Presentation on theme: "Framtidens Skolbibliotek OBSl Ingen foranmalan Malmo University 23 April 2009 Carol Gordon Rutgers The State University of New Jersey"— Presentation transcript:
Framtidens Skolbibliotek OBSl Ingen foranmalan Malmo University 23 April 2009 Carol Gordon Rutgers The State University of New Jersey
The Changing Role of the School Librarian in Literacy 20 th Century: Recreational Reading Library collection centered Reading motivation Broadening reading interests Free Voluntary Reading (FVR) Sustained Silent Reading Summer Reading 21 st Century: Reading for Understanding Digital reading environments, Unmediated reading materials Reading in the content areas Strategic Reading Standards for 21 st Century Learning
Reading digital text Readers have developed new strategies for handling the huge volume of information. The role of paper is changing. People have begun to read on their screens. Mobile devices provide a better medium for reading Reading is passive and less interactive. Let them print! Annotation Gathering Clipping Sharing
Rules of Thumb Never give a child something to read that is at instructional or frustration level if you expect him to read it independently. Children should only be given reading materials at instructional level if: They will be instructed during the reading They will be shown how to use strategies They will be instructed in the use of strategies
Clues to Reading Levels Independent: Can read completely on their own with 95%+ accuracy. Good comprehension. Instructional: Can read 75%+ on their own. Some comprehension. Frustration: Below 70% accuracy with little or no comprehension. On-the-Fly Assessment How many words do they read incorrectly? How many do they stop and self-correct? How long does it take to read? What can they recall and discuss?
Strategic Reading: Raising Consciousness about Comprehension The first step is to make them conscious. When comprehension breaks down, many students skip sections or words that are confusing and pick the text up again where they can understand it. The problem is, they have lost valuable information and opportunity to improve their own reading. Strategies That Work. Goudvis & Harvey
Information Search Process Tasks Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation → Feelings uncertainly optimism confusion clarity sense of satisfaction or (affective) frustration direction/ disappointment doubt confidence Thoughts vague →focused (cognitive) → increased interest Actions seeking relevant information →seeking pertinent information (physical) exploring documenting Information-to-knowledge experience LITERACY AND INQUIRY THROUGH THE INFORMATON SEARCH PROCESS Stages of the Information Search Process represent critical Zones of Intervention
Task Initiation TaskThoughtsFeelingsActionsInterventions /Strategies Prepare for select- ing a topic Contemplate assignment; Comprehend task; Consider possible topics Apprehen- sion Uncertainty Talking with others Browsing library collection Brainstorming Discussing Contemplating possible topics Tolerating uncertainty Interventions: Check for prior knowledge; Activate prior knowledge K-W-L Charts; concept maps; visuals reflection sheet. Other strategies: Skimming books for headings, tables of content, glossaries, indexes, pictures Reading selected passages to build background knowledge Building motivation and engagement, but not the false confidence of surfing the Net Avoid information overload (Use print sources; webquests) No note taking! Identifying personal interests. s and blogs FeelingsThoughts Actions
Prior Knowledge Research shows that there is no difference between the recall of good and poor readers when their prior knowledge is the same. Therefore, prior knowledge can be instrumental in improving reading comprehension.
Concept Mapping Inspiration software: /
Activating Prior Knowledge Before reading begins, it is essential to activate students’ prior knowledge to: Help them to focus on the topic Give them concrete information to begin researching Act as a tool to unravel confusion about the topic Provide a solid foundation for research
Digital K-W-L What I know What I now want to learn How can I find out? What I learned What can go into a terrarium? How often should I water it? Can insects live in them? How can I use a digital camera in my classroom? Is it easy to use? She recorded her answers on pieces or paper and created a video from the pile of cards by flipping them. She used a digital camera to photograph a series of chart- paper diagrams of a terrarium activity. Then the images were assembled into an animation, suitable for presenting in PowerPoint, or over the web. In the original presentation, our subject, Lia, had designed her presentation to be displayed in a "flip-chart" manner. This is a great method for supporting student presentations in an elementary school classroom -- whether or not the teacher uses the high-tech or the low-tech method. About my learning
K-W-L will… Focus students on the topic and organize the information that they already know. Raise questions generated by the student. Inspire confidence in student’s ability to complete the project. Provide a starting point for strategic research rather than unfocused searching.
Using Visuals to Assess Prior Knowledge Why pictures? They inspire questions and interest. Provide a tangible element when focus blurs and clarity is elusive. Offer a starting point. Offer support of a group working with similar themes, situations.
Visuals The Research Assignment Topic: Battles of the U.S. Civil War Questions: What has emerged for you as potential interests and topics? What connections have you made? What information have you generated?
Reflection Sheet Share your photos and Ideas/insights/imaginings What have you learned? As a group, share your organizers and compile a comprehensive list What do you collectively Know about the American Civil War? Photographs: Which One captures your attention?
