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Global/ International Issues Chapter Eleven
Chapter Objectives 1. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of entering global markets. 2. Discuss protectionism as it impacts the world economy. 3. Explain when and why a firm (or industry) may need to become more or less global in nature to compete. 4. Discuss the global challenge facing American firms. 11-2 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Chapter Objectives (cont.) 5. Compare and contrast business culture in the United States with many other countries. 6. Describe how management style varies globally. 7. Discuss communication differences across countries. 8. Discuss Africa as the newest hotspot for business entry. 11-3 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
A Comprehensive Strategic- Management Mode 11-4 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Global/International Issues The underpinnings of strategic management hinge on managers gaining an understanding of competitors, markets, prices, suppliers, distributors, governments, creditors, shareholders, and customers worldwide. The price and quality of a firm’s products and services must be competitive on a worldwide basis, not just on a local basis. 11-5 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
The Five Largest (by revenue) Companies in Nine Countries (2011) 11-6 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Fortune’s Most and Least Admired Companies in the World for “Global Competitiveness” 11-7 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Multinational Organizations Multinational corporations Organizations that conduct business operations across national borders 11-8 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Risks of Multinational Organizations Expropriation of assets Currency losses through exchange rate fluctuations Social/political disturbances Import/export restrictions Tariffs Trade barriers 11-9 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Advantages of International Operations 1. Firms can gain new customers for their products. 2. Foreign operations can absorb excess capacity, reduce unit costs, and spread economic risks over a wider number of markets. 3. Foreign operations can allow firms to establish low-cost production facilities in locations close to raw materials and/or cheap labor. 11-10 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Advantages of International Operations 4. Competitors in foreign markets may not exist, or competition may be less intense than in domestic markets. 5. Foreign operations may result in reduced tariffs, lower taxes, and favorable political treatment. 6. Joint ventures can enable firms to learn the technology, culture, and business practices of other people and to make contacts with potential customers, suppliers, creditors, and distributors in foreign countries. 11-11 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Advantages of International Operations 7. Economies of scale can be achieved from operation in global rather than solely domestic markets. 8. A firm’s power and prestige in domestic markets may be significantly enhanced if the firm competes globally. 11-12 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Disadvantages of International Operations 1. Foreign operations could be seized by nationalistic factions. 2. Firms confront different social, cultural, demographic, environmental, political, governmental, legal, technological, economic, and competitive forces when doing business internationally. 3. Weaknesses of competitors in foreign lands are often overestimated, and strengths are often underestimated. 11-13 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Disadvantages of International Operations 4. Language, culture, and value systems differ among countries, which can create barriers to communication and problems managing people. 5. Gaining an understanding of regional organizations is often required in doing business internationally. 6. Dealing with two or more monetary systems can complicate international business operations. 11-14 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
The Global Challenge America’s economy is becoming much less American. A world economy and monetary system are emerging. Markets are shifting rapidly and in many cases converging in tastes, trends, and prices. 11-15 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Globalization Globalization process of doing business worldwide, so strategic decisions are made based on global profitability of the firm rather than just domestic considerations 11-16 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Globalization Global strategy includes designing, producing, and marketing products with global needs in mind, instead of considering individual countries alone integrates actions against competitors into a worldwide plan 11-17 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Corporate Tax Rates Across Countries in 2011 11-18 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Cultural Pitfalls That May Help You Be a Better Manager 11-19 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Cultural Differences between U.S. and Foreign Managers Americans place an exceptionally high priority on time, viewing time as an asset. Many foreigners place more worth on relationships. Personal touching and distance norms differ around the world. Americans generally stand about three feet from each other when carrying on business conversations, but Arabs and Africans stand about one foot apart. 11-20 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Cultural Differences between U.S. and Foreign Managers Family roles and relationships vary in different countries. Business and daily life in some societies are governed by religious factors. Time spent with the family and the quality of relationships are more important in some cultures than the personal achievement and accomplishments espoused by the traditional U.S. manager. 