Definition “A process of thorough analysis of internal and external information, of human capital demand and supply, which provides the foundation for the development of all human resources strategies”
Human Resource Planning Analyse existing staffing resources Estimate likely changes Labour supply and demand forecast Act to match demand Review
HR Demand The required skills (KSAs) and number of people to achieve the corporate goals Assessment of the demand: –What tasks need to be done? –What skills are required to complete the tasks? –How to best group the tasks together to form jobs? –How many people would be required to complete the volume of work?
Job Analysis An operational function that underpins the strategic level of HR planning A process of gathering together of all data about each existing job, which activities are performed and what skills and abilities are needed It has two products: –Job description –Person specification
Job Description Information about the tasks performed by the postholder Questions in the process of preparing a JD –Who can best provide the information: the postholder, the line manager or the HR? –Who can best gather the information? –What techniques can be used for gathering the information? –Who should write the JD?
Content of the JD Job title Main purpose of the job Description of all major duties performed Time spent on each duty / how often is each duty performed Levels of supervision / independence (reports to / responsible for) Skills and skill levels needed Any special conditions needed to perform the tasks or conditions of the job
Use of the JD HR Planning Recruitment and selection Day-to-day performance management Performance appraisals Identification of training needs Job evaluation Job grading
Person Specification The document that outlines the skills and qualities a person should have in order to be able to do the tasks on the job description Minimum/required/optional knowledge, skills, personal attributes or qualities (KSAs) and experience Justification and quantification of the requirements
What should be included? Alec Rodger (1952): 1. Physical requirements 2. Education and training 3. General intelligence 4. Special aptitudes 5. Private interests (if any) 6. Job-related behaviours (persuasiveness) 7. Job-related circumstances (availability; shift work) John Munro Fraser (1978): 1. Impact to others (=1 and 6) 2. Qualifications and experience (=2 and 4) 3. Innate abilities (=3) 4. Motivation 5. Emotional adjustment (i.e. ability to cope with stress)
Competency framework Competencies: work-related behaviours that have been identified as necessary for successful performance at work Framework: clusters and levels “Working with people”: - Communication - Customer service - Teamwork
Job design Redesign of existing jobs to incorporate additional requirements, or in order to provide: –Variety –Responsibility –Autonomy Create new posts
Use of Job Analysis Job Descriptions Person Specifications Competency profiles Recruitment Selection Job evaluation Training and development needs Performance appraisal Career and succession planning
Analysis of Existing Staffing Head-count Succession plans Skills Inventory Training plans Review of organisational structure In the context of the business plan
Estimation of Internal Supply Turnover rate Wastage rate Separation rate Retirements Stability index KSAs?
Possible Measures Number of staff leaving in a year Average number of staff employed that year x 100 Examine a cohort who started at the same time (eg. within a 3 month period) How long before this cohort is halved as the result of turnover ? WASTAGE RATE HALF LIFE INDEX
Labour Turnover: Causes and Remedies CauseRemedy Poor handling of new recruitsDesign and implement induction process Unfavourable pay / terms of employment Revise reward strategies Job dissatisfactionImprove job design Low moraleCulture change, involvement, surveys Recruits not equipped for work demands Improve training and/or recruitment and selection processes
Estimation of External Supply Availability of employees outside the organisation –Size and composition of the workforce –The ageing of the workforce –Unemployment –Skill shortages –Opportunities for education and training (government, educational institutions) –Geographical considerations
Labour demand & supply forecast Types of labour market –Core –Peripheral –Local / National –Subsidized (New Deal, Modern Apprenticeships etc.) –Globalised Wage rates, pay and benefits
Identification of Resource imbalance Internal labour market External labour market Organisational analysis Business strategy SUPPLY DEMAND
Action Redeployment Relocation Retraining Redundancy Recruitment Techniques and processes
Recruitment & Selection Review the vacancy Job description Person specification Recruitment (attracting) Selecting (filtering) Decision Induction & probation Review of the process Legal compliance
A definition of RECRUITMENT “ Recruitment is a process which aims to attract appropriately qualified candidates for a particular position from which it is possible and practical to select and appoint a competent person or persons”. Source: Pilbeam and Corbridge, 2002, p.115.
