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1 AEB 2007 GCSE Exam Questions To advance slide click here

2 How to use this package Choose either of the two answered questions and see if you would have marked them the same as an examiner. Each question has two possible answered provided. Or have a go at the sample question yourself then check your answer

3 Try your hand at being a GCSE examiner. Compare the marks you would give to those an examiner would. Answer this GCSE question yourself then check your answer Click on your choice Exit program

4 Choose your topic There are 2 questions each with 2 sample answers for you to mark…. Settlement site and situation Urban Growth in LEDCs Click on the topic of your choice

5 Settlement site and Situation First look at the question – read it through and think how you would answer it. Then look at the 2 student answers and see where they gained and lost marks.

6 Study the map of the early site of London. a)(i) Describe two advantages of this site for settlement [4] (ii) Identify two problems that this site could cause for the settlers [2] b) Between 1981 and 1991 the population of London fell by 300,000. Suggest reasons why people moved away from large cities during this period. [6] Settlement Site and Situation Click here for answers

7 a)(i) One advantage of the site was the River Thames, it gave a water supply to people who settled there and it was useful for transport. The gravel terraces were also an advantage as they provided a dry point site for the settlement away from flood water. (ii) The marshy land will make it difficult to build on which could limit the further development of the settlement, the River Thames could flood which would damage property and mean that flood defences would be needed in the future. b) The movement of people away from large cities in the 1980s was largely due to problems in these cities. The inner city area had become run down and industry had moved out leaving high levels of unemployment. Large cities were also overcrowded, which made them expensive and reduced the quality of life for the residents. Answer A Click here to reveal marks Click here to see question again Click here for Answer B

8 a)(i) One advantage of the site was the River Thames, it gave a water supply to people who settled there and it was useful for transport. The gravel terraces were also an advantage as they provided a dry point site for the settlement away from flood water. (ii) The marshy land will make it difficult to build on which could limit the further development of the settlement, the River Thames could flood which would damage property and mean that flood defences would be needed in the future. b) The movement of people away from large cities in the 1980s was largely due to problems in these cities. The inner city area had become run down and industry had moved out leaving high levels of unemployment. Large cities were also overcrowded, which made them expensive and reduced the quality of life for the residents. Answer A Click here to reveal marks Click here to see question again Click here for Answer B Well explained using geographical terms. Needed another point to gain full marks 3 marks Has identified the factors and said why they would cause problems 2 marks Two good points of 4 marks but needs a longer answer.eg. Said in what way the inner city had become run down and how overcrowding makes cities expensive 4 marks 9/12 – Grade A answer.

9 a)(i) People chose this site for the water supply and the timber from the forests. (ii) The marshy land would be difficult to build on and the River Thames could flood and damage houses. b) People left cities in the 1980s because there wasn’t a lot for young people to do. People preferred the countryside that was nicer, had fresh air and pretty views. Click here to reveal marks Click here to see question again Click here return to main menu Answer B

10 a)(i) People chose this site for the water supply and the timber from the forests. (ii) The marshy land would be difficult to build on and the River Thames could flood and damage houses. b) People left cities in the 1980s because there wasn’t a lot for young people to do. People preferred the countryside that was nicer, had fresh air and pretty views. Click here to reveal marks Click here to see question again Click here return to main menu Answer B These are valid points but need expansion to get full marks. 2 marks This is a correct answer. Site factors that were advantages to early settlers can also cause problems 2 marks Two reasons given why people migrated away from large cities. This is counter-urbanisation and needs push factors of the city and pull factors of the countryside to gain more marks.2 marks 6/12 – Grade C answer. Needed more detail and the use of more precise language.

11 Urban growth in LEDCs First look at the question – read it through and think how you would answer it. Then look at the 2 student answers and see where they gained and lost marks.

