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RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Si-Based RF & Microwave device SiGe HBT Technology 2004-21454 김 경 운.

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Presentation on theme: "RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Si-Based RF & Microwave device SiGe HBT Technology 2004-21454 김 경 운."— Presentation transcript:

1 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Si-Based RF & Microwave device SiGe HBT Technology 김 경 운

2 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 2 Si vs III-V material  Competitive III-V technology. –Processing maturity –Integration level –Yield –Cost  Recent work –passive & transmission lines on Si Si-based MMIC’s possible

3 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 3 Why Si?  High quality dielectric(SiO 2 ) grown on Si –Used for isolation, passivation, active layer (e.g gate oxide)  Grown in very large, defect free single crystals  Excellent thermal properties  Controllably doped n- & p-type impurities –High dynamic range(10 14 ~10 22 cm -3 )  Facilitating ease of handling & fabrication  Easy to make low resistance ohmic contact

4 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 4 Ge content in SiGe  Stability diagram –Effective film thickness as func of effective film strain( Ge content) –‘metastable’ generating device-killing defects in the process Thermodynamically stable metastable SiGe films remain stable after processing SiGe film must be very thin

5 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 5 History of SiGe technology f T =75GHz HBT 1990 SiGe BiCMOS tech LSI ckt (DAC) 1993 Commercial Production on 200mm wafer 1994 Various technology have been Demonstrated using variety epitaxial growth technologies 1994~

6 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 6 III. The SiGe HBT  DC characteristics  Frequency response  Low-freq and broad-band noise  Reliability  Temperature effect

7 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 7 1.DC characteristics  Graded –base(Ge) –Dependence Ge produces an electric-field Transport of carrier Improve freq response  Collector current-density(Jc) –Reduce barrier at EB junction More charge transfer Increase current gain Ratio of the DOS between SiGe & Si Difference between the electron & hole mobilities in the base

8 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 8 1.DC characteristics(cont’)  Graded Ge –Enhancement in output conductance –Physically base profile toward the CB side of the neutral base Effectively harder to deplete for a given bias than Si-BJT Current gain – Early voltage product

9 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 9 III. The SiGe HBT  DC characteristics  Frequency response  Low-freq and broad-band noise  Reliability  Temperature effect

10 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon Frequency response  Built in field effectively decreases base transit time  Emitter transit time also decreases.

11 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 11 III. The SiGe HBT  DC characteristics  Frequency response  Low-freq and broad-band noise  Reliability  Temperature effect

12 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon Low-freq and broad-band noise  1/f noise –Limit on the system: phase noise in mixer & oscillator –Comparable to Si-BJT –Superior to III-V HBT or FET

13 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon Low-freq and broad-band noise(cont’) Low power,low noise application

14 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 14 III. The SiGe HBT  DC characteristics  Frequency response  Low-freq and broad-band noise  Reliability  Temperature effect

15 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon Reliability  DC lifetime test –0.8x12um 2 0.8x25um 2 No degradation!!!

16 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon Reliability(cont’)  R.B at EB-junction –Open collector stress –4V up to 10min –Ic not change –Ib change DC current gain decrease!!

17 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon Reliability(cont’)

18 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon Reliability(cont’) S21 S11,S12,S22 practically no change S21 mainly variation!!! if Ic is const S21 variation minimize!!!

19 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 19 III. The SiGe HBT  DC characteristics  Frequency response  Low-freq and broad-band noise  Reliability  Temperature effect

20 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon Temperature effect  Cryogenic environment Current gain:500 fT=60GHz fmax=50GHz

21 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon Temperature effect(cont’)  Ge misplacement –Reduce the collector current & cutoff freq –Due to parasitic energy barriers –f T degradation Caused by the reduction of the collector current Pileup of minority carrier in the base

22 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon Temperature effect(cont’)  Ge ramp-effect E g,Ge (0): bandgap reduction due to Ge at EB depletion bias V BE temp T E g,Ge (grade): grading across the quasi-neutral base Ic Vbe space charge width reducing Ge at boundary Produce bias & Temp dependence

23 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon Temperature effect(cont’)  neutral base recombination –I B : hole current, impact ionization current, NBR –Small V CB : impact ionization current negligible –Effective electron diff length is comparable to neutral base width Reduction electron lifetime due to the presence of traps in base  High injection barrier effect

24 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 24 IV. Technology Issues  Growth & film stability  Passive and transmission lines on Si  SiGe BiCMOS for system on chip

25 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon Growth & film stability  Several keys – film uniformity and control for both doping, Ge content, film thickness, Ge profile shape. –Film contaminants must be miniscule : excellent interface quality –Growth conditions allow abrupt doping transitions with large dynamic range  Ge content –8~12% base width 80~100nm –16~24% base width 40~50nm –Limit base transit time

26 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 26 IV. Technology Issues  Growth & film stability  Passive and transmission lines on Si  SiGe BiCMOS for system on chip

27 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon Passive and transmission lines on Si  Passive element  Precision resistor –Made from heavily doped polysilicon on oxide  MIM Cap –high Q factor & precision  Inductor –high Q & high inductance

28 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon Passive and transmission lines on Si  Transmission lines –Low loss lines required 24GHz |S21|=0.7dB

29 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 29 IV. Technology Issues  Growth & film stability  Passive and transmission lines on Si  SiGe BiCMOS for system on chip

30 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon SiGe BiCMOS for system on chip  System-on-chip ?  Cost ?  But In the RF world –Important signal isolation decrease size, improve performance, reliability, reduce cost!!!

