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Manuscript Status 2004. PUBLISHED: Feng, X., J. D. Hansen, B. Biasi, J. Tang, and E. J. Mitcham. 2004. Use of hot water treatment to control codling moths.

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Presentation on theme: "Manuscript Status 2004. PUBLISHED: Feng, X., J. D. Hansen, B. Biasi, J. Tang, and E. J. Mitcham. 2004. Use of hot water treatment to control codling moths."— Presentation transcript:

1 Manuscript Status 2004

2 PUBLISHED: Feng, X., J. D. Hansen, B. Biasi, J. Tang, and E. J. Mitcham Use of hot water treatment to control codling moths in harvested California ‘Bing’ sweet cherries. Postharv. Biol. Technol. 31: Feng, X., J. D. Hansen, B. Biasi, J. Tang, and E. J. Mitcham Use of hot water treatment to control codling moths in harvested California ‘Bing’ sweet cherries. Postharv. Biol. Technol. 31: Hansen, J. D., S. R. Drake, M. L. Heidt, M. A. Watkins, J. Tang, and S. Wang Hansen, J. D., S. R. Drake, M. L. Heidt, M. A. Watkins, J. Tang, and S. Wang Radio frequency treatments for postharvest codling moth control in fresh apples. HortTechnology 14: Hansen, J. D., S. Wang, and J. Tang A cumulated lethal time model to evaluate efficacy of heat treatments for codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in cherries. Postharv. Biol. Technol. 33: Hansen, J. D., S. Wang, and J. Tang A cumulated lethal time model to evaluate efficacy of heat treatments for codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in cherries. Postharv. Biol. Technol. 33: Wang, S., X. Yin, J. Tang, and J.D. Hansen Thermal resistance of different stages of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 40: Wang, S., X. Yin, J. Tang, and J.D. Hansen Thermal resistance of different stages of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 40: ACCEPTED: Hansen, J. D., S. R. Drake, M. L. Heidt, M. A. Watkins, J. Tang, and S. Wang. Radio frequency-hot water for postharvest control of codling moth in ‘Bing’ sweet cherries. HortTechnology.Hansen, J. D., S. R. Drake, M. L. Heidt, M. A. Watkins, J. Tang, and S. Wang. Radio frequency-hot water for postharvest control of codling moth in ‘Bing’ sweet cherries. HortTechnology. Yin, X., S. Wang, J. Tang, and J. D. Hansen. Thermal resistance of fifth-instar Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) as affected by pretreatment conditioning. J. Stored Produc. ResYin, X., S. Wang, J. Tang, and J. D. Hansen. Thermal resistance of fifth-instar Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) as affected by pretreatment conditioning. J. Stored Produc. ResSUBMITTED: Drake, S. R., J. D. Hansen, D.C. Elfving, J. Tang, and S. Wang. Hot water to control codling moth in sweet cherries: efficacy and quality. J. Food Qual.Drake, S. R., J. D. Hansen, D.C. Elfving, J. Tang, and S. Wang. Hot water to control codling moth in sweet cherries: efficacy and quality. J. Food Qual. Hansen, J. D., S. R. Drake, M. L. Heidt, M. A. Watkins, J. Tang, and S. Wang.Hansen, J. D., S. R. Drake, M. L. Heidt, M. A. Watkins, J. Tang, and S. Wang. Potential radio frequency-hot water dip treatment for postharvest codling moth control in fresh apples. J. Food Process. Preserv.

3 Pulsed application for heating uniformity in apple

4 James D. Hansen Michele Watkins USDA-ARS Wapato, WA Steven R. Drake USDA-ARS Wenatchee, WA

5 Problem Replace cold storage/MeBr fumigation treatment with an equivalent RF procedureReplace cold storage/MeBr fumigation treatment with an equivalent RF procedure Obtain required efficacy with no loss in fruit qualityObtain required efficacy with no loss in fruit quality Compatible to commercial operationsCompatible to commercial operations

6 Goal: Uniform Heating Electrodes Energy

7 The Reality Electrodes Energy

8 Objectives Uniform heatingUniform heating Probit 9 efficacy against fifth instar codling mothProbit 9 efficacy against fifth instar codling moth Maintain fruit qualityMaintain fruit quality