11-21 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Cultural Differences between U.S. and Foreign Managers Many cultures around the world value modesty, team spirit, collectivity, and patience much more than competitiveness and individualism, which are so important in the United States. Punctuality is a valued personal trait when conducting business in the United States, but it is not revered in many of the world’s societies. 11-22 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Cultural Differences between U.S. and Foreign Managers To prevent social blunders when meeting with managers from other lands, one must learn and respect the rules of etiquette of others. Americans often do business with individuals they do not know, unlike businesspersons in many other cultures. 11-23 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Communication Differences Across Countries Italians, Germans, and French generally do not soften up executives with praise before they criticize. Americans do soften up folks, and this practice seems manipulative to Europeans. Israelis are accustomed to fast-paced meetings and have little patience for American informality and small talk. 11-24 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Communication Differences Across Countries British executives often complain that American executives chatter too much. Informality, egalitarianism, and spontaneity from Americans in business settings jolt many foreigners. Europeans feel they are being treated like children when asked to wear name tags by Americans. Executives in India are used to interrupting one another. 11-25 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Communication Differences Across Countries When negotiating orally with Malaysian or Japanese executives, it is appropriate to allow periodically for a time of silence. Refrain from asking foreign managers questions such as “How was your weekend?” That is intrusive to foreigners, who tend to regard their business and private lives as totally separate. 11-26 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Mexico-Business Culture Employers seek workers who are agreeable, respectful, and obedient, rather than innovative, creative, and independent. Mexican employers are paternalistic, providing workers with more than a paycheck, but in return they expect allegiance. 11-27 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Mexico-Business Culture Mexicans do not feel compelled to follow rules that are not associated with a particular person in authority they work for or know well. Mexicans are very status conscious so business titles and rank are important. 11-28 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Japan-Business Culture The Japanese place great importance on group loyalty and consensus, a concept called Wa. When confronted with disturbing questions or opinions, Japanese managers tend to remain silent. 11-29 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Japan-Business Culture Most Japanese managers are reserved, quiet, distant, and introspective, whereas most U.S. managers are talkative, insensitive, impulsive, direct, and individual oriented. Unlike Americans, Japanese prefer to do business on the basis of personal relationships rather than impersonally speaking over the phone or by written correspondence. 11-30 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Brazil-Business Culture Avoid embarrassing a Brazilian by criticizing an individual publically. That causes that person to lose face with all others at a business meeting. Appointments are commonly cancelled or changed at the last minute in Brazil, so do not be surprised or get upset. 11-31 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Germany-Business Culture Germans are like Americans in that they do not need a personal relationship to do business. They are more interested in a businessperson’s academic credentials and their company’s credentials. German meetings adhere to strict agendas, including starting and ending times. 11-32 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Egypt-Business Culture Egyptians prefer to do business with those they know and respect, so expect to spend time cultivating a personal relationship before business is conducted. In Egypt, business moves at a slow pace and society is extremely bureaucratic. 11-33 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
China-Business Culture The Chinese rarely do business with companies or people they do not know. Your position on an organizational chart is extremely important in business relationships. Arriving late to a meeting is an insult and could negatively affect your relationship. Meetings require patience because mobile phones ring frequently and conversations tend to be boisterous. 11-34 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
India-Business Culture People in India do not like to say “no,” verbally or nonverbally. Rather than disappoint you, they often will say something is not available, or will offer you the response that they think you want to hear, or will be vague with you. 11-35 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
India-Business Culture Indians prefer to do business with those whom they have established a relationship built upon mutual trust and respect. Punctuality is important. Indians generally do not trust the legal system and someone’s word is often sufficient to reach an agreement. 11-36 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Sampling of African Countries—Ease- of-Doing-Business Rankings 11-37 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Sampling of Asian Countries—Ease-of- Doing-Business Rankings 11-38 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Sampling of European Countries— Ease-of-Doing-Business Rankings 11-39 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
Sampling of North and South American Countries—Ease-of-Doing-Business Rankings 11-40 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
11-41 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
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