brutal violence that we read about in the newspapers every day seems very distant from the average person, but it is really not far away at all. In fact, it can strike any one of us without any warning— just as it struck my uncle Silas last week. After having dinner with his wife and children, Silas had driven to the gas station at the corner of the First St. and Fifth St., where he was working part-time to earn extra money. Some time around 11:00 p.m., two men carrying a rifle and a shotgun approached him and demanded money. Uncle Silas was a good, brave man, but he was a realistic person. He knew when to cooperate, and that’s just what he did. He opened the cash register and the safe, then handed the intruders the keys to his new truck. Suddenly, they shot him in the head and ran away.

8 (C) (C) Parents must strive to find alternative to the physical punishment of children. Almost every effect of punishment is negative. Dr. Thomas Price, famous psychologist and professor at Stanford University, writes “Punishment is a traumatic experience not only in itself but also because it disappoints the child’s wish to believe in the benevolence of the parent, on which his sense of security rests.”

9 (D) (D) In fact, according to a study by the American Psychological Association, the average American child will view 8,000 murders and 100,000 other acts of violence before finishing elementary school. The average 27 hours a week kids spend watching TV— much of it violent—makes them more prone to aggressive and violent behaviors as adolescents and adults. TV executives have known this for a long time. One of the most comprehensive studies of the impact of violent TV was commissioned by CBS back in it found that teenage boys who have watched more hours of violent TV than average before adolescence were committing such violent crimes as rape and assault as a rate 49 percent higher than boys who watched fewer than average hours of violent TV.

10 “The Social Meaning of T-Shirts” Diana Crane 1. co-opted 1. co-opted ( 第 2 段第 6 行 ): to assimilate, take, or win over into a larger or established group cachet 2. cachet ( 第 2 段第 8 行 ): a sign or expression of approval grass-root 3. grass-root ( 第 2 段第 12 行 ): of, pertaining to, or involving the common people, esp. as contrasted with or separable from an elite bootlegged 4. bootlegged ( 第 2 段第 12 行 ): something, made, reproduced, or sold illegally or without authorization

11 dreadlock 5. dreadlock ( 第 2 段第 16 行 ): heavy matted coils of hair affirmation 6. affirmation (88 頁第 4 行 ): the assertion that something exists or is true batter 7. batter (88 頁第 6 行 ): to beat persistently or hard; pound repeatedly venue 8. venue (88 頁第 7 行 ): the scene or locale of any action or event sentiment 9. sentiment (88 頁第 10 行 ): an attitude toward something; regard; opinion denigration 10. denigration (88 頁第 10 行 ): to attack the character or reputation of; speak ill of; defame confiscate 11. confiscate (88 頁倒數第 2 行 ): to seize (private property) for the public treasury

12 Answer to Questions About the Reading 1. The use of T-shirts to communicate information began in the late 1940s (with faces and political slogans) and in the 1960s with commercial logos and other designs) ( 第 1 段 ) 2. Plastic inks, plastic transfers, and spray paint increase the use of T-shirts to communicate. ( 第 1 段 ) 3. The use of T-shirts to communicate differs from the use of the hat (which signaled social class status) by communicating “issues related to ideology, difference, and myth: politics, race, gender, and leisure.” ( 第 2 段第 4 行 )

13 4. The Bart Simpson T-shirt appeared to affirm African Americans as an ethnic group and to comment on “the narrow range of roles for black characters” on The Simpsons. (88 頁第 4 行 ) 5. He was “arrested and interrogated, and the T-shirts were confiscated and destroyed” because the T-shirts were considered politically threatening. (88 頁倒數第 2 行 )

14 Answer to Questions About the Writer’s Strategies 1. The main idea: Implied. T-shirts are a means of “social and political expression.” ( 第 3 段第 1 行 ) 2. a. The Bart Simpson T-shirts b. T-shirts that advertise products, support social and political commitment and causes, denigrate others, and express cynicism.

15 3. Each example is meant to communicate the wide range of issues or causes that T-shirts communicate. 4. a. The 2 nd paragraph could be made into more than one paragraph. b. The new paragraph starts from (87 頁倒數 第 6 行 ) “Occasionally, the T-shirt... for black characters on the show.” and (88 頁 第 4 行 ) “Victims of gender-related... Global advertising.”

