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Beyond "listen and repeat" - an overview of English pronunciation teaching materials Magdalena Wrembel Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań

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Presentation on theme: "Beyond "listen and repeat" - an overview of English pronunciation teaching materials Magdalena Wrembel Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Beyond "listen and repeat" - an overview of English pronunciation teaching materials Magdalena Wrembel Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań magdala@amu.edu.pl

3 2 Introduction 4 Unexplored question - have material designers responded to changing perspectives? 4 Jones (1997): "In spite of a changed phonological focus [...] teaching techniques and tasks continue to rely on the behaviourist notions of SLA such as habit formation". 4 My intention: to examine how recent SLA findings and new trends in pronunciation pedagogy are reflected in pronunciation materials 4 Selected materials: –textbooks –computer software –Internet web sites

4 3 Outline of the presentation 4 Theoretical introduction - changing perspectives in pronunciation pedagogy 4 Analysis of materials –Model accents –Goals and priorities –Common core features –Pronunciation teaching techniques 4 Conclusions

5 4 Changing perspectives in pronunciation pedagogy 4 Historical outline of pronunciation instruction: 4 Grammar Translation - irrelevant 4 Direct Method - intuition & imitation 4 Audiolingual Method - important, drills 4 Communicative Approach - initially disregarded, growing awareness

6 5 Changing perspectives in pronunciation pedagogy (2) 4 Shift in priorities (segmentals < suprasegmentals) 4 Contextualisation and fluency-building 4 Widened scope of pronunciation instruction 4 Holistic approach 4 Autonomy and speech awareness 4 New technologies

7 6 Materials analysis - model accents Textbooks (31)CD-ROMs (13)Internet resources BE-19? - 2BE- 4AE-10 4 Phonetics reference sites 4 Phonetic labs 4 Professional organisations 4 Text files 4 Sound files AE-10? - 2

8 7 Target model variety - years of publication

9 8 Redirection of priorities segmentals suprasegmentals segmentals+suprasegm.

10 9 Focus on segmentals 1 4 1960s-70s 4 Detailed treatment of Vs & Cs 4 Optional features: –consonantal clusters, –weak forms, –linking, –elements of stress & intonation

11 10 Focus on segmentals 2 4 Textbooks: 4 Baker,A. 1977. Ship or sheep? An intermediate pronunciation course. 4 Baker, A. 1982. Tree or Three? An elementary pronunciation course. 4 Barnard,G.L. & P.S.McKay. 1963. Practice in spoken English. 4 Hooke,R. & J. Rowell. 1982. A handbook of English pronunciation. 4 Kenyon,J. S. 1956. American pronunciation. 4 MacCarthy,P.1965. A practice book of English speech. 4 Munro Mackenzie,M.D.1973. Modern English pronunciation practice.

12 11 Segmentals + suprasegmentals 1 4 1980s - 1990s 4 Vs - quantitative & qualitative, emphasis differs 4 Cs - focal areas: aspiration, contrast, fortis / lenis, clusters 4 Suprasegmentals: stress & rhythm, connected speech, weak forms, intonation 4 Additional features: spelling - sound correspondence, guidance for different L1, voice quality

13 12 Segmentals + suprasegmentals 2 4 Arabski,J. 1987. Wymowa amerykańska. 4 Cunningham S, & B. Bowler. 1999. New Headway Pronunciation Course 4 Hewings,M. 1993. Pronunciation tasks. A course for pre-intermediate learners. 4 O'Connor,J. D. & J. Fletcher.1989. Sounds English. 4 O'Connor,J. D. 1967 (1989). Better English pronunciation. 4 Orion,G. 1997. Pronouncing American English: sounds, stress, and intonation. 4 Ponsby, M. 1982. How Now, Brown Cow? 4 Reszkiewicz,A. 1981. Correct your English pronunciation. 4 Sobkowiak,W. 1996. English phonetics for Poles. 4 CD PRONUNCIATION POWER 4 CD SPEAK FLUENT AMERICAN ENGLISH 4 CD MOULTON INTERACTIVE INTRO TO PHON & PHON 4 CD FONETYKA ANGIELSKA W PIGUŁCE 4 CD HUMMINGBIRD 4 SOUND MACHINES