12 a)Study the graph which gives information about the population in Lima, the capital city of Peru in South America. Describe what the graph shows about (i) Population growth[1] (ii) Numbers living in shanty towns[2] b)Give two reasons for the rapid growth of big cities in LEDCs such as Lima [4] Click here for last part of question

13 b)Look at this sketch of a house built by a family which has recently arrived in Lima. (i) What suggest that it was built by newcomers to the city?[2] (ii) Where in the city is it most likely to be located? Explain your answer [2] (iii) What changes might be made to the house in future years? [2] d) Describe the consequences, other than that for housing, of the rapid growth of big cities in LEDCs. [7] Click here for answers Go back to first part of question

14 Answer A a)(i) From a population of just over half a million in 1940 Lima’s population has grown to 7 ½ million in 2000, a 15 times increase. (ii) From hardly any on 1940, numbers living in shanty towns have gone up to almost 4 million in Another thing that has happened is that the numbers living in shanty towns make up an increasingly large percentage of the total until by 2000 they make up about half of the total population. b)One reason and the main one in my opinion is rural to urban migration. This is happening in Sao Paulo in Brazil where people are leaving the northeast because of drought (a push factor) and moving to the southeast where big cities with industries and jobs are found and people feel that they will have a better standard of living (a pull factor). The second reason is high birth rates. Women often have five or more children. There are lots of young people looking for work in big cities and they still want large families when they get married. Children are often a source of income, selling and begging on the streets. c) (i) It looks self-built and is made of many materials. Newcomers to the city have no money and cannot afford to buy or rent a proper house, so they have to go and collect whatever they can and find some unoccupied land to build on. Click here to reveal marksClick here for Answer B Click here to see question again

15 Answer A a)(i) From a population of just over half a million in 1940 Lima’s population has grown to 7 ½ million in 2000, a 15 times increase. (ii) From hardly any on 1940, numbers living in shanty towns have gone up to almost 4 million in Another thing that has happened is that the numbers living in shanty towns make up an increasingly large percentage of the total until by 2000 they make up about half of the total population. b)One reason and the main one in my opinion is rural to urban migration. This is happening in Sao Paulo in Brazil where people are leaving the northeast because of drought (a push factor) and moving to the southeast where big cities with industries and jobs are found and people feel that they will have a better standard of living (a pull factor). The second reason is high birth rates. Women often have five or more children. There are lots of young people looking for work in big cities and they still want large families when they get married. Children are often a source of income, selling and begging on the streets. c) (i) It looks self-built and is made of many materials. Newcomers to the city have no money and cannot afford to buy or rent a proper house, so they have to go and collect whatever they can and find some unoccupied land to build on. Click here to reveal marksClick here for Answer B Click here to see question again 1 mark 2 marks 2 totally different reasons given – ideal. Good detail – a comfortable 4 marks Shows good understanding – 2 marks

16 (ii) They locate wherever unoccupied land exists in the city. They cannot afford to buy land so they have no choice where they place the house. Some build it next to where friends and relatives already have houses. (iii) Most people expect to find a job and then earn enough money to buy building materials. They turn this ramshackle house into a proper house with windows and doors. They join together in a group and keep pestering the city authorities to supply electricity and running water to the shanty towns. Once they have been there long enough the authorities are sometimes willing to agree and then conditions improve greatly. But if people don’t find work, little is likely to change. d) There are both bad and good consequences of the rapid growth of big cities in LEDCs with more bad than good. Pollution is one of the big problems. There is air pollution from the amount of traffic. Most buses, truck and cars are too old to have catalytic converters and they belch out fumes, which are especially bad in Mexico city, because it is surrounded by mountains and the fumes remain trapped by the high ground. This leads to many illnesses and breathing problems among its inhabitants. Living in Mexico city has been described as ‘like living in a gas chamber’. There is also water pollution. Factories take no notice of regulations, even where regulations exist. Waste that hasn’t been treated runs straight into rivers which are like open sewers. Previous slideNext

17 (ii) They locate wherever unoccupied land exists in the city. They cannot afford to buy land so they have no choice where they place the house. Some build it next to where friends and relatives already have houses. (iii) Most people expect to find a job and then earn enough money to buy building materials. They turn this ramshackle house into a proper house with windows and doors. They join together in a group and keep pestering the city authorities to supply electricity and running water to the shanty towns. Once they have been there long enough the authorities are sometimes willing to agree and then conditions improve greatly. But if people don’t find work, little is likely to change. d) There are both bad and good consequences of the rapid growth of big cities in LEDCs with more bad than good. Pollution is one of the big problems. There is air pollution from the amount of traffic. Most buses, truck and cars are too old to have catalytic converters and they belch out fumes, which are especially bad in Mexico city, because it is surrounded by mountains and the fumes remain trapped by the high ground. This leads to many illnesses and breathing problems among its inhabitants. Living in Mexico city has been described as ‘like living in a gas chamber’. There is also water pollution. Factories take no notice of regulations, even where regulations exist. Waste that hasn’t been treated runs straight into rivers which are like open sewers. Previous slideNext Only worth 1 mark – does not suggest an actual location in the city eg. Edges of the city, along rivers, land too steep or swampy for permanent houses Well understood 2 marks