CONTENT OF THE PROCESS Defining requirements –Preparing job descriptions and specifications –Deciding terms and conditions of employment (temporal, subcontracted, job redesign - sharing/splitting, part- or flexi-time, …) Attracting candidates –Reviewing and evaluating alternative sources of applicants, inside and outside the organisation – Advertising –Using agencies and consultants
Considerations Strategic – recruitment strategies Legal compliance Organisational – time limit, participants, decision makers, procedures Economic – costs, prices, effectiveness Cultural – image, morale, working environment, conflicts
Recruitment policy A written statement of intent on the part of an organisation –The overall goal of recruitment –Equal opportunities –(Preference to suitable internal applicants over the external) Outlines the approach everyone is expected to adopt and the standards they should achieve
UK Legal Framework both employer’s and publisher’s responsibility to comply! Sex Discrimination Act (EOC)1975/1999 Race Relations Act (CRE)1976/2000 Permissive of “positive action” and “genuine occupational qualifications” Rehabilitation of Offenders Act1974 Disability Discrimination Act (DRC)1995/2003 Human Rights Act 1998 Sexual Orientation & Religion2003 (Age Discrimination2006)
Definitions Direct discrimination – someone is treated less favourably for a reason directly to do with his or her sex, marital status, race, etc. Indirect discrimination – requirements or conditions that would disproportionately exclude the particular group that person belongs to, and when this requirement cannot be objectively justified Victimisation – someone is treated less favourably because the person has made a complaint about discrimination Harassment – unwanted conduct (verbal or physical) that intimidates or humiliates an individual, affecting their dignity or creating a hostile work environment (personal perception is enough)
Definitions General occupational qualification/requirement (GOQ or GOR) – exceptional circumstances when there might be a requirement for an employee to be of a particular sex, racial background, religion or sexual orientation, for ex. Where genuine authenticity is required Equal pay – with a person from the opposite sex, who is doing like work or work of a different nature which can be shown to be similar in terms of the requirements for skill and effort (= work of equal value) Targeted recruitment – a statement that encourages under- represented groups to apply
EXTERNAL OR INTERNAL RECRUITMENT ? Cheaper Faster Less risky Supports the career development policy ……? Greater choice New types of specialists Avoiding conflicts Fresh ideas New career opportunities …..?
EXTERNAL SOURCES Electronic media Internet Employment agencies – state, private consultancy companies University “fairs”, “open door days”, colleges, schools, training courses Competitor’s companies Professional events Word of mouth
OUTSOUSING – STEPS IN CHOOSING AN AGENCY Check reputation Check its experience and special expertise See examples of its work Check with clients on the level of service provided Meet the staff who will work for you Decide who will do what Check the fee structure (15-20%of the 1 st y.s.) Discuss methods of working Agree on format of the final product / result
USE OF RECRUITMENT CONSULTANTS Activities: advertise, interview and produce a short list – recruitment, but not selection activities Gains: provide expertise and reduce workload
USE OF EXECUTIVE SEARCH CONSULTANTS HEAD-HUNTING: CAN YOU AFORD IT? - 30-50% of the first year’s salary DO YOU REALLY NEED IT? –for senior jobs –limited number of suitable people –direct contact with the candidate is wanted
Prepare the Advertisement Plan the media Choose type of advertisement –Vision –Time –Design –……? Analyze costs Evaluate the response –Cost effectiveness –Cost per reply
Design the Advertisement Aim: to secure sufficient applications from suitably qualified persons with the end result to find “the best person for the job” To give sufficient information so that suitable candidates apply and the unsuitable are discouraged from applying Content: –Organisation name and information –Job title and major duties –Qualification, skills and experience required –Opportunities and challenges –(Salary and benefits) –Statement on policy on important issues –How to apply
APPLICATION FORMS Control the type of information is gathered from all applicants: –Same –Relevant –Non-discriminatory Drawing up short lists (link between recruitment and selection) Preparing interviews and organizing subsequent selection actions Setting up personnel records
