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“Hellfire and Delinquency” Dr. Chuck Brown Albright College Summer 2006 NOTE: This sample presentation is for teaching purposes only and is based on the.

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Presentation on theme: "“Hellfire and Delinquency” Dr. Chuck Brown Albright College Summer 2006 NOTE: This sample presentation is for teaching purposes only and is based on the."— Presentation transcript:

1 “Hellfire and Delinquency” Dr. Chuck Brown Albright College Summer 2006 NOTE: This sample presentation is for teaching purposes only and is based on the paper by the same title written and researched by Travis Hirschi and Rodney Stark (Social Problems 1969 Vol 17, not Chuck Brown.

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3 Introduction Juvenile delinquency (JD) as a social problem Juvenile delinquency (JD) as a social problem Rates of juvenile delinquency have risen over the past 40 years Rates of juvenile delinquency have risen over the past 40 years Assaults up 22% Assaults up 22% Petty larceny up 14% Petty larceny up 14% Auto theft up 57% Auto theft up 57% Assault up 28% Assault up 28% Murder up 11% Murder up 11% Several factors have been attributed to the rise in JD Several factors have been attributed to the rise in JD (NOTE: These figures are made up for teaching purposes) (NOTE: These figures are made up for teaching purposes)

4 Review of the Literature Breakdown of the family Breakdown of the family (Smith & Sampson 1977; Quilt 1988; Jones 1999; Loreen 2004) (Smith & Sampson 1977; Quilt 1988; Jones 1999; Loreen 2004) Relaxation of public morality Relaxation of public morality (Donner 1979; Jones 1989; Forrester 2003) (Donner 1979; Jones 1989; Forrester 2003) Better accounting of crime Better accounting of crime (Thompson 1993; Abodalo 1997; Sam 2001; Rice 2005) (Thompson 1993; Abodalo 1997; Sam 2001; Rice 2005) Subculture of crime Subculture of crime (Xiao 1987; Green and Heberle 2000) (Xiao 1987; Green and Heberle 2000) Increasing poverty Increasing poverty (Rice 1996; Paynton & Lippert 2001; Rawnson 2005) (Rice 1996; Paynton & Lippert 2001; Rawnson 2005) Yet despite these studies, few have inquired about the link between crime and deviance Yet despite these studies, few have inquired about the link between crime and deviance Jones and Brown 1966 studied adults Jones and Brown 1966 studied adults Laran 1998 used a mixed sample of juveniles and adults Laran 1998 used a mixed sample of juveniles and adults Picard 2001 the only study and sample was very small Picard 2001 the only study and sample was very small (NOTE: These figures are made up for teaching purposes) (NOTE: These figures are made up for teaching purposes)

5 Thesis & Research Question Research Question: “Are kids who attend church less likely to be delinquent than kids who do not attend church?” Research Question: “Are kids who attend church less likely to be delinquent than kids who do not attend church?” Hypothesis: “Kids who attend church are less likely to be delinquent” Hypothesis: “Kids who attend church are less likely to be delinquent” Independent variable: Whether or not one attends a church Independent variable: Whether or not one attends a church Dependent variable: Whether or not one is delinquent Dependent variable: Whether or not one is delinquent

6 Methods Operationalization Operationalization Independent variable: Independent variable: Level of church attendance Level of church attendance Dependent variable: Dependent variable: Petty Larceny: Theft of any item up to $50 in value Petty Larceny: Theft of any item up to $50 in value Grand Larceny: Theft of any item over $50 in value Grand Larceny: Theft of any item over $50 in value Auto Theft: Taken a car Auto Theft: Taken a car Vandalism: Vandalism of another’s property Vandalism: Vandalism of another’s property Assault: Intentional physical violence toward another (only non-family members are counted) Assault: Intentional physical violence toward another (only non-family members are counted)

7 Methods Continued Used Surveys to gather data Used Surveys to gather data Stratified Random Sample (SRS) drawn from four schools Stratified Random Sample (SRS) drawn from four schools 2 junior high schools in Costa County California 2 junior high schools in Costa County California 2 senior high schools in Costa County California 2 senior high schools in Costa County California Population size of all four schools = 21,413 Population size of all four schools = 21,413 Sample size drawn = 5,545 students Sample size drawn = 5,545 students 4,077 completed the survey giving me a 74% rate of participation 4,077 completed the survey giving me a 74% rate of participation Also had access to school records for the complete sample and police records for all males in the sample Also had access to school records for the complete sample and police records for all males in the sample

8 Findings The 3 criteria The 3 criteria Correlation Correlation Correlation The data indicated a correlation between the two variables (church attendance and delinquency) The data indicated a correlation between the two variables (church attendance and delinquency) Time Order Time Order Asked the following questions: Asked the following questions: How long have they been attended church? Used only those who had attended for over a year or more How long have they been attended church? Used only those who had attended for over a year or more Eight questions about their deviant acts WITHIN THE PAST YEAR!! Eight questions about their deviant acts WITHIN THE PAST YEAR!! Spuriousness Spuriousness Could another variable be the determining factor for delinquency instead of church attendance? Could another variable be the determining factor for delinquency instead of church attendance? Race Race Race School School School Grade Grade Gender Gender Gender

9 Church Attendance And Delinquency Church Attendance And Delinquency Church Attendance Church Attendance FrequentInfrequent FrequentInfrequent Delinquent 22% 38% Not Delinquent 78% 62% % 100% 100% 100%

10 Control for Race Control for Race Church Attendance Church Attendance Frequent Infrequent Frequent InfrequentWhites Delinquent Not Delinquent % 100% 100% 100% African Americans Delinquent Not Delinquent % 100% 100% 100%

11 Control for School Control for School Church Attendance Church Attendance Frequent Infrequent Frequent Infrequent High School #1 Delinquent Not Delinquent % 100% 100% 100% High School #2 Delinquent Not Delinquent % 100% 100% 100%

12 Control for Sex Control for Sex Church Attendance Church Attendance Frequent Infrequent Frequent InfrequentBoys Delinquent Not Delinquent % 100% 100% 100%Girls Delinquent Not Delinquent % 100% 100% 100%

13 Findings My hypothesis was not supported! My hypothesis was not supported! The correlation between church attendance and delinquency is spurious The correlation between church attendance and delinquency is spurious The third variable of gender appears to be an extraneous variable The third variable of gender appears to be an extraneous variable

14 Conclusion Shortcomings Shortcomings Conceptualization of religiosity Conceptualization of religiosity Small sample size Small sample size Context Context


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