16 c. The NEW topic sentence: “ Occasionally, the T-shirt becomes a 2 nd : “ Occasionally, the T-shirt becomes a medium for grass-root resistance.” medium for grass-root resistance.” “Other T-shirts make statements 3 rd : “Other T-shirts make statements about gender-related experiences, about gender-related experiences, hostilities, or cultural cynicism.” hostilities, or cultural cynicism.”

17 Kathryn VanSpanckeren is Professor of English at the University of Tampa, where she teaches American Literature, women's literature, and poetry writing. Her published works include Margaret Atwood: Vision and Forms (1988) and John Gardner: The Critical Perspective (1982), as well as numerous articles and poems.

18 F. Scott Fitzgerald Ernest Hemingway Gertrude Stain Ezra Pound William Faulkner T. S. Eliot John Steinbeck Karl Marx Sigmund Freud

19 F. Scott Fitzgerald F. Scott Fitzgerald ( ) Fitzgerald is regarded as one of the most influential novelists and short-story writers of the 20th century. He is viewed as the spokesman for the Jazz Age, America's decade of prosperity, excess, and abandon, which began soon after the end of W. W. I and concluded with the 1929 stock market crash. Thus, in his novels and stories, Fitzgerald examined an entire generation's search for the elusive American dream of wealth and happiness. Most of his stories were derived from his own experiences and portray the consequences of his generation's adherence to false values. The glamour and insouciance of many of Fitzgerald's writings reveal only one side of a writer whose second and final decade of work characterized a life marred by alcoholism and financial difficulties, troubled by personal tragedy, and frustrated by lack of inspiration

20 The Great Gatsby: First published in 1925, it is set on Long Island's North Shore and in New York City during the summer of 1922 and is a critique of the American Dream. The novel chronicles an era that Fitzgerald himself dubbed the "Jazz Age." Following the shock and chaos of World War I, American society enjoyed unprecedented levels of prosperity during the "roaring" 1920s as the economy soared. Meanwhile, Prohibition, the ban on the sale and manufacture of alcohol as mandated by the Eighteenth Amendment, made millionaires out of bootleggers and led to an increase in organized crime, for example the mafia. Although Fitzgerald, like Nick Carraway in his novel, idolized the riches and glamour of the age, he was uncomfortable with the unrestrained materialism and the lack of morality that went with it, a kind of decadence.

21 “The Curious Case of Benjamin Button”: “The Curious Case of Benjamin Button”: In Fitzgerald's story, Benjamin Button is born as a feeble old man who ages in reverse. So when he is "old" he looks very young. From a well-to-do family in Baltimore, Maryland, Button finds life easier in the middle years, when his biological and chronological ages fit in with the rest of the world. It is only when he is far too young at the end of his life and far too old at the beginning that problems arise. In the film version, Button is born in He ages backwards from old man to baby, causing complications when he falls in love with Daisy, a 30-year-old woman. Fitzgerald noted "This story was inspired by a remark of Mark Twain's to the effect that it was a pity that the best part of life came at the beginning and the worst part at the end." Both novel and film versions are dark portraits of romance and mortality. dded#

22 Ernest Hemingway Ernest Hemingway: (1899 –1961) was an American writer and journalist. He was part of the 1920s expatriate community in Paris, and one of the veterans of World War I later known as "the Los Generation." He received the Pulitzer Prize in 1953 for The Old Man and the Sea, and the Nobel Prize in Literature in Hemingway's distinctive writing style is characterized by economy and understatement, and had a significant influence on the development of 20th-century fiction writing. His protagonists are typically stoical men who exhibit an ideal described as "grace under pressure." Many of his works are now considered classics of American literature.

23 Lost Generation The “Lost Generation” is a term used to characterize a general motif of disillusionment of American literary notables who lived in Europe, most notably Paris, after World War I. Figures identified with the “Lost Generation” included authors and artists such as Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ezra Pound, Sherwood Anderson, John Dos Passos, and John Steinbeck. The term was often credited to author and poet Gertrude Stein an then popularized by Ernest Hemingway in the epigraph to his novel The Sun Also Rises and his memoir A Moveable Feast. (A few lines later, recalling the risks and losses of the war, he adds: "I thought of Miss Stein and Sherwood Anderson and egotism and mental laziness versus discipline and I thought 'who is calling who a lost generation?'") Broadly, the term is often used to refer to the younger literary modernists.


