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JORDAN ’ S ECONOMIC CHALLENGES The Consumer Price Index (CPI) increased by 5.71% in 2007 The relative change in the CPI (2004-2007) has been 21.22% The.

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Presentation on theme: "JORDAN ’ S ECONOMIC CHALLENGES The Consumer Price Index (CPI) increased by 5.71% in 2007 The relative change in the CPI (2004-2007) has been 21.22% The."— Presentation transcript:

1 JORDAN ’ S ECONOMIC CHALLENGES The Consumer Price Index (CPI) increased by 5.71% in 2007 The relative change in the CPI ( ) has been 21.22% The greatest increase occurred in prices of food items 33.73% Inflation:

2 JORDAN ’ S ECONOMIC CHALLENGES % Change ( ) % Change ( ) Ave Ave Ave Ave Relative Imp. Category and Items All Items Food Items Clothing & Footwear Housing Other Goods & Services

3 JORDAN ’ S ECONOMIC CHALLENGES Prices not adjusted to inflation

4 JORDAN ’ S ECONOMIC CHALLENGES Dairy, cereals and vegetable oils In 2007, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Food Price Index averaged 157, up 23% from 2006 and 34% from Except for sugar, prices of which declined sharply, international prices of other major food commodities rose significantly in Dairy, cereals and vegetable oils contributed the most increases in prices due to tight supply and demand. meat the demand for vegetable oils and fats (for food uses and also for bio- fuel generation), combined with a slowdown in production growth has resulted in a gradual tightening of global supplies The FAO meat price index averaged in 2007, more then 5% above the 2006 annual average of due to the surge in feed prices. Constant expansion in the demand for vegetable oils and fats (for food uses and also for bio- fuel generation), combined with a slowdown in production growth has resulted in a gradual tightening of global supplies, leading to a surge in prices.

5 JORDAN ’ S ECONOMIC CHALLENGES JD-US$ exchange rate pegJordanian Monetary Policy Given the JD-US$ exchange rate peg since 1995, Jordanian Monetary Policy could not adjust to ameliorate the cost of oil and some of the commodities. free floating their own currencies had evaluated against the falling US dollar Countries whose currencies were free floating were able to tolerate some of the oil price increase because their own currencies had evaluated against the falling US dollar. Jordan became a victim of rising oil pricesand loss of subsidies. No longer a beneficiary of oil subsidies after the invasion of Iraq in 2003, Jordan became a victim of rising oil prices and loss of subsidies. Oil prices which were around US$23 per barrel in March 2003, have since surpassed the US$100 mark in 2008.

6 JORDAN ’ S ECONOMIC CHALLENGES Poverty rate is 13.5% with a poverty line of JD 553 per capita per year Poverty pockets increased from 20 in 2002 to The Gini Coefficient has increased from in 2002 to in 2006 Poverty:

7 JORDAN ’ S ECONOMIC CHALLENGES Consumption 26.7%25.1%Richest 10% 3.3%3.2%Poorest 10% Income 30.2%28.1%Richest 10% 2.7% Poorest 10%

8 JORDAN ’ S ECONOMIC CHALLENGES Unemployment: The Paradox

9 JORDAN ’ S ECONOMIC CHALLENGES Growth in building and real estate activities Jordanian productivity may have declined The government increased employment in the last four years Or a mix of the above Or a mix of the above Unemployment: The Paradox

10 JORDAN ’ S ECONOMIC CHALLENGES Solution to Inflation The US economy is currently at its weakest in years and there are ample indications that it will continue the weak performance this year; As the US economy weakens so will the US$, and with it the JD, The JD, pegged to the US$ since 1995, has lost over 60% of its value against the Euro since the introduction of the latter in The US economy is currently at its weakest in years and there are ample indications that it will continue the weak performance this year; it is poised for further slow down. As the US economy weakens so will the US$, and with it the JD, through no fault of the Jordanian economy.

11 JORDAN ’ S ECONOMIC CHALLENGES External Trade According to Key Commodities, ImportsNational Exports Growth (%) 2007 (JD m) 2006 (JD m) Commodity Growth (%) 2007 (JD m) 2006 (JD m) Commodity Fuels including Crude Petroleum Clothing & Accessories Automated Machinery, Tools & Parts thereof Pharmaceutical Products Electrical Machinery, Equipment, & Parts thereof Vegetables Vehicles, Motor bikes & Parts Fertilizers Iron & Articles thereof Crude Potassium Cereals Crude Phosphate Other Materials Other Materials Total Total

12 JORDAN ’ S ECONOMIC CHALLENGES Besides

13 JORDAN ’ S ECONOMIC CHALLENGES

14 Qatar is studying revaluing its riyal among options to fight inflation. The US$- Riyal exchange rate peg contributes to about 40% of inflation in Qatar, where the currency is 30% undervalued. Sheikh Hamad bin Jassim bin Jabr Al-Thani, Qatari Prime Minister, in a statement to Reuters on 1 March 2008 "Costs of Gulf imports denominated in euros have risen on average more than 20% this year", "They have come up with a lot of solutions but it seems that all of them won't stop inflation unless they do something about the currencies…“ Elyas Al-Gaseer, Middle East Head of Capital Markets, Calyon

15 JORDAN ’ S ECONOMIC CHALLENGES "In the short term, free floating... will not fully dissipate inflationary pressure, although it would significantly do so.” Allan Greenspan 28 Feb 2008 What is required is to increase the value of the JD while keeping the peg to the US$

16 JORDAN ’ S ECONOMIC CHALLENGES Solution to Unemployment and Poverty Decrease government size Current budget: 70% salaries 10 % retiree pensions 10% interest on debt 90% of budget inflexible More than 90% of the budget is committed every year making the budget inflexible


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