Presentation on theme: "Source: mages/coral_reef_florida.jpg Why value ecosystem services in impact assessment? Asha Rajvanshi Professor."— Presentation transcript:
Source: mages/coral_reef_florida.jpg Why value ecosystem services in impact assessment? Asha Rajvanshi Professor and Head, EIA Cell, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun Pre meeting training course IAIA’10 Geneva, Switzerland What are ecosystems doing for you? How developments affect ecosystems?
Ecosystem Services “the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfill human life” (Daily 1997). Ecosystem goods “the material products that are obtained from natural systems for human use” (DeGroot et al. 2002). What are these values?
What are these ecosystem goods and services that matter in impact assessment ?
● supporting services ● provisioning services ● regulating services ● cultural services The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) identifies four broad categories of ecosystem services:
Supporting services ● Nutrient cycling ● Soil formation ● Primary production ● Bank stabilisation Source: osm_reef.jpg
Provisioning services ● Food and fodder ● Plant and animal products ● Genetic material and medicines ● Timber ● Fiber, oil ● Non-living materials ● Water ● Ornamental resources e.g. shells, flowers camels.htm g Devil’s Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens) used as medicine for hundreds of years in Africa jatropha-the-new-crude-oil/
● Fish and aquatic animals contribute 17% of animal protein in human diet. ● 65% protein comes from plant cereals, beans, peas, nuts and oilseeds. ● 4 varieties of wheat produce 75% of crop in Canada. ● 4 variety of potato produce 72% of crop in USA. ● Every coffee plant in Brazil descends from a single plant. ● Entire soya bean industry is derived from 6 plants. ● From spices (cinnamon, pepper) to critical medications (aspirin, tamoxifen, quinine, digitalis) have been discovered "accidentally" because plants or animals produced chemicals for defense or attraction. (Source : World Conservation Strategy, 1980)
Regulating services ● Purification of air and water ● Mitigation of floods and droughts ● Detoxification and decomposition of wastes ● Generation of renewal of soil and soil fertility ● Pollination of crops and natural vegetation ● Biological control of pests and disease vectors ● Stabilization of climate
Cultural ● Aesthetic values ● Social relations and values ● Education and scientific value AABfU/uiLImEivXL4/s1600-h/Buffalo+Hills+-+Walking+Safari.jpg
Economic importance of biodiversity and ecosystem services (Source: Duraiappah, 2002). Being able to be adequately nourished Being able to be free from avoidable disease Being able to live in an environmentally clean and safe shelter Being able to have adequate and clean drinking water Being able to have clean air Being able to have energy to keep warm and cook Being able to use traditional medicine Being able to continue using natural elements found in ecosystems for traditional cultural and spiritual practices Being able to cope against extreme natural events like floods, tropical storms and landslides Being able to make sustainable management decisions that respect natural resources and enable the achievement of sustainable income Purification of air and water Mitigation of floods and droughts Detoxification and decomposition of wastes Generation of renewal of soil and soil fertility Pollination of crops and natural vegetation Control of a vast majority of potential agricultural pests Dispersal of seeds and translocation of nutrients Maintenance of biodiversity, for agricultural, medicinal and industrial enterprise Protection from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays Partial stabilization of climate Spiritual uses and relationship of people to land and water Aesthetic values Social relations and values Education and scientific value ECOSYSTEM SERVICES HUMAN WELL-BEING Food Micro-organisms, plant and animal products Genetic material, biochemicals and medicines Fuels/energy Fiber Non-living materials Fresh Water PROVISIONNING REGULATING ENRICHING
Implications of impaired ecosystem functions and services Case Example 1 The Asian tsunami directed world attention on the role of mangroves in shielding the coast from the impacts of tsunami (Source: Wetland International, 2005) (Source: M.S. Swaminathan Foundation Research)
The loss of littoral forests during the Tsunami wiped off the largest population of the Nicobar megapode that occured in the Great Nicobar Island. The Nicobar megapode is a ground nesting and globally ‘Vulnerable’ species of bird. Case Example 2 Loss of ecosystem services provided by the littoral forest Low-lying coastal habitats between beach and up to near by hills provide ideal habitat and microclimate for building nesting mounds. (Source: Sivakumar, WII)
How developments affect ecosystems functioning ? Destruction of breeding areas Destruction of coastal ecosystems Destruction of terrestrial habitats Fragmentation of contiguous habitats Introduction of alien and invasive species Over harvesting of biodiversity resources Increased vulnerability to natural disasters (floods, droughts, earthquakes) and the disease Pollution of natural resource ws/hi/newsid_ / stm Photo by :Andreas Hauser technology.com/projects/sabicandmaaden/ By Hasan Jamali, AP Photo
Trends in human use and conditions of ecosystem services Carpenter S R et al. PNAS 2009;106:
Impact Assessment for mainstreaming biodiversity values into decision-making
● MA findings showed that human use of ecosystem services is expanding, commensurate with growth in earth’s human population and expansion of consumption ● MA found that ‘nearly two thirds of the services provided by nature to humankind are found to be in decline worldwide. In effect, the benefits reaped from our engineering of the planet have been achieved by running down natural capital assets’ ● Mainstreaming ecosystem services in impact assessment can aid better decision-making that can take into account the costs and benefits to the natural environment. Why value ecosystem services in impact assessment ?
Ecosystem service valuation can: ● improve understanding of problems and trade-offs; ● be used directly to make decisions; ● illustrate the distribution of benefits and thus facilitate cost-sharing for management initiatives and ● spur the creation of innovative institutional and market instruments that promote sustainable ecosystem management
Ecosystem services are not independent of each other and attempts to optimise one ecosystem service often lead to reductions or losses of others Such ecosystem service trade-offs arise from development choices that transform the type, magnitude, and relative mix of services provided by ecosystems in a given area Large scale conversion of tropical forest lands to oil palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia has resulted in the degradation of the forests, due to a loss of unique biodiversity within the ecosystems; and a loss of livelihoods and the subsequent welfare of the communities dependent on the forests (FITZHERBERT ET AL. 2008)
Development induced ecosystem service trade-offs Spatial trade-off Provision of one ecosystem service at a given location leads to a decrease in the other, at that or surrounding locations and the burden and risk of ecosystem service use are borne by non-beneficiaries Temporal trade-off Change in services at the expense of the same or other services over long period of time Analysis of such trade-offs necessary for good decision making
Carpenter S R et al. PNAS 2009;106: Governance and ecosystem services are interlinked at multiple scales in a manner that may influence ecosystem benefits and the associated human well-being. Global ecosystems & services Regional ecosystems & services Local ecosystems Global governance Regional governance Local governance Governance Ecosystems & services Community well-being Community well-being Individual well-being Individual well-being Ecosystem services Global feedback Regional feedbacks Impact Assessment allows assessment of negative and positive influences on such linkages between development and ecosystems services for good decisions Valuation of ecosystems services aid governance and decision making
Allows the analyst to capture the full range of environmental impacts more systematically by linking ecological effects to changes in human welfare. Allows a shift in emphasis from a focus mainly on valuing environmental damage to highlighting the value of changes in the services provided by the natural environment. Benefits of using an ecosystem services framework for impact assessment Value of ecosystem services Decision Making Decision Making Ecosystems Ecosystem services Human actions Information Economic Valuation methods Ecological production function
Retooling EIA for integrating ecosystem services and biodiversity: Best practices initiatives Global Regional Ramsar Convention 2007.