25 Gertrude Stein (1874 – 1946) was an American writer who spent most of her life in France, and who became a catalyst in the development of modern art and literature. An expatriate in Paris from 1903 until her death, she presided over a salon that attracted the avant garde and encouraged Modernism.

26 Ezra Pound Ezra Pound (1885 –1972) was an American expatriate poet, critic and intellectual who was a major figure of the Modernist movement in the first half of the 20th century. He is generally considered the poet most responsible for defining and promoting a modernist aesthetic in poetry. In the early teens of the twentieth century, he opened a fruitful exchange of work and ideas between British and American writers, and was famous for the generosity with which he advanced the work of such major contemporaries as Robert Frost, William Carlos Williams, H. D., Ernest Hemingway, and especially T. S. Eliot. Pound also had a profound influence on the Irish writers W. B. Yeats and James Joyce. His own significant contributions to poetry begin with his promotion of Imagism, a movement in poetry which derived its technique from classical Chinese and Japanese poetry— stressing clarity, precision, and economy of language, and forgoing traditional rhyme and meter in order to, in Pound's words, "compose in the sequence of the musical phrase, not in the sequence of the metronome." His later work, spanning nearly fifty years, focused on his epic poem The Cantos.


28 William Faulkner William Faulkner (1897–1962) was a Nobel Prize- winning American author. One of the most influential writers of the 20th century, his reputation is based on his novels, novellas and short stories. He was also a published poet and an occasional screenwriter. Most of Faulkner's works are set in his native state of Mississippi. He is considered one of the most important Southern writers along with Mark Twain, Flannery O'Connor, and Tennessee Williams. While his work was published regularly starting in the mid 1920s, Faulkner was relatively unknown before receiving the 1949 Nobel Prize in Literature. Since then, he has often been cited as one of the most important writers in the history of American literature.

29 William Faulkner

30 Thomas Stearns Eliot Thomas Stearns Eliot (1888–1965) was an American poet, playwright, and literary critic, arguably the most important English-language poet of the 20th century. His first notable publication, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, begun in February 1910 and published in Chicago in June 1915, is regarded as a masterpiece of the modernist movement. It was followed by some of the best-known poems in the English language, including, The Waste Land (1922), The Hollow Men (1925), and Four Quartets (1945). He is also known for his seven plays, particularly Murder in the Cathedral (1935) and The Cocktail Party (1949). He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in Eliot was educated at Harvard University. After graduating in 1909, he studied philosophy at the Sorbonne in Paris for a year, then won a scholarship to Merton College, Oxford in 1914, becoming a British citizen when he was 39.


32 The Waste Land The Waste Land is a 434 line Modernist poem by T. S. Eliot published in It has been called "one of the most important poems of the 20th century." Despite what is seen by some as the poem's obscurity – its shifts between satire and prophecy, its abrupt and unannounced changes of speaker, location and time, its elegiac but intimidating summoning up of a vast and dissonant range of cultures and literatures – the poem has nonetheless become a familiar touchstone of modern literature. Among its famous phrases are "April is the cruellest month" (its first line) and "I will show you fear in a handful of dust."

33 John Ernst Steinbeck, Jr. (1902–1968) was an American writer. He wrote the Pulitzer Prize- winning novel The Grapes of Wrath (1939) and the novella Of Mice and Men (1937). He wrote a total of twenty-seven books, including sixteen novels, six non-fiction books and five collections of short stories. In 1962, Steinbeck received the Nobel Prize for Literature.

34 The Grapes of Wrath The Grapes of Wrath is a novel published in 1939 and written by John Steinbeck, who was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1940 and the Nobel Prize for Literature in Set during the Great Depression, the novel focuses on a poor family of sharecroppers, the Joads, driven from their Oklahoma home by drought, economic hardship, and changes in the agriculture industry. In a nearly hopeless situation, they set out for California's Salinas Valley along with thousands of other "Okies" in search of land, jobs and

35 Karl Heinrich Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (1818 –1883) was a German philosopher, political economist, historian, political theorist, sociologist, communist and revolutionary, whose ideas are credited as the foundation of modern communism. Marx summarized his approach in the first line of chapter one of The Communist Manifesto, published in 1848: “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.” Marx argued that capitalism, like previous socioeconomic systems, will inevitably produce internal tensions which will lead to its destruction. Just as capitalism replaced feudalism, he believed socialism will, in its turn, replace capitalism, and lead to a stateless, classless society called pure communism.