Definition “Selection is a process which involves the application of appropriate techniques and methods with the aim of selecting, appointing and inducting a competent person or persons”. Source: Pilbeam and Corbridge, 2002, p.115. - Gather as much relevant information as possible - Organize and evaluate information - Assess each candidate
SELECTING CANDIDATES Choosing the best candidates for the announced vacancy: –Sifting applications (short listing) –Interviewing –Testing –Assessing candidates (BIODATA; ranking) –Assessment centers –Offering employment –Obtaining references –Preparing contracts of employment
A Shortlisting Checklist At least 2 people independently Compare against JD/PS Separate into suitable/possible/unsuitable Rank the suitable applications Call suitable number of applicants for an interview Estimating cost effectiveness Frequency of use Time factor Costs of poor appointment
BIODATA Highly structured method of sifting applications by the use of biographical data Based on biographical data which are criterion based (qualification, experience) showing the candidate’s suitability Objectively scored (Definition of cut-off scores) Predicts future behavior judging by past achievements Carefully used in large organizations
MAIN ITEMS OF BIODATA Demographic – sex, age, family circumstances Education Professional qualification Previous employment history Work experience Positions of responsibility outside work Leisure interests Career / job motivation
SELECTION METHODS The “classical trio”: 1.Application form 2.CV 3.Interview
Other Selection Methods Examinations (Forces, Civil Service) Assessment Centers Simulations Psychometric tests Group activities Graphology
CV (RESUME) A brief document, which outlines: general personal details relevant skills experience qualification Types: Functional Chronological Targeted
FUNCTIONAL CV Gives an emphasis to the transferable skills and experience gained Avoids any reliance on work in date order Useful when: – changing direction –There is a range of unconnected job
CHRONOLOGICAL CV Traditional format Work experience is organized in date order Useful when: –Staying in the same field –To highlight career progression
TARGETED CV Aims at a specific job Highlights the skills and experience relative to the post Leaving out unnecessary information
Interviewing Skills Thorough planning and preparation (roles/tasks) Put candidates at ease Remain detached Ask a range of relevant questions Listen and encourage to talk (30/70 rule) Record the information Respond to candidate’s questions Close the interview Evaluate information and reach a decision Record and justify the decisions
Types of questions Closed Open Leading Situational Behavioural Competency based Design and rank expected answers!
Interview errors HORNS HALOS CLONES Snap decisions Stereotyping Making assumptions The contrast effect Gathering insufficient/irrelevant information
TESTS Aim to provide an objective means of measuring individual abilities and characteristics Supplementary and not alternative !
DEFINITION BY SMITH AND ROBERTSON (86) A carefully chosen, systematic and standardized procedure for evolving a sample of responses from candidates which can be used to assess one or more of their psychological characteristics with those of a representative sample of an appropriate population
REQUIREMENTS – CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD TEST Sensitive – to discriminate between subjects Reliable – always measures the same thing, applied to different people at the same time or to the same person at different times Valid – measures the characteristic that the test is intended to measure
Prediction and Popularity Predictive Validity 1.0 = perfect prediction 0.7 Assessment Centres 0.6 Structured Interviews 0.5 Work sampling and ability tests 0.3 Unstructured interviews 0.1 References <0.1 Graphology Poor Good Perfect Sources; Corbridge and Pilbeam; People Resourcing Armstrong; A Handbook of HRM Practice
TYPES OF VALIDITY Predictive – the extend to which it correctly predicts the future behavior Concurrent – the extend to which a test score differentiates individuals in relation to a criterion or standard of performance Content – the test is clearly related to the characteristics of the job Face – “looks” right – it measures what it is supposed to measure Construct – the test itself
TYPES OF TESTS Intelligence – the capacity to abstract thinking and reasoning Personality tests - 5 factor model Ability – job related: number, verbal, perceptual, mechanical ability Aptitude – job specific – clerical, numerical, dexterity Attainment – already acquired by training or experience