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Dr. V.B. Mathur Dean, Faculty of Wildlife Sciences

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. V.B. Mathur Dean, Faculty of Wildlife Sciences"— Presentation transcript:

1 Biodiversity as a natural capital: The findings of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA)
Dr. V.B. Mathur Dean, Faculty of Wildlife Sciences Wildlife Institute of India Pre-meeting training course IAIA ’08 Perth, Australia

2 What is Biodiversity? "A definition of biodiversity that is altogether simple, comprehensive, and fully operational ... is unlikely to be found." …Noss, 1990

3 What is Biodiversity? "Biological diversity is the variety and variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur" …U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment, "Technologies to Maintain Biological Diversity," 1987

4 What is Biodiversity? "Natural diversity is synonymous with biological diversity... To the scientist, natural diversity has a variety of meanings. These include: 1) the number of different native species and individuals in a habitat or geographical area; 2) the variety of different habitats within an area; 3) the variety of interactions that occur between different species in a habitat; and 4) the range of genetic variation among individuals within a species." … Jones and Stokes Associates' "Sliding Toward Extinction: The State of California's Natural Heritage," 1987

5 What is Biodiversity? "Biological diversity, simply stated, is the diversity of life... biological diversity means the full range of variety and variability within and among living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur, and encompasses ecosystem or community diversity, species diversity, and genetic diversity." …D.B. Jensen, M. Torn, and J. Harte, "In Our Own Hands: A Strategy for Conserving Biological Diversity in California," 1990

6 Levels of Biodiversity
Genetic Species Communities and Ecosystem Source: PUAF 741

7 Species Richness of Major Groups
Inner ring indicates proportion that has been described; total = 1.75 million (increasing by 100,000/y) Outer ring indicates best estimate of total species (14 million) Source: PUAF 741

8 What drives environmental change?
This question was addressed by 1360 scientists from 95 countries in the form of Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) project for 5 years ( ).

9 Millennium Assessment (Pages end to end)
Feet Millennium Assessment (Pages end to end) 2000 Eiffel Tower 1000

10 What drives environmental change?
Indirect Drivers Demography Economy (Globalization, Trade, Markets…….) Socio-Political (Governance and Institutional Framework) Science and Technology applications Cultural and Religious factors Direct Drivers Landuse changes Species introduction or removal External inputs (Irrigation, Fertilizer etc) Natural factors (Earthquake, Volcanoes etc)

11 World Population (billions)
6.5 billion in 2005 4 billion in 1975 2 billion in 1920 1 billion in 1800 Source: UN Population Division 2004; Lee, 2003; Population Reference Bureau

12 World GDP (trillion US $)
$52 trillion in 2003 $10 trillion in 1967 $1 trillion in 1900 Source: DeLong 1998

13 Percent of habitat (biome) remaining
Habitat Loss Mediterranean Forests Temperate Grasslands & Woodlands Temperate Broadleaf Forest Tropical Dry Forest Tropical Grasslands Tropical Coniferous Forest Tropical Moist Forest Percent of habitat (biome) remaining Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

14 Scale of Change 20% of the world’s coral reefs were lost and more than 20% degraded. 35% of mangrove area has been lost in the last several decades. Amount of water in reservoirs quadrupled since 1960.

15 Teragrams of Nitrogen per Year
Natural Sources Fossil Fuels Agroecosystems Fertilizer Total Human Additions Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

16 CO2 Concentration (ppm)
Source: Keeling and Whorf, 2005.

17 Loss of Species Diversity
Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

18 Crops Status Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

19 Global Surface Temperature Change (oc) from 1990
A: Observations, Northern Hemisphere, Proxy data B: Global Instrumental Observations C: IPCC 2001 Scenario Projections (SRES) A B C 1.5 – 5.7 oC Source: IPCC 2001

20 Global Balance Sheet Enhanced Degraded Mixed Crops Livestock Aquaculture Carbon sequestration Capture fisheries Wild foods Wood fuel Genetic resources Biochemicals Fresh Water Air quality regulation Regional & local climate regulation Erosion regulation Water purification Pest regulation Pollination Natural Hazard regulation Spiritual & religious Aesthetic values Timber Fiber Water regulation Disease regulation Recreation & ecotourism Bottom Line: 60% of Ecosystem Services are Degraded

21 State of World’s Conservation
Trends in Drivers Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment


23 What have we achieved globally in conservation?
Put together a global framework- Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, 1992). Ratified by 192 countries. CBD tenets: Conserve biodiversity Use sustainably Share equitably An impressive network of Protected Areas (National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Nature Reserves etc).

24 What have we failed to do globally in conservation?
Get the CBD to function effectively. Value conservation benefits adequately. Move the pro-people agenda. Garner adequate political support for mainstreaming conservation.

25 What is changing…? Global pressures and demands.
People’s pressures on resources. Priority for conservation (Development v/s Conservation). If 90’s was the decade for conservation; 2000s indicates missed opportunities.

26 The Way Forward…… Mainstreaming conservation in development planning.
More policy and legal reforms to address resource sharing and equity issues. Enhance professionalism of the range of stakeholders though capacity building.

27 thank you…

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