36 Historical materialism Historical materialism is a methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history, first articulated by Marx. Marx himself never used the term but referred to his approach as "the materialist conception of history." Historical materialism looks for the causes of developments and changes in human society in the means by which humans collectively produce the necessities of life. The non-economic features of a society (e.g. social classes, political structures, ideologies) are seen as being an outgrowth of its economic activity. The mode of production of material life conditions the general process of social, political, and intellectual life. It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but their social existence that determines their consciousness.

37 Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) Freud was an Austrian neurologist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. Freud is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind and the defense mechanism of repression and for creating the clinical practice of psychoanalysis for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud is also renowned for his redefinition of sexual desire as the primary motivational energy of human life, as well as his therapeutic techniques, including the use of free association, his theory of transference in the therapeutic relationship, and the interpretation of dreams as sources of insight into unconscious desires. While many of Freud's ideas have fallen out of favor or have been modified by Neo- Freudians, and modern advances in the field of psychology have shown flaws in many of his theories. In academia, his ideas continue to influence the humanities and some social sciences.

38 *Jacques Lacan *Jacques Lacan (1901–1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist who made prominent contributions to psychoanalysis, philosophy, and literary theory. He gave yearly seminars, in Paris, from 1953 to 1981, mostly influencing France's intellectuals in the 1960s and the 1970s, especially the post-structuralist philosophers. His interdisciplinary work is Freudian, featuring the unconscious, the castration complex, the ego; identification; and language as subjective perception, and thus he figures in critical theory, literary studies, twentieth-century French philosophy, and clinical psychoanalysis.


40 “Between Two Wars, ” Kathryn VanSpanckeren 1. disillusionment ( 第 1 段第 5 行 ): A feeling arising from the discovery that something is not what it was anticipated to be. edifice 2. edifice ( 第 1 段第 6 行 ): a building, esp. one of large size or imposing appearance sham 3. sham ( 第 1 段第 7 行 ): A fake; an imitation that purports to be genuine; a spurious imitation; fraud or hoax. proclaim 4. proclaim ( 第 1 段第 7 行 ): to declare publicly, typically insistently, proudly.

41 5. amendment ( 第 4 段第 4 行 ): An addition to and/or alteration of the U.S. Constitution speakeasy 6. speakeasy ( 第 4 段第 5 行 ): a place where alcoholic beverages are illegally sold, esp. during the period of prohibition in the U.S. extravagance 7. extravagance ( 第 7 段第 2 行 ): A. excessive outlay of money; wasteful spending B. immoderate or absurd speech or behaviour drought 8. drought ( 第 8 段第 4 行 ): A long period of abnormally low rainfall,

42 the intellectual 9. the intellectual ( 第 9 段第 5 行 ): a person who places a high value on or pursues things of interest to the intellect or the more complex forms and fields of knowledge, as aesthetic or philosophical matters. J. Robert Oppenheimer 10. J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904–1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley. He is best known for his role as the scientific director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons at the secret Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. For this reason he is remembered as “The Father of the Atomic Bomb.”

43 Answer to Questions About the Reading 1. By “Civilization was a ‘vast edifice of sham, and the war, instead of its crumbling, was its fullest and most ultimate expression,’” the writer means that the was civilization’s “fullest and the most ultimate expression.” Namely, the war expressed what civilization stood for. (94 頁第 6~7 行 ) 2. The postwar boom in business caused the successful and the middles class to prosper and college enrollment to double. (95 頁第 1~3 行 )

44 3. The Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution gave women the right to vote. It was passed in In addition to giving women the right to vote, it also made women feel “liberated.” The Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution prohibited the production, transport, and sale of alcohol. Its effect was contribute to the proliferation of nightclubs, underground “speakeasies,” jazz, cocktails, and “daring modes of dress and dance.” (95 頁第 4 段第 3~6 行 ; 倒數第 3~1 行 )

45 4. People’s attitudes towards business and government changed from “the gospel” of business proclaimed by President Calvin Coolidge to support for an active role for the New Deal government programs of Franklin Roosevelt. The depression of the 1930’s caused people’s attitudes towards business and government to change. (96 頁第 9 段第 2~4 行 )

46 Answer to Questions About the Writer’s Strategies The United States “came of age” or “grew up” in the period between World War I and World War II. 1. The thesis of the essay: The United States “came of age” or “grew up” in the period between World War I and World War II The main idea of each paragraph: (1) Americans lost their innocence. (2) Soldiers wanted an urban life. (3) Business and education flourished and people prospered. (4) Americans sought modern entertainment.

