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GROUNDWORK FOR A BETTER VOCABULARY Fourth Edition B ETH J OHNSON J ANET M. G OLDSTEIN © 2011 Townsend Press.

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Presentation on theme: "GROUNDWORK FOR A BETTER VOCABULARY Fourth Edition B ETH J OHNSON J ANET M. G OLDSTEIN © 2011 Townsend Press."— Presentation transcript:

1 GROUNDWORK FOR A BETTER VOCABULARY Fourth Edition B ETH J OHNSON J ANET M. G OLDSTEIN © 2011 Townsend Press

2 Chapter 2 analyze deliberate attitude excessive category fragile contrast frustration criticalindicate

3 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Analyze means A. to plan. B. to study. C. to create. Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 1 analyze Someone in the laboratory will analyze the blood sample to see if the patient has an illness. Before we can suggest solutions, we must carefully analyze the city’s money problems. – verb

4 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. One would study the blood sample to see if the patient is ill. And one would study the money problems in order to suggest solutions. Analyze means A. to plan. B. to study. C. to create. Someone in the laboratory will analyze the blood sample to see if the patient has an illness. Before we can suggest solutions, we must carefully analyze the city’s money problems. 1 analyze – verb

5 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 2 attitude Attitude means A. set of rules. B. background. C. way of thinking. Athletes need to have a positive attitude. Even if they have lost the previous game, they need to come to the next one ready to win. Rudy came to the party with a very poor attitude; he was sure he’d be bored and wouldn’t have any fun. – noun

6 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Coming to the next game prepared to win is a positive way of thinking. Arriving at a party expecting to be bored is a poor way of thinking. Athletes need to have a positive attitude. Even if they have lost the previous game, they need to come to the next one ready to win. Rudy came to the party with a very poor attitude; he was sure he’d be bored and wouldn’t have any fun. Attitude means A. set of rules. B. background. C. way of thinking. 2 attitude – noun

7 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Category means A. goal. B. feeling. C. group. Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 3 category When Jasmine was in high school, she didn’t seem to fit into any category. She wasn’t an athlete, a scholar, or a rebel. The small store had many jazz and rock recordings, but not much in the category of country music. – noun

8 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Athletes, scholars, and rebels are three groups or types of students. Jazz, rock, and country music are three groups or types of music. Category means A. goal. B. feeling. C. group. When Jasmine was in high school, she didn’t seem to fit into any category. She wasn’t an athlete, a scholar, or a rebel. The small store had many jazz and rock recordings, but not much in the category of country music. 3 category – noun

9 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Everyone is surprised to see that there is a contrast between Peggy’s eyes. One eye is brown, and the other is green. I was struck by the contrast between the fancy houses west of Main Street and the poor neighborhoods to the east. 4 contrast Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Contrast means A. disappointment. B. place. C. difference. – noun There is a contrast between these two colors.

10 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. If one eye is brown and the other green, there is a difference between Peggy’s eyes. And if there are fancy houses in one part of town and poor neighborhoods in another part, there is a difference between the two parts of town. Everyone is surprised to see that there is a contrast between Peggy’s eyes. One eye is brown, and the other is green. I was struck by the contrast between the fancy houses west of Main Street and the poor neighborhoods to the east. Contrast means A. disappointment. B. place. C. difference. There is a contrast between these two colors. 4 contrast – noun

11 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Critical means A. faultfinding. B. jealous. C. proud. 5 critical – adjective My boss can be very critical of me when I don’t do my best work, but she’s also quick to praise me when I do well. My aunt is critical of her neighbors. She calls them lazy because their house needs painting and their yard is overgrown with weeds.

12 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. The boss praises good work but finds fault with less good work. If the aunt calls the neighbors lazy, she is finding fault with them. Critical means A. faultfinding. B. jealous. C. proud. My boss can be very critical of me when I don’t do my best work, but she’s also quick to praise me when I do well. My aunt is critical of her neighbors. She calls them lazy because their house needs painting and their yard is overgrown with weeds. 5 critical – adjective

13 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Deliberate means A. easy. B. fair. C. planned. Manny’s pushing me was quite deliberate; it wasn’t accidental at all. I’m sure our neighbor knew that the tall tree he was planting would keep the sun from our flowers. It was a deliberate dirty trick. 6 deliberate – adjective

14 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. If the pushing wasn’t accidental, it must have been planned. If the neighbor knew the tree would block the sun, planting it was a planned dirty trick. Deliberate means A. easy. B. fair. C. planned. Manny’s pushing me was quite deliberate; it wasn’t accidental at all. I’m sure our neighbor knew that the tall tree he was planting would keep the sun from our flowers. It was a deliberate dirty trick. 6 deliberate – adjective