14 13 Suprasegmentals 1 4 Stress - (word stress, nuclear stress, unaccented syllables, schwa, weak forms) 4 Rhythm- (thought groups) 4 Intonation - (communicative function, discourse-based) 4 Secondary importance –Connected speech –Individual sounds - selected aspects »aspiration, voicing, consonantal contrasts, clusters »vowel duration »practised in the context of connected speech

15 14 Suprasegmentals 2 4 Bogle,D. 1996. Practical phonology. 4 Bradford, B. 1988. Intonation in Context. 4 Brazil,D. 1994. Pronunciation for advanced learners of English. 4 Gilbert,J. 1993. Clear speech. 4 Miller,S.F. 2000. Targeting pronunciation: the intonation, sounds, and rhythm of American English. 4 Morley, J. 1979. Improving Spoken English. 4 Mortimer,C. 1985. Elements of pronunciation. 4 Prator,C. 1951 (1985). A manual of American English pronunciation. 4 Rogerson,P. & J.B.Gilbert. 1990. Speaking clearly. 4 Vaughan-Rees, M. 1994. Rhymes and Rhythm. 4 Weinstein, N. 1982. Whaddaya Say? 4 Zawadzki, H. 1994 In tempo. 4 CD BETTER ACCENT TUTOR.FOR AMERICAN ENGLISH 4 CD PRONUNCIATION IN AMERICAN ENGLISH 4 CD CONNECTED SPEECH

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17 16 Pronunciation syllabi - common core features vs. LFC 4 85%weak vowel 4 77% intonation 4 74% word stress 4 70%vowel quantity 4 67%vowel quality 4 67%tonic stress46% -consonantal clusters 4 67%unstressed syllables44% -linking 4 63%rhythm (thought groups)41% - rhotic r 4 59% diphthongs37% -assimilation 4 56%dental fricatives37% -aspiration 4 52%weak forms32% -fortis / lenis 4 52% consonants18% -spelling / sound 4 48% elisions18% - dark l

18 17 Pronunciation teaching techniques 4 "Listen and repeat" 4 Minimal pair drills –Sample materials: Higgin's Home Page, Baker 1977, Baker 1982, Barnard & McKay 1963, O'Connor 1967, O'Connor & Fletcher 1989, Orion 1997, Cunningham & Bowler 1999 4 Ear training -recognition/discrimination –Baker 1977, Baker 1982, O'Connor 1967, O'Connor & Fletcher 1989, Clear Speech Works (CD), Ponsby 1982, UCL 4 Phonetic training –Reszkiewicz 1981, Arabski 1987, Brazil 1994, Orion 1997, The Mouton Interactive Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology (CD), Fonetyka angielska w pigułce (CD), PHON2, UCLA's Phonetic Lab, Maidment's Pronunciation Tip of the Day

19 18 Pronunciation teaching techniques (2) 4 Reading aloud / recitation –Mortimer 1985, Bradford 1988, Brazil 1994, Ponsby 1982 4 Tongue twisters and poems –Vaughan-Rees 1994, Reck's Collection of Tongue Twisters 4 Pronunciation games –Maidments' Sound Machines, Windmayer's Sounds of English Pronunciation Power (CD), Bogle 1996, Hancock 2003 4 Communicative / contextualised activities –Morley 1979, Bradford 1988, O'Connor & Fletcher 1989, Gilbert 1993, Hewings & Goldstein 1993, Brazil 1994, Miller 2000

20 19 Pronunciation teaching techniques (3) 4 Pair work –O'Connor & Fletcher 1989, Miller 2000, Hewings & Goldstein 1993 4 Multisensory modes of presentation –Kinaesthetic reinforcement Bogle 1996, Miller 2000 –Visual support Sobkowiak 1996, Orion 1997, Pronunciation Power (CD), Clear Speech Works (CD), CSLU Toolkit Baldi 4 Guidance for users of different languages: Cunningham & Bowler 1999, O'Connor & Fletcher 1989, Hancock 2003