47 (5) Youth rebelled and were angry with economic conditions that allowed Americans to live well abroad on little money. (6) Traditional values were undermined. (7) Western civilization was symbolized by novelists as needing spiritual renewal. (8) The depression of the 1930s affected most of the population of the United States. (9) “The depression turned the world upside down.”

48 Paragraphs 5, 6, and 7 could be combined because they pertain to how Americans felt and now novelists portrayed their disillusionment and loss of traditional values.

49 “Death in the Open” Lewis Thomas 1. outrage 1. outrage ( 第 2 段第 3 行 ): a wicked, wrong, eveil act, especially of great violence life expectancy 2. life expectancy ( 第 5 段第 2 行 ):the number of years that an individual is expected to live as determined by statistics temperate 3. temperate zones: 溫帶。 寒帶 : Frigid zones 。熱帶 : Torrid zone 。 4.disintegrate 4.disintegrate ( 第 5 段第 2 行 ): to become reduced to components, fragments, or particles

50 5.instinct 5.instinct ( 第 7 段第 1 行 ): a natural tendency for people and animals to behave in a particular way using the knowledge and abilities that they were born with rather than thought or training 6.obituary 6.obituary ( 第 10 段第 2 行 ): an article about somebody's life and achievements, that is printed in a newspaper soon after they have died 7. enormity 7. enormity ( 第 10 段第 5 行 ): the very great size, effect, etc. of something; the fact of something being very serious 8.multitude 8.multitude ( 第 11 段第 3 行 ): an extremely large number of things or people

51 Building Vocabulary (pay attention to) Building Vocabulary (pay attention to) 1. a. queer shock  a strange sudden feeling b. unaccountable amazement:  unexplained fascination c. visible death  death we see (or are aware of) openly d. transient tissue  moving, changing issue e. ponderous ceremony  heavy, clumsy, and thought-provoking rite

52 f. neighboring acres  nearby land g. natural marvel  something wondrous found in nature h. vast morality  wide scale process of dying i. relative secrecy  essentially without others knowing j. transient survivors  those survivors who come and go can’t last long

53 2. idiom a. upwelling of grief  a sudden overwhelming feeling of sorrow b. catch sight of  to see (as a discovery) c. on the wing  while flying d. in time  over s period of time e. no grasp... of  no understanding of f. for cause  for a specific identifiable reason

54 Thinking Critically about the Essay Understanding the Writer’s Ideas Understanding the Writer’s Ideas 1. Because they either blend into the natural environment or usually go off someplace hidden and alone to die. Because they include all types; whereas in the city, we usually see only dead dogs or cats on the highways. Because it seems improper to be there, and because he claims that we are surrounded by “visible death.”

55 2. That is something we think of only as an idea, not as a real event. That we become more aware of death as a natural event in the “renewal and replacement” process. Because it will put us more in touch with our surroundings and our own renewal and replacement cycles. 3. Because they seem to become their own offspring.

56 4.To make us question why death is not so obvious—namely, we see so few dead birds, yet all the thousands we see flying around must dies somewhere. In that, death is never as obvious as it seems that it should be. He says it is more startling than unexpectedly seeing a live bird. Because it is uncommon. It is so out of ordinary experience. 5.They usually go to find a concealed place to die. If not, others in the herd will move the body to a concealed place.

57 6.The “odd stump” is the thing which seems out-of-place. The late autumn fly dying on the front porch and the highway dog or cat fatality. 7.He has always had a problem of backyard squirrels, but he has never seen a dead squirrel. 8.It is just as well: the fact that death is usually concealed on nature. he feels that if this were not so, we should be too constantly aware of death.