9 Materials and Methods

10 Experimental design Fruits initially at room temperatureFruits initially at room temperature Use YARL fruit mover in RF unitUse YARL fruit mover in RF unit Use pulse mode to enhance uniform heatingUse pulse mode to enhance uniform heating Treat until fruits reach efficacious temperature (> 50°C)Treat until fruits reach efficacious temperature (> 50°C) Verify heat uniformity by multiple measurementsVerify heat uniformity by multiple measurements Hold, if necessary, in fruit moverHold, if necessary, in fruit mover Hydrocool to room temperatureHydrocool to room temperature Target shortest treatment durationTarget shortest treatment duration

11 Jet spray Direction Fruit Input-output pipes

12 YARL Apple Mover

13 Specifications Size: 25 cm ht, 66 cm dia, 53 litersSize: 25 cm ht, 66 cm dia, 53 liters Holds 40 applesHolds 40 apples Operates at 2 ampsOperates at 2 amps Rotates at 5 to 7 cycles/minRotates at 5 to 7 cycles/min Water conductivity ~ 600 µsWater conductivity ~ 600 µs Initial water temperature = 21°CInitial water temperature = 21°C Pulse mode for heat uniformity (30 sec on/30 sec off)Pulse mode for heat uniformity (30 sec on/30 sec off)

14 Results

15 Heat Uniformity

16          = 1, 2 cm Sampling Sites

17 Fruit Temperatures (°C) 30on/20off Pulse

18 Fruit Temperatures (°C) 30on/30off Pulse

19 Fruit Temperatures (°C) 29 min, 30/30 Pulse, 5 min Hold 29 min, 30/30 Pulse, 5 min Hold

20 Conclusion RF duration for 29 min at 30/30 pulse mode, then held for 5 minRF duration for 29 min at 30/30 pulse mode, then held for 5 min Replicable average temperaturesReplicable average temperatures Standard deviation < 1°CStandard deviation < 1°C Range < 4°CRange < 4°C

21 Efficacy

22 Exposure time (min)

23 Conclusion No survivors for 5 min holding at 29min RF exposureNo survivors for 5 min holding at 29min RF exposure Lowest possible exposure for quarantineLowest possible exposure for quarantine

24 Fruit Quality

25 Experimental design Same as used for efficacy testsSame as used for efficacy tests Replicated four times, 40 fruits per treatmentReplicated four times, 40 fruits per treatment Examined at Wenatchee LabExamined at Wenatchee Lab Held for 1 month at 1°C (First Observation, 20 fruits)Held for 1 month at 1°C (First Observation, 20 fruits) Examined fruits removed and held one week at 25°C (Second Observation,20)Examined fruits removed and held one week at 25°C (Second Observation,20) Measured:Measured:  Surface and internal colors  Internal breakdown, scald  Visual appearance

26 First Observation : Held one month in cold storage (1°C) before evaluation

27 Physical Properties

28 Firmness

29 External

30 External

31 Internal

32 Internal

33 Internal Damage One day after treatment

34 Second Observation: Held one month in cold storage (1°C) before evaluation (as with the previous observation)Held one month in cold storage (1°C) before evaluation (as with the previous observation) Then one week at room temperatureThen one week at room temperature All had severe damageAll had severe damage

35 Preliminary Tests with Papayas

36 Same Protocol as Apples

37  Papaya Measurements   

38 Papaya #1 Range 43.5 to 49.1 °C

39 Papaya #2 Range 44.2 to 48.8 °C

40 After Treatment

41 Future Needs Need to develop batch methods ( > 500 fruits at a time)Need to develop batch methods ( > 500 fruits at a time) How to deal with multiple layers of floating fruitsHow to deal with multiple layers of floating fruits Heat uniformity (interfruit and intrafruit) within a batchHeat uniformity (interfruit and intrafruit) within a batch Maintain fruit quality (esp. after packing line)Maintain fruit quality (esp. after packing line) Temperature control in systemTemperature control in system

42 Future Needs Continued Induction of heat shock proteins (hsp) in codling moth larvae from the orchard (weather)Induction of heat shock proteins (hsp) in codling moth larvae from the orchard (weather) If so, the impact on hot or cold resistanceIf so, the impact on hot or cold resistance Reliable method for identifying hspReliable method for identifying hsp

43 End


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