21 20 Pronunciation teaching techniques (4) 4 Transcription exercises –Bogle 1996, Orion 1997, Lecumberri & Maidment 2000 4 Integrated skills –Speak Fluent American English (CD), Gilbert 1993 4 Voice quality –Speak Fluent American English (CD) 4 Sensitisation –Bradford 1988, Brazil 1994, Hancock 2003 4 Self-monitoring and learners' autonomy: –Brazil 1994, Miller 2000, CD-ROMs

22 21 Conclusions 4 Greater variety in NS-model accents 4 Redefined goals and priorities –intelligibility & communication 4 Pronunciation syllabi - little compatibility with LFC 4 Wider inventory of teaching techniques –beyond "listen & repeat" –consciousness-raising and self-monitoring

23 22 Internet resources - Phonetics Reference Sites 4 CyberPhon (acoustic phonetics) http://www.cyberphon.univ-lyon2.fr 4 PHON2: Phonetics beyond the basics http://www.linguistics.reading.ac.uk/phon2 4 Pronunciation Web Resources - links http://www.sunburstmedia.com/PronWeb.html 4 An overview of pronunciation software, D. Healey http://oregonstate.edu/~healeyd/tesol2002/pron.html

24 23 Internet resources (2) - text files 4 John Higgin's Home Page - minimal pairs http://www.marlodge.supanet.com/ 4 Michael Reck's Collection of Tongue Twisters http://www.uebersetzung.at/twister/en.html 4 Sharon Windmayer's Sounds of English http://www.soundsofenglish.org 4 Maidment's Pronunciation Tip of the Day http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/johnm/eptotd/tipho me.html 4 SIL's IPA Fonts http://www.itl.atr.co.jp/comp.speech/Section1/Fonts/ sil.ipa.html

25 24 Internet resources (3) - practical activities on the Web 4 John Maidments' Sound Machines http://www.eptotd.btinternet.co.uk/vm/soundmachin es.htm Vowel Machine Transcriber TONI PLATO 4 Web-based transcription tool http://www.wtt.org.uk 4 Sharon Windmayer's Sounds of English http://www.soundsofenglish.org

26 25 Internet resources (4) - phonetic labs and organisations 4 UCLA's Phonetics Lab http://www.humnet.ucla.edu/humnet/linguistics/facili ti/uclaplab.html 4 Phonetics Dep. at the University College London http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells 4 The International Phonetic Association http://www.arts.gla.ac.uk/IPA/ipa.html 4 IATEFL's Pronun. Special Interest Group http://members.aol.com/PronunciationSig/index.html 4 TESOL's Speech/Pronunc. Special Interest Section http://www.public.iastate.edu/~jlevis/SPRIS/

27 26 Pronunciation CD-ROMs 4 THE MOUTON INTERACTIVE INTRODUCTION TO PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY 4 FONETYKA ANGIELSKA W PIGUŁCE, Sobkowiak,W. 2000. (BE) 4 PRONUNCIATION POWER (AE) http://www.englishlearning.com/pronpowr.html 4 PRONUNCIATION IN AMERICAN ENGLISH 1999 (AE) 4 BETTER ACCENT TUTOR FOR AMERICAN ENGLISH (AE) 4 SPEAK FLUENT AMERICAN ENGLISH (AE) 4 HUMMINGBIRD (AE) http://www.humbird.com 4 SOUND MACHINES (BE) 4 CONNECTED SPEECH (AE, BE, Australian) 4 CLEAR SPEECH WORKS (AE) 4 AMERICAN SPEECH SOUNDS (AE) 4 ENGLISH EASY: VOWELS AND CONSONANTS (Canadian English) 4 PPO-NUNCIATION SOUND LAB & MOUTH EXERCISES (BE, AE) 4 AMERICAN ACCENT PROGRAMME (AE)


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