15 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Excessive means A. overly great. B. off and on. C. normal. Excessive speed caused the accident; the truck driver was going nearly eighty miles an hour. Mrs. Hill’s concern about her little boy’s health is excessive. She rushes him to the doctor every time he gets the sniffles or scrapes his knee. 7 excessive – adjective

16 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Eighty miles an hour is overly great speed or more speed than is reasonable. If Mrs. Hill rushes her son to the doctor for every little thing, she is showing overly great concern about his health. Excessive means A. overly great. B. off and on. C. normal. Excessive speed caused the accident; the truck driver was going nearly eighty miles an hour. Mrs. Hill’s concern about her little boy’s health is excessive. She rushes him to the doctor every time he gets the sniffles or scrapes his knee. 7 excessive – adjective

17 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Fragile means A. broken. B. strong. C. breakable. 8 fragile – adjective The lamp is fragile, so when you pack it, please put it in a deep box with plenty of newspaper around it. Our bones become more fragile with age. That is why elderly people often break their hips when they fall.

18 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Using plenty of newspaper would protect the breakable lamp. If elderly people often break their hips, their bones are breakable. Fragile means A. broken. B. strong. C. breakable. The lamp is fragile, so when you pack it, please put it in a deep box with plenty of newspaper around it. Our bones become more fragile with age. That is why elderly people often break their hips when they fall. 8 fragile – adjective

19 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Frustration means A. relief. B. discouragement. C. pleasure. As Dan studied the instructions for setting up his computer, a look of frustration crossed his face. “I’ll never figure this out!” he groaned. Elaine felt great frustration when she failed her driving test for the third time. 9 frustration – noun

20 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Not being able to figure out the instructions would cause Dan discouragement. And failing the driving test three times would cause Elaine great discouragement. Frustration means A. relief. B. discouragement. C. pleasure. As Dan studied the instructions for setting up his computer, a look of frustration crossed his face. “I’ll never figure this out!” he groaned. Elaine felt great frustration when she failed her driving test for the third time. 9 frustration – noun

21 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Indicate means A. to hide. B. to show. C. to plan. 10 indicate Jeff’s frown seemed to indicate that he was unhappy with our plan. The parking-lot attendant pointed to indicate that Lonnie should drive the car all the way up to the fence. – verb A sign that indicates a sharp turn in the road

22 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Jeff’s frown shows he was unhappy. By pointing, the attendant is showing Lonnie where to park the car. The sign shows or signals a sharp curve. Indicate means A. to hide. B. to show. C. to plan. Jeff’s frown seemed to indicate that he was unhappy with our plan. The parking-lot attendant pointed to indicate that Lonnie should drive the car all the way up to the fence. A sign that indicates a sharp turn in the road 10 indicate – verb

23 CHECK 1 2.After losing every game last season, the soccer players began training this year with a poor __________. If their mind-set doesn’t improve, they will have another losing season. 1.To avoid the __________ of failing the driving test again, Elaine has decided to take driving lessons. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. analyzeB. attitudeC. categoryD. contrastE.critical F. deliberateG. excessiveH. fragileI. frustrationJ. indicate

24 CHECK 1 2.After losing every game last season, the soccer players began training this year with a poor __________. If their mind-set doesn’t improve, they will have another losing season. 1.To avoid the __________ of failing the driving test again, Elaine has decided to take driving lessons. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. attitude frustration Failing the test again would be a disappointment for Elaine. Losing every game would cause the players to have a poor state of mind. The words mind-set are a clue. A. analyzeB. attitudeC. categoryD. contrastE.critical F. deliberateG. excessiveH. fragileI. frustrationJ. indicate

25 4.__________ eating during the holidays led to my gaining three pounds. CHECK 1 5.A road sign with a picture of a leaping deer _________s that deer often cross the road at that spot. 3.A planned action is __________. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. analyzeB. attitudeC. categoryD. contrastE.critical F. deliberateG. excessiveH. fragileI. frustrationJ. indicate

26 4.__________ eating during the holidays led to my gaining three pounds. CHECK 1 5.A road sign with a picture of a leaping deer _________ that deer often cross the road at that spot. 3.A planned action is __________. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. deliberate Excessive indicates The word planned is a clue. Gaining weight is often caused by eating too much. Road signs serve as signals to drivers. A. analyzeB. attitudeC. categoryD. contrastE.critical F. deliberateG. excessiveH. fragileI. frustrationJ. indicate

