Presentation on theme: "Biodiversity as a natural capital: The findings of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) Dr. V.B. Mathur Dean, Faculty of Wildlife Sciences Wildlife."— Presentation transcript:
Biodiversity as a natural capital: The findings of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) Dr. V.B. Mathur Dean, Faculty of Wildlife Sciences Wildlife Institute of India Pre-meeting training course IAIA ’08 Perth, Australia
What is Biodiversity? "A definition of biodiversity that is altogether simple, comprehensive, and fully operational... is unlikely to be found." …Noss, 1990
What is Biodiversity? "Biological diversity is the variety and variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur" …U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment, "Technologies to Maintain Biological Diversity," 1987
What is Biodiversity? " Natural diversity is synonymous with biological diversity... To the scientist, natural diversity has a variety of meanings. These include: 1) the number of different native species and individuals in a habitat or geographical area; 2) the variety of different habitats within an area; 3) the variety of interactions that occur between different species in a habitat; and 4) the range of genetic variation among individuals within a species. " … Jones and Stokes Associates' "Sliding Toward Extinction: The State of California's Natural Heritage," 1987
What is Biodiversity? "Biological diversity, simply stated, is the diversity of life... biological diversity means the full range of variety and variability within and among living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur, and encompasses ecosystem or community diversity, species diversity, and genetic diversity." …D.B. Jensen, M. Torn, and J. Harte, "In Our Own Hands: A Strategy for Conserving Biological Diversity in California," 1990
Levels of Biodiversity Genetic Species Communities and Ecosystem Source: PUAF 741
Species Richness of Major Groups Source: PUAF 741 Inner ring indicates proportion that has been described; total = 1.75 million (increasing by 100,000/y) Outer ring indicates best estimate of total species (14 million)
What drives environmental change? This question was addressed by 1360 scientists from 95 countries in the form of Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) project for 5 years ( ).
Millennium Assessment (Pages end to end) Eiffel Tower Feet
What drives environmental change? Indirect Drivers Demography Economy (Globalization, Trade, Markets…….) Socio-Political (Governance and Institutional Framework) Science and Technology applications Cultural and Religious factors Direct Drivers Landuse changes Species introduction or removal External inputs (Irrigation, Fertilizer etc) Natural factors (Earthquake, Volcanoes etc)
World Population (billions) 1 billion in billion in billion in billion in 2005 Source: UN Population Division 2004; Lee, 2003; Population Reference Bureau
World GDP (trillion US $) Source: DeLong 1998 $1 trillion in 1900 $10 trillion in 1967 $52 trillion in 2003
Scale of Change 20% of the world’s coral reefs were lost and more than 20% degraded. 35% of mangrove area has been lost in the last several decades. Amount of water in reservoirs quadrupled since 1960.
Teragrams of Nitrogen per Year Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Fossil Fuels Agroecosystems Fertilizer Total Human Additions Natural Sources
CO 2 Concentration (ppm) Source: Keeling and Whorf, 2005.
Loss of Species Diversity Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Crops Status Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Global Surface Temperature Change ( o c) from 1990 Source: IPCC 2001 A: Observations, Northern Hemisphere, Proxy data B: Global Instrumental Observations C: IPCC 2001 Scenario Projections (SRES) A B C 1.5 – 5.7 o C
Global Balance Sheet Crops Livestock Aquaculture Carbon sequestration Capture fisheries Wild foods Wood fuel Genetic resources Biochemicals Fresh Water Air quality regulation Regional & local climate regulation Erosion regulation Water purification Pest regulation Pollination Natural Hazard regulation Spiritual & religious Aesthetic values Timber Fiber Water regulation Disease regulation Recreation & ecotourism EnhancedDegradedMixed Bottom Line: 60% of Ecosystem Services are Degraded
State of World’s Conservation Trends in Drivers Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Source: Melbourne, Australia, March 30, SCIENTISTS FROM 95 COUNTRIES SAY THE WORLD IS ON THE BRINK OF DISASTER I’VE ASKED FOR A SECOND OPINION
What have we achieved globally in conservation? Put together a global framework- Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, 1992). Ratified by 192 countries. CBD tenets: ● Conserve biodiversity ● Use sustainably ● Share equitably An impressive network of Protected Areas (National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Nature Reserves etc).
What have we failed to do globally in conservation? Get the CBD to function effectively. Value conservation benefits adequately. Move the pro-people agenda. Garner adequate political support for mainstreaming conservation.
What is changing…? Global pressures and demands. People’s pressures on resources. Priority for conservation (Development v/s Conservation). If 90’s was the decade for conservation; 2000s indicates missed opportunities.
The Way Forward…… Mainstreaming conservation in development planning. More policy and legal reforms to address resource sharing and equity issues. Enhance professionalism of the range of stakeholders though capacity building.