31 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 31 V. Status & future  Past –Target freq : 900MHz~2GHz  Present –Various freq. band C-band(4~8GHz) X-band(8~12.5GHz) Ku-band(12.5~18GHz) K-band(18~26.5GHz) V-band(50~75GHz) Very rapidly Increasing!!!

32 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 32 V. Status & future(cont’) LNA PA

33 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 33 V. Status & future(cont’)  Johnson limit –f T BV CEO product Tradeoff between f T & BV CEO How high will f T go?  In the region of F max –Reduced parasitic component

34 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 34 Conclusion  Motivation for SiGe tech. –Competitive III-V tech  Technology has been rapidly developed.  Good performance  RF system-on-chip solution : BiCMOS tech. Future for SiGe appears bright!!!

35 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 35 References [1]J.W.Slotboom, G.Streutker, A.Pruijmboom, and D.J.Gravesteijin, “Parasitic energy barriers in SiGe HBT’s”,IEEE Electron Device Lett,Vol12 pp sept.1991 [2] Burghartz, J.N.; Soyuer, M.; Jenkins, K.A.; Kies, M.; Dolan, M.; Stein, K.J.; Malinowski, J.; Harame, D.L.; “Integrated RF components in a SiGe bipolar technology”Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of, Volume: 32, Issue: 9, Sept Pages: [3] Larson, L.; Case, M.; Rosenbaum, S.; Rensch, D.; Macdonald, P.; Matloubian, M.; Chen, M.; Harame, D.; Malinowski, J.; Meyerson, B.; Gilbert, M.; Maas, S.; “Si/SiGe HBT technology for low-cost monolithic microwave integrated circuits” Solid-State Circuits Conference, Digest of Technical Papers. 43rd ISSCC., 1996 IEEE International, 8-10 Feb [4] Crabbe, E.F.; Cressler, J.D.; Patton, G.L.; Stork, J.M.; Comfort, J.H.; Sun, J.Y.-C.; “Current gain rolloff in graded-base SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors” Electron Device Letters, IEEE, Volume: 14, Issue: 4, April 1993 [5] Salmon, S.L.; Cressler, J.D.; Jaeger, R.C.; Harame, D.L.; “The impact of Ge profile shape on the operation of SiGe HBT precision voltage references” Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting, Proceedings of the, Sept. 1997

36 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 36 References [6] Schumacher, H.; Erben, U.; Gruhle, A.; “Low-noise performance of SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors” Microwave Symposium Digest, 1994., IEEE MTT-S International, May 1994 Pages: vol.2 [7] Joseph, A.J.; Cressler, J.D.; Richey, D.M.; Jaeger, R.C.; Harame, D.L.; “Neutral base recombination and its influence on the temperature dependence of Early voltage and current gain-Early voltage product in UHV/CVD SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on, Volume: 44, Issue: 3, March 1997 Pages: [8] Burghartz, J.N.; Soyuer, M.; Jenkins, K.A.; Kies, M.; Dolan, M.; Stein, K.J.; Malinowski, J.; Harame, D.L.; “Integrated RF components in a SiGe bipolar technology” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of, Volume: 32, Issue: 9, Sept Pages:1440 – 1445 [9] Larson, L.; Case, M.; Rosenbaum, S.; Rensch, D.; Macdonald, P.; Matloubian, M.; Chen, M.; Harame, D.; Malinowski, J.; Meyerson, B.; Gilbert, M.; Maas, S.; “Si/SiGe HBT technology for low-cost monolithic microwave integrated circuits” Solid-State Circuits Conference, Digest of Technical Papers. 43rd ISSCC., 1996 IEEE International, 8-10 Feb Pages: , 422 [10] Joseph, A.J.; Cressler, J.D.; Jaeger, R.C.; Richey, D.M.; Harame, D.L.; “Neutral base recombination in advanced SiGe HBTs and its impact on the temperature characteristics of precision analog circuits”Electron Devices Meeting, 1995., International, Dec Pages:

37 RF & Millimeter-wave Integrated Systems Lab. Kim Kyoung-woon 37 References [11] Cressler, J.D.; Crabbe, E.F.; Comfort, J.H.; Sun, J.Y.-C.; Stork, J.M.C.; “An epitaxial emitter-cap SiGe-base bipolar technology optimized for liquid- nitrogen temperature operation”Electron Device Letters, IEEE, Volume: 15, Issue: 11, Nov Pages:472 – 474 [12] Cressler, J.D.; “SiGe HBT technology: a new contender for Si-based RF and microwave circuit applications” Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on, Volume: 46, Issue: 5, May 1998 Pages:572 – 589 [13] Kuchenbecker, J.; Borgarino, M.; Bary, L.; Cibiel, G.; Llopis, O.; Tartarin, J.G.; Graffeuil, J.; Kovacic, S.; Roux, J.L.; Plana, R.; “Reliability investigation in SiGe HBT's” Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems, Digest of Papers Topical Meeting on, Sept Pages:


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