27 CHECK 1 6.When Maggie _________d her reasons for wanting to marry Joe, she realized that they were not good ones. 7.Many teenagers feel their parents are too __________ of their clothing, music, and friends. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. analyzeB. attitudeC. categoryD. contrastE.critical F. deliberateG. excessiveH. fragileI. frustrationJ. indicate

28 CHECK 1 6.When Maggie _________ her reasons for wanting to marry Joe, she realized that they were not good ones. 7.Many teenagers feel their parents are too __________ of their clothing, music, and friends. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. analyzed critical In order to realize her reasons were not good ones, Maggie must have examined those reasons carefully. It is common for parents to be disapproving of their teenage children’s clothing, music, and friends. A. analyzeB. attitudeC. categoryD. contrastE.critical F. deliberateG. excessiveH. fragileI. frustrationJ. indicate

29 9.Which __________ of movie do you prefer, comedy or action-adventure? 10.I was surprised by the __________ between kind, gentle Bill and his impatient, bad-tempered brother. CHECK 1 8.Something that is __________ can be easily damaged. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. analyzeB. attitudeC. categoryD. contrastE.critical F. deliberateG. excessiveH. fragileI. frustrationJ. indicate

30 9.Which __________ of movie do you prefer, comedy or action-adventure? 10.I was surprised by the __________ between kind, gentle Bill and his impatient, bad-tempered brother. CHECK 1 8.Something that is __________ can be easily damaged. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. fragile category contrast “Easily damaged” is one of the definitions of fragile. Comedy and action-adventure are two types of movies. If one brother is kind and gentle and the other is impatient and bad tempered, there is an obvious difference between them. A. analyzeB. attitudeC. categoryD. contrastE.critical F. deliberateG. excessiveH. fragileI. frustrationJ. indicate

31 SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS 1.analyze A. rememberB. examine C. find fault withD. use Synonyms. Choose the word or phrase that most nearly means the same as the boldfaced word. 2.attitude A. heightB. outlook C. knowledgeD. skill

32 SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS 1.analyze A. rememberB. examine C. find fault withD. use 2.attitude A. heightB. outlook C. knowledgeD. skill Analyze means “to examine carefully” or “study closely.” Attitude means “a point of view” or “a state of mind.” Synonyms. Choose the word or phrase that most nearly means the same as the boldfaced word.

33 SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS 3.category A. groupB. purpose C. reactionD. problem 4.critical A. absentB. frightened C. nervousD. disapproving 5.indicate A. planB. conceal C. showD. disappoint Synonyms. Choose the word or phrase that most nearly means the same as the boldfaced word.

34 SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS 3.category A. groupB. purpose C. reactionD. problem 4.critical A. absentB. frightened C. nervousD. disapproving 5.indicate A. planB. conceal C. showD. disappoint A category is a group of people or things that have something in common. Critical means “disapproving” or “tending to find fault with.” Indicate means “to show” or “to serve as a sign or signal.” Synonyms. Choose the word or phrase that most nearly means the same as the boldfaced word.

35 SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS 6.contrast A. differenceB. environment C. enjoymentD. sameness Antonyms. Choose the word or phrase that most nearly means the opposite of the boldfaced word. 7.deliberate A. accidentalB. harmful C. helpfulD. fortunate

36 SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS 6.contrast A. differenceB. environment C. enjoymentD. sameness 7.deliberate A. accidentalB. harmful C. helpfulD. fortunate Contrast means “an obvious difference.” Deliberate means “done on purpose” or “carefully planned.” Antonyms. Choose the word or phrase that most nearly means the opposite of the boldfaced word.

37 SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS 8.excessive A. not realB. not enough C. unexpectedD. required 9.fragile A. damagedB. unbreakable C. unnecessaryD. beautiful 10.frustration A. showing ignoranceB. feeling hatred C. being satisfiedD. expressing surprise Antonyms. Choose the word or phrase that most nearly means the opposite of the boldfaced word.

38 SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS 8.excessive A. not realB. not enough C. unexpectedD. required 9.fragile A. damagedB. unbreakable C. unnecessaryD. beautiful 10.frustration A. showing ignoranceB. feeling hatred C. being satisfiedD. expressing surprise Excessive means “too much” or “more than is reasonable.” Fragile means “easily broken or damaged.” Frustration means “a feeling of anger or helplessness” or “disappointment.” Antonyms. Choose the word or phrase that most nearly means the opposite of the boldfaced word.


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