18 Traffic congestion is getting worse as more and more people can afford cars. As the city size increases with shanty towns around the edge, more buses are needed. The rush hour traffic in Sao Paulo is so bad that rich businessmen use helicopters to get from where they live to their offices in the CBD. For poor people there are not enough jobs and many people do not have a proper job. They have informal jobs with very low incomes, such as selling chewing gum on the streets in Rio. Although city growth is mainly bad for people living there, the good thing is that cities have offices and factories which employ people and make money for the country. In Sao Paulo big companies like VW and Sony have factories, helping Brazil to become a more economically developed country, although it is no yet and MEDC. Click here for Answer B Click here to see question again Previous slide

19 Traffic congestion is getting worse as more and more people can afford cars. As the city size increases with shanty towns around the edge, more buses are needed. The rush hour traffic in Sao Paulo is so bad that rich businessmen use helicopters to get from where they live to their offices in the CBD. For poor people there are not enough jobs and many people do not have a proper job. They have informal jobs with very low incomes, such as selling chewing gum on the streets in Rio. Although city growth is mainly bad for people living there, the good thing is that cities have offices and factories which employ people and make money for the country. In Sao Paulo big companies like VW and Sony have factories, helping Brazil to become a more economically developed country, although it is no yet and MEDC. Click here for Answer B Click here to see question again Previous slide A top-level answer – would earn all 7 marks. Has talked about good and bad consequences of city growth. Has referred to a good number and given precise information. 19/20 – Grade A* answer.

20 Answer 2 a)(i) The total population has increased every 20 years. (ii) The highest number living in shanty towns was in Every time the population went up, so did the number living in shanty towns. b) 1. Push factors from the countryside. Farm work is badly paid and there are better jobs in the cities. There are more hospitals and schools, so people migrate to the cities where these are found. 2. Pull factors of the cities. There are more jobs and more different types of work in the cities e.g. jobs in factories and shops that don’t exist in the countryside. Click here to reveal marks Click here to see question again Next

21 Answer 2 a)(i) The total population has increased every 20 years. (ii) The highest number living in shanty towns was in Every time the population went up, so did the number living in shanty towns. b) 1. Push factors from the countryside. Farm work is badly paid and there are better jobs in the cities. There are more hospitals and schools, so people migrate to the cities where these are found. 2. Pull factors of the cities. There are more jobs and more different types of work in the cities e.g. jobs in factories and shops that don’t exist in the countryside. Click here to reveal marks Click here to see question again Next 0 marks – only repeating the question. Needs to quote 2 totals in order to describe the increase Still no values – 1 mark 1 reason identified – push and pull factors are both part of rural to urban migration – but does mix up push and pull factors. Needs another reason eg. Industrial growth. 2 marks

22 (iii)It might be bulldozed down and removed by the government. When this happens people often start building on the same land again once the bulldozers have gone. There is a game of cat and mouse between the shanty town dwellers and the government. The new houses that are then built may be no better than the old ones. c)(i) What I see is a shack made out of wood, cloth and tin sheets. There are no windows in it and it does not seem even to have a proper door. It is what newcomers build for themselves by scavenging around when they reach the city without any money. (ii) In a shanty town. In most big cities like Lima, shanty towns are located on the edges, where most empty land is found. People building shacks don’t own the land. They are squatters on wasteland that no one wants to use, sometimes because it is too steep. NextPrevious slide Click here to see question again

