1Group 3-Youngjin Kang, Alyssa Nolde, Antoinette Sellers, Zhiheng Zhou “Measuring Emotion: Behavior, Feeling, and Physiology” By: Margaret M Bradley & Peter J. LangGroup 3-Youngjin Kang, Alyssa Nolde, Antoinette Sellers, Zhiheng Zhou
2Why do the authors focus on specific muscles? Why do they matter? Responses of facial muscles help to characterize how emotions are expresses physiologically.Studying specific muscles like the zygomatic muscle provides information to researchers about how physiological responses accompany perceptions of arousal and affect of stimuli
3Figure 11.6 Patterns of physiological response Shows that: Facial corrugator EMG activity (top) left) and heart rate (top right) vary as function of picture valenceEx. Strong contraction of the corrugator muscle when a picture is rated as unpleasantSkin conductance activity (bottom left) and cortical evoked potentials (bottom right) vary with picture arousalEx. As arousal increased, skin conductance increased
4Figure 11.7Figure 11.7 shows the correlation between individula’s affective judgments of pleasure and arousal with with their physiological and behavioral responseCorrugator EMG, zygomatic, and heart rate vary with differences in rates pleasureEx. Zygomatic activity increases as the pleasantness of the stimuli increasesSkin conductance, cortical evoked potentials, and viewing time vary with arousal ratingsCortical activity increases as arousal increases
5What does heart rate measure? Triphasic pattern of heart rate responseInitial deceleration (unpleasant)Followed acceleration (unpleasant)Secondary decelerationElectrocardiogramHeart rate monitor
6What does skin conductance measure? Skin conductance, also known as galvanic skin response (GSR), reflects activation of the autonomic nervous system by measuring the electrodermal activityIndexation of arousal
8Brain Activities Processing Emotional Pictures Coronal PlaneofOccipital LobeLang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., Fitzsimmons, J. R., Cuthbert, B. N., Scott, J. D., Moulder, B., & Nangia, V. (1998). Emotional arousal and activation of the visual cortex: An fMRI analysis. Psychophysiology, 35(2),Overlapping areas General visual processing (Calcarine fissure + Brodmann ‘s area 18) (Lang, et al., 1998).Emotional Stimuli1. More overall activation with emotional pictures.2. Right occipital gyrus activation with only emotional pictures (Lang, et al., 1998).
9Discuss how these measures can yield meaningful patterns and examples of analyses leading to them. Sex Differences of Brain activity with Emotional PicturesMain EffectMore right posterior activation with emotional pictures regardless of sex (Lang, et al., 1998).Interaction Effect1. More right posterior activation of unpleasant stimuli for female participant's.2. More right posterior activation of pleasant stimuli for male participants(Lang., et al., 1998).Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., Fitzsimmons, J. R., Cuthbert, B. N., Scott, J. D., Moulder, B., & Nangia, V. (1998). Emotional arousal and activation of the visual cortex: An fMRI analysis. Psychophysiology, 35(2),