58 9.(ironically) The fact that death is a normal, daily process. 10.He says we try to conceal death as well. We only really know of the deaths of people close to us; we only minimally publicize the life-death process in obituaries and birth announcements. We speak of the dead in low voices. This result is that we think of deaths as “unnatural events, anomalies, outrages,” and we remain unaware of the enormity of the natural process. We speak in low voices, perform ceremonies, scatter bones, and send flowers.

59 11. In order that we can better understand, and perhaps derive some comfort from the fact that even our own deaths are still part of a vast, ongoing natural process. We must give up the idea that death is “catastrophic, or detestable, or avoidable, or even strange.”

60 Understanding the Writer’s Techniques Understanding the Writer’s Techniques “Everything in the world dies, but we only know about it as a kind of abstraction.”. 1.The beginning of the 3 rd paragraph: “Everything in the world dies, but we only know about it as a kind of abstraction.” The last paragraph reminds us of the ways in which we keep this notion “a secret” and encourages us to face the reality instead of the abstraction.

61 natural death is usually hidden from us but indeed it should be perceived more openly through a heightened perception. the horror of a wreck with the gentleness of a deer. 2.His point is that natural death is usually hidden from us but indeed it should be perceived more openly through a heightened perception. The multiple examples “open our eyes” to surrounding death. “The mysterious wreckage” is particularly vivid as an image which affects the reader deeply by juxtaposition: the horror of a wreck with the gentleness of a deer.

62 3.The one illustration is “an animal dead on a highway,” although this is not a specific illustration because Thomas wants us to feel first the generality of death. Paragraph 3 widens the scope of paragraph 2 so that death is recounted not only as a natural occurrence but as a part of the universal process of “constant renewal and replacement.”

63 4.In paragraph 4-8, the first sentence of each paragraph is the topic sentence. The illustrated focus of each is as follows: 4 th : single-celled animal 5 th : insects 6 th : birds 7 th : elephants 8 th : common, “at home” observations (the fly, backyard squirrels)

64 7 th : concerning elephants makes use of an extended example 8 th : makes use of a personal observation 5.Paragraph 9 accomplishes a transition between the illustrations of paragraph 4- 8 and the discussion of the human dealings with death—both to link the two and to focus on the differences. The enormity of the statistical figures reminds us of the all-pervasiveness of death.

65 6.The first person pronouns help us to personalize the essay, both to Thomas’ experience and to our own. In other words, he “makes” us see what we usually don’t see. In paragraph 8, especially, he uses such pronouns to personalize the illustrations which would be familiar to most of his readers. “It” is used throughout to refer to either death itself, the process of dying, or the result of death. By using the pronoun multiply like this, Thomas is able to reinforce the inclusiveness of death, while at the same time emphasizing the abstract value that he claims we place on it.

66 7.a. the mysterious wreckage of a deer:  the atrocity which leaves us with an indecipherable feeling b. episodes that seem as conclusive as death:  final, without continuation c. drifting through the layers of the atmosphere like plankton:  swarming and directionless, like the plankton (one-celled animals) in the sea

67 8.“Drifting off like flies.” Namely, to fall, faint, or die suddenly and in a group, one after another. 9.a. alone, hidden:  emphasizes the isolation aspect of the process b. each morning, each spring  makes it simultaneously a daily and a cyclical (seasonal) occurrence

68 c. unusual events, anomalies, outrages  like “alone, hidden,” this repetition intensifies the feeling here of horrible strangeness d. catastrophe, or detestable, or avoidable, or even strange:  In this sentence, Thomas wants us to understand fully that we have to give up all the abstractions we have attributed to death.

69 IF rd : the repetition of IF denoting a situation of possibility WE 10 th : the repetition of WE to accentuate how we (human beings) deal with death within our own species WE 11 th : the repetition of WE used with the future tense or implied future action

70 pun paronomasia pun : (or paronomasia) the humorous use of a word or phrase so as to emphasize or suggest its different meanings or applications, or the use of words that are alike or nearly alike in sound but different in meaning; a play on words. homonym: 同形同音異義詞  bear (animal) and bear (carry), left (opposite of right) and left (past tense of leave) homophone: 同音異形異義詞  jean and gene; knot and not; flour and flower homograph: 同形異音異義詞  their and there; hear and here; to, too, and two

71 1.What starts with “t” ends in “t” and is full of “t”? a teapot 2.Why is a river rich? Because it has two banks. 3.We must all hang together, or assured we shall all hang separately. —Benjamin Franklin 4.Can the leopard its spots? Yes. The leopard changes its spots, wherever it goes from one spot to another.