23 (iii)It might be bulldozed down and removed by the government. When this happens people often start building on the same land again once the bulldozers have gone. There is a game of cat and mouse between the shanty town dwellers and the government. The new houses that are then built may be no better than the old ones. c)(i) What I see is a shack made out of wood, cloth and tin sheets. There are no windows in it and it does not seem even to have a proper door. It is what newcomers build for themselves by scavenging around when they reach the city without any money. (ii) In a shanty town. In most big cities like Lima, shanty towns are located on the edges, where most empty land is found. People building shacks don’t own the land. They are squatters on wasteland that no one wants to use, sometimes because it is too steep. NextPrevious slide Click here to see question again Describes the sketch – 2 marks A location is stated – on the edges. The rest of the answer helps to explain this location 2 marks May not be the answer expected, but get some merit. 1 mark

24 d) Terrible problems are caused by the rapid growth of big cities in LEDCs Massive pollution of the air from all the cars and factories Forests around the edges of cities are cleared as newcomers search for land to build new shanty towns on. In Brazil the Amazon Basin is losing its forests at record rates as cities grow and extend into the forests. Wildlife habitats are being lost and species becoming extinct as the land is used for new houses and factories. New shanty towns have no sewers which is killing wildlife that remains after the forests have been cleared. Traffic congestion from thousands of buses and cars. Some cities are trying to deal with these problems. One example is in Rio in Brazil where shanty towns are being cleared and people rehoused in new settlements outside the city. In Mexico city people are only allowed to drive into the city on certain days of the week according to the numbers on their plates to reduce pollution and congestion. Previous slide Click here to see question again Click here return to main menu

25 d) Terrible problems are caused by the rapid growth of big cities in LEDCs Massive pollution of the air from all the cars and factories Forests around the edges of cities are cleared as newcomers search for land to build new shanty towns on. In Brazil the Amazon Basin is losing its forests at record rates as cities grow and extend into the forests. Wildlife habitats are being lost and species becoming extinct as the land is used for new houses and factories. New shanty towns have no sewers which is killing wildlife that remains after the forests have been cleared. Traffic congestion from thousands of buses and cars. Some cities are trying to deal with these problems. One example is in Rio in Brazil where shanty towns are being cleared and people rehoused in new settlements outside the city. In Mexico city people are only allowed to drive into the city on certain days of the week according to the numbers on their plates to reduce pollution and congestion. Previous slide Click here to see question again Click here return to main menu 3 marks. Should answer in longer sentences, not commenting on housing. Some information is not accurate or irrelevant. 11/20 – Marginal grade C answer.

26 On the following page is a sample GCSE question on settlement. Use your knowledge to answer it then once finished check you answer against a possible top mark answer. Remember to check how many marks are awarded for each part of the question and decide how much information and detail you need to give to achieve those marks.

27 Growth of cities and Land Use a)Study the graph showing the population of some to the world’s largest cities. (i)Which was the largest city in 1970? [1] (ii)Name two cities shown on the graph which are estimated to more than double their population between 1970 and [2] (iii)In what ways is the population growth of cities in LEDCs different from those in MEDCs [2] Click here for last part of question

28 b) Study the urban model of a typical city in an LEDC. State three features that you would expect to find in the Central Business District (CBD) of the city. [3] Suggest reasons for the location of the different types of housing [4] (iii) Describe two ways in which the urban model for a city in an MEDC would differ from the one shown on the diagram. [2] You can go back to the first part of the question by clicking here To see a model answer click here – (remember to complete your answers on paper first so you can compare the two).

29 Model answer to GSCE question a)(i) New York (ii) Mexico City, Sao Paulo (iii) The cities in the LEDCs have grown. The cities in the MEDCs have stayed the same or declined. b)(i) There will be a concentration of commercial activities like shops and offices. Land will be very expensive. There will be many multi-storey buildings (ii) The expensive modern high-rise flats are near the city centre. The people who live there work in the CBD. Poor-quality housing with some basic amenities may indicate larger buildings, split into separate dwellings. People living in them would try to find work in the CBD. The small low- cost government improvement schemes are former shanty towns on the outer edge of the city that have been improved with government aid. The shanty towns on the edge of the city are low-quality unplanned spontaneous houses filled by the latest migrants from the countryside. (iii) Poorest quality housing is near the city centre in a MEDC city. The quality of the housing improves outwards from the city centre to the outskirts.

30 That completes this section on GCSE Settlement Questions Click this box to return to the main menu to choose another topic Click here to exit the program to review your knowledge or try one of the short quick answer tests.

31 Good Luck with your GCSE settlement studies Press ESC to Exit


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