Topic Selection TaskThoughtsFeelingsActionsStrategies/ Interventions Decide on topic Weighing topics against criteria: inter- est, require- ments, info available, time Predicting outcome of choices Choosing topic with potential success Confusion Sometimes anxiety Brief elation after selection Anticipation of prospective task Consulting with info mediators Making preliminary searches Using info sources Discussing possible topics Predicting outcome of choices Using general sources for overview of possible topics Interventions: Blogs, Wikis, Webquests Other Strategies: Avoid information overload (Use print sources; webquests) Identifying personal interests. s and blogs; No note-taking; clearing up misconceptions; anchor experiences; Helping students choose reading materials (Picture books); Making inferences from book covers, illustrations; Mental modeling; Thinking aloud; Tracking thinking; Sifting topic from details ThoughtsActions Feelings
Blogs Blogs are a social networking tool that helps student express their thoughts in writing beyond the wall os the school. They encourage critical thinking and social learning. Literature blogs can elevate the quality of discussions and elicit broader participation from students Research blogs become a forum for students to talk about their progress and difficulties during inquiry units of study. Add audio or video or both for Multi-tasking
Peanut Butter Wiki https://www.pbwiki.com https://www.pbwiki.com Set up wikis for collaborative group projects with faculty and students Students use wikis to brainstorm ideas, develop rough drafts and peer edit (Writing Process) The teacher posts exemplars Experiment with blogs and wikis to build a 24/7 readers’ advisory
What to do with Wikipedia The teacher takes the class through a key Wikipedia article on a topic related to the course, pointing out its strengths and weaknesses, and inviting the class to edit it Students use other sources to determine accuracy of the facts in a Wikipedia article The teacher assigns groups of students to evaluate Wikipedia articles, using research from other sources as an evaluative tool The class takes on specific Wikipedia articles. The first group of students creates the articles and successive groups update and expand them. A collection of “teacher approved” articles can be produced in many subjects, making Wikipedia better as time goes on.
Literature Learning Ladders San Diego City Schools: Literature-based Projects Linda’s Links to Literature More Sites
Focus Formulation TaskThoughtsFeelingsActionsStrategies/ Interventions Form ulate a focus from the inform ation found Predicting outcome of possible foci using interest, require- ments, avail- ability, time Identifying ideas in info to form focus Moment of insight Optimism Confidence in ability to complete task Reading notes for themes Making a survey of notes; Listing possible foci; Choosing a focus, discarding others; Combining themes to form focus Interventions: Blogs, Wikis, Webquests; text-to-self connections Other strategies: Identifying personal interests. s, internet, blogs Gradual release of responsibility; Pair/four-way shares; Keeping a journal Feelings Thoughts Actions
Text-to-self: Exploring the Self A student will more readily connect a text to herself before connecting to other outside influences like other texts and the world around her. This skill, when made conscious, creates empathy and critical thinking. Students will make more specific choices about focus and clarity of their project in a more independent fashion.
Information Collection TaskThoughtsFeelingsActionsStrategies/ Interventions Gather info that defines extends, supports focus Seek info to support focus Define & extend focus thru info Gathering Pertinent info Organizing info in notes Realize ex- tensive work to be done Confid- ence in ability to com- plete task; Increased interest Use library to collect pertinent info Request specific sources from librarian Take notes & citations Using descriptors to search out pertinent info Making comprehensive search of various types of materials Using indexes Request help from librarian Interventions: Sticky Notes, Making connections text-to-text; text-to-world; self- monitoring Other strategies: Gradual release of responsibility; Reading between the lines (making comparisons); coding text with sticky notes; Highlighting, Graphic organizers; concept maps (note collection + analysis); Distinguishing important from less important ideas; Drawing inferences; Blogs; s; Zoomerang/Survey Monkey; Databases; Websites; Info lit instruction for digital environments Feelings Thoughts Actions
Sticky Notes: Reading with a Pen Take reading out of the abstract realm Allow students to interact with the text and have a record of their questions and ideas. Gives voice to student questions, concerns, confusion and vocabulary issues Students begin to color code their notes. This is a pre- writing process
Graphic Organizer: What’s a Workhouse? Read the excerpt on Victorian workhouses and with a small group, complete the modified KWL chart.
Making Connections as Strategy When students can connect to a work, idea, picture, it stimulates the activation of prior knowledge and their interest in the topic. Types of connections: Text-to-text Text-to-self Text-to-world
Text-to-text The Hero saves the day. If s/he can’t, supernatural forces do! Good over comes evil
Text-to-World: The Connection Scrooge rejects the idea of helping the poor. This comes back to haunt him when he pleads for mercy from the ghost of Christmas Present. The ghost throws Scrooge’s own words back at him: “Are there no workhouses?”
