Presentation on theme: "Dr. V.B. Mathur Dean, Faculty of Wildlife Sciences"— Presentation transcript:
1 Biodiversity as a natural capital: The findings of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) Dr. V.B. MathurDean, Faculty of Wildlife SciencesWildlife Institute of IndiaPre-meeting training course IAIA ’08Perth, Australia
2 What is Biodiversity?"A definition of biodiversity that is altogether simple, comprehensive, and fully operational ... is unlikely to be found."…Noss, 1990
3 What is Biodiversity?"Biological diversity is the variety and variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur"…U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment, "Technologies to Maintain Biological Diversity," 1987
4 What is Biodiversity?"Natural diversity is synonymous with biological diversity... To the scientist, natural diversity has a variety of meanings. These include: 1) the number of different native species and individuals in a habitat or geographical area; 2) the variety of different habitats within an area; 3) the variety of interactions that occur between different species in a habitat; and 4) the range of genetic variation among individuals within a species."… Jones and Stokes Associates' "Sliding Toward Extinction: The State of California's Natural Heritage," 1987
5 What is Biodiversity?"Biological diversity, simply stated, is the diversity of life... biological diversity means the full range of variety and variability within and among living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur, and encompasses ecosystem or community diversity, species diversity, and genetic diversity."…D.B. Jensen, M. Torn, and J. Harte, "In Our Own Hands: A Strategy for Conserving Biological Diversity in California," 1990
6 Levels of Biodiversity GeneticSpeciesCommunities and EcosystemSource: PUAF 741
7 Species Richness of Major Groups Inner ring indicates proportion that has been described; total = 1.75 million (increasing by 100,000/y)Outer ring indicates best estimate of total species (14 million)Source: PUAF 741
8 What drives environmental change? This question was addressed by 1360 scientists from 95 countries in the form of Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) project for 5 years ( ).
9 Millennium Assessment (Pages end to end) FeetMillennium Assessment (Pages end to end)2000Eiffel Tower1000
10 What drives environmental change? Indirect DriversDemographyEconomy (Globalization, Trade, Markets…….)Socio-Political (Governance and Institutional Framework)Science and Technology applicationsCultural and Religious factorsDirect DriversLanduse changesSpecies introduction or removalExternal inputs (Irrigation, Fertilizer etc)Natural factors (Earthquake, Volcanoes etc)
11 World Population (billions) 6.5 billion in 20054 billion in 19752 billion in 19201 billion in 1800Source: UN Population Division 2004; Lee, 2003; Population Reference Bureau
12 World GDP (trillion US $) $52 trillion in 2003$10 trillion in 1967$1 trillion in 1900Source: DeLong 1998
14 Scale of Change20% of the world’s coral reefs were lost and more than 20% degraded.35% of mangrove area has been lost in the last several decades.Amount of water in reservoirs quadrupled since 1960.
15 Teragrams of Nitrogen per Year Natural SourcesFossil FuelsAgroecosystemsFertilizerTotal Human AdditionsSource: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
16 CO2 Concentration (ppm) Source: Keeling and Whorf, 2005.
17 Loss of Species Diversity Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
19 Global Surface Temperature Change (oc) from 1990 A: Observations, Northern Hemisphere, Proxy dataB: Global Instrumental ObservationsC: IPCC 2001 Scenario Projections (SRES)A B C1.5 – 5.7 oCSource: IPCC 2001
20 Global Balance SheetEnhancedDegradedMixedCropsLivestockAquacultureCarbon sequestrationCapture fisheriesWild foodsWood fuelGenetic resourcesBiochemicalsFresh WaterAir quality regulationRegional & local climate regulationErosion regulationWater purificationPest regulationPollinationNatural Hazard regulationSpiritual & religiousAesthetic valuesTimberFiberWater regulationDisease regulationRecreation & ecotourismBottom Line: 60% of Ecosystem Services are Degraded
21 State of World’s Conservation Trends in DriversSource: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
22 I’VE ASKED FOR A SECOND OPINION 1360 SCIENTISTS FROM 95 COUNTRIES SAY THE WORLD IS ON THE BRINK OF DISASTERI’VE ASKED FOR A SECOND OPINIONSource: Melbourne, Australia, March 30, 2005
23 What have we achieved globally in conservation? Put together a global framework- Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, 1992).Ratified by 192 countries.CBD tenets:Conserve biodiversityUse sustainablyShare equitablyAn impressive network of Protected Areas (National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Nature Reserves etc).
24 What have we failed to do globally in conservation? Get the CBD to function effectively.Value conservation benefits adequately.Move the pro-people agenda.Garner adequate political support for mainstreaming conservation.
25 What is changing…? Global pressures and demands. People’s pressures on resources.Priority for conservation (Development v/s Conservation).If 90’s was the decade for conservation; 2000s indicates missed opportunities.
26 The Way Forward…… Mainstreaming conservation in development planning. More policy and legal reforms to address resource sharing and equity issues.Enhance professionalism of the range of stakeholders though capacity building.