72 5.On the first day of this week, he became very weak. 6.The student didn’t write well, so he tried to right the wrong. 7.With tears in her coat, she burst into tears. 8.What is black, white, and read all over? the newspaper

73 10. parallelism 10. parallelism: The use of identical or equivalent syntactic constructions in corresponding clauses or phrases. 1.A deaf husband and a blind wife are always a happy couple. 2.A university should be a place of light, of liberty, and of learning. 3.Rather than love, than money, than fame, give me truth. 4.The path of duty is the way to glory.

74 5.Treasure is not always a fried, but a friend is always a treasure. 6.Pleasure is a sin and sometimes sin is a pleasure. 7.Mankind must put an end to war—or war will put an end to mankind. —J.F.K. 8.The absence of evidence is not the evidence of absence.

75 antimetabole: 回文 antimetabole: ( 回文 :相同詞語,不同語序 ) antimetabole chiasmus In rhetoric, antimetabole is the repetition of words in successive clauses, but in transposed grammatical order (e.g., "I know what I like, and I like what I know"). It is similar to chiasmus although it does not use repetition of the same words or phrases. 1.Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country. 2.To be kissed by a fool is stupid; to be fooled by a kiss is worse. 3.Quitters never win, and winners never quit.

76 4.A well-educated man should know something of everything and everything of something. 5.Those who can't do—teach; and those who can't teach—do. 6.All for one, and one for all. 7.One should eat to live, not live to eat. —Cicero 4.Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate 5.Better is a witty fool than a foolish wit. —Shakespeare. 6.Success is getting what you want; happiness is wanting what you get.

77 chiasmus: 交叉排比 chiasmus:( 交叉排比 : 詞彙不同,詞序相反 ) chiasmus parallelism In rhetoric, chiasmus ("to shape like the letter X") is the figure of speech in which two or more clauses are related to each other through a reversal of structures in order to make a larger point; that is, the clauses display inverted parallelism (A-B,B-A). 1.Who does, yet doubts; suspects, yet strongly loves. —Shakespeare, Othello 2.Love is the irresistible desire to be desired irresistibly.

78 anadiplosis: 頂真 Anadiplosis anadiplosis: ( 頂真 ) Anadiplosis is the repetition of the last word of a preceding clause. The word is used at the end of a sentence and then used again at the beginning of the next sentence. Note that a chiasmus includes anadiplosis, but not every anadiplosis reverses itself in the manner of a chiasmus. 1.Having power makes [totalitarian leadership] isolated; isolation breeds insecurity; insecurity breeds suspicion and fear; suspicion and fear breed violence. 2.Fear leads to anger. Anger leads to hate. Hate leads to suffering.

79 3.The scientists split the atom; now, the atom is splitting us. 4.We also rejoice in our sufferings, because we know that sufferings produces perseverance; perseverance, character; and character, hope. And hope does not disappoint us. 5.A lady’s imagination is very rapid; it jumps from admiration to love, from love to matrimony, in a moment. — Jane Austen

80 Exploring the Writer’s Ideas Exploring the Writer’s Ideas euphemism ( 委婉 ) 2. euphemism: ( 委婉 ) The substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant ("passed away”=“died”). Other common euphemisms: restroom  toilet room making love to, playing with or sleeping with  having sexual intercourse with bathroom tissue, or bath tissue  toilet paper downsizing, rightsizing, or laying off  getting rid of employees

81 anaphora anaphora ( 首語重複 ):The deliberate repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several successive verses, clauses, or paragraphs. 1."What we need in the United States is not division. What we need in the United States is not hatred. What we need in the United States is not violence and lawlessness; but is love and wisdom and compassion toward one another, and a feeling of justice toward those who still suffer within our country.... — Robert F. Kennedy, Announcing the death of Martin Luther King

82 2.We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender. — Winston S. Churchill

83 3.I believe that every right implies a responsibility; every opportunity, an obligation; every possession, a duty. 4.To love and win is the best thing; to love and lose, the nest best. 5.Those who write clearly have readers; those who write obscurely have reviewers.

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