Student Work Dear Mr. Scrooge, My name is Julia Rose. I’m the wife of Bret Rose. His name may sound familiar to you because at one point in time he worked for you. My husband has too much pride to ask for such a huge favor, but will you please give him his job back, or at least consider it? The workhouses are a terrible place to live and to try to raise children. Families are split up and people are treated like the scum of a stray dog’s paw in this place. My husband was sentenced to three weeks bread and water for meals just for saying hello to me one day during lunch time. Everyday it’s the same routine – get up at dawn and work until nightfall. Our daughter has just turned 9 this past March and they have her out in the fields picking and planting crops with her bare hands. I know you must get many of these letters daily, but please, I beg of you, Mr. Scrooge, give my husband his job back, or any job. Sincerely, Julia Rose
Observations About Students’ Work What is most interesting about the letters students wrote was that they involved children in some way. They identified with the material in an elemental way and experienced it personally. From here, students were able to discuss the underlying reason for the workhouses on their own – “they just hid the poor from the rich,” one student said before a journal workshop. Students were able, on their own, to identify and discuss the political nature of the workhouses and what purposes they truly served in the 19th century. They were able to achieve that critical analysis and connection on their own.
Copy of text students are reading/students record information Student’s Interpretation of the text completed before class discussion or reflection. Revised Interpretations that occur after class discussion or reflection. Students interact with Information to make Meaning. Self Monitoring
TaskThoughtsFeelingsActionsStrategies/ Interventions Conclude information search Identifying need for additional info Considering time limit Diminishing relevance Redundancy Sense of relief Sometimes satisfaction Sometimes disappoint- ment Rechecking sources for information initially overlooked Confirming information and citations Returning to library to make summary search Keeping books until completion of writing (etc.) to recheck information Presentation Interventions: Authentic Learning Tasks, Formative Assessments (rubrics, journals, checklists, portfolios, peer review of drafts, self-evaluations) Making connections; Making inferences; Predicting; Analyzing; Synthesizing; Re- telling to synthesize; Evolving thinking by summarizing + personal responses; Seeking answers to questions that have none; Production tools-PowerPoint; Web design; Word Processing to academic formats; Citation Machine; Word Processing (writing is synthesis) Feelings Thoughts Actions
The Diary of Anne Frank… In Search of Truth You are an Investigative Reporter for YTN (Youth Television Network). You have been assigned the job of research- ing and writing a news story aboutnews story holocaust survivals. Your arch rival, Mat Fritzlinger,Mat Fritzlinger, from YBC (Youth Broadcasting Company) recently made a public statement denying events recorded in The Diary of Anne Frank. According to him the diary is a hoax. He, along with many others, believe none of these events, or any events like them have ever taken place. Your job is to gather and publish data that will persuade Mat and his followers to seriously question their beliefs.
Information Search Process Tasks Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation → Feelings uncertainly optimism confusion clarity sense of satisfaction or (affective) frustration direction/ disappointment doubt confidence Thoughts vague →focused (cognitive) → increased interest Actions seeking relevant information →seeking pertinent information (physical) exploring documenting Information-to-knowledge experience INQUIRY THROUGH THE INFORMATON SEARCH PROCESS Stages of the Information Search Process represent critical Zones of Intervention
Guided Inquiry for Knowledge Construction Guided Inquiry is carefully planned, closely supervised targeted intervention of an instructional team of school librarians and teachers to guide students through curriculum based inquiry units that build deep knowledge and deep understanding of a curriculum topic, and gradually lead towards independent learning. Guided Inquiry is grounded in a constructivist approach to learning, based on the Information Search Process developed by Kuhlthau, for developing students’ competence with learning from a variety of sources while enhancing their understanding of the content areas of the curriculum. Novice Expert Vygotsky Kuhlthau Zone of Proximal DevelopmentZones of Intervention Uncertainty Understanding Constructivism Meta-cognition
Literacy Learning in the 21 st Century National Council of Teachers of English Council of Teachers of English Twenty-first century readers and writers need to be able to: Develop proficiency with the tools of technology; Build relationships with others to pose and solve problems collaboratively and cross-culturally; Design and share information for global communities to meet a variety of purposes; Manage, analyze, and synthesize multiple streams of simultaneous information; Create, critique, analyze, and evaluate multi-media texts; and Attend to the ethical responsibilities required by these complex environments.
Research-based Practices for Literacy Learning Aligning literacy efforts in preschool and early grades with middle and high school assures a continuum of instruction and learning. Twenty-first century students need to gather information from multiple sources, evaluate their reliability, and apply their findings effectively. Twenty-first century technologies can engage students in learning. Twenty-first century assessment be different because of technology. IMPLICATIONS: EARLY CHILDHOOD LITERACY; PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT; PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT; STRONG TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE IN SCHOOLS