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The relevance of economic costs to conservation planning Robin Naidoo WWF-US

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Presentation on theme: "The relevance of economic costs to conservation planning Robin Naidoo WWF-US"— Presentation transcript:

1 The relevance of economic costs to conservation planning Robin Naidoo WWF-US

2 Conservation planning Systematic cons. planning is about maximizing cost- effectiveness Very sophisticated on biological side Relatively crude on costs side But, great gains result from consideration of costs *costs are heterogeneous *plans more efficient when this accounted for

3 Outline I.What are conservation costs? II.How are conservation costs assessed? III.How are conservation plans improved by including costs?

4 TREE 21: (2006)

5 I. What are conservation costs? Acquisition costs Management costs Transaction costs Damage costs Opportunity costs

6 Focus on monetary costs $ $ $

7 Non-monetary proxies: I. What are conservation costs? Add map of non-monetary proxies WEIGHTED NON-MONETARY COST PROXY Tres Positive Neutral Negative Tres Negative Positive =

8 How are costs used? Cost-effective analysis: –Costs in $ terms, benefits in original units; maximize benefits per $ of cost Cost-benefit analysis: –Map all $ costs and $ benefits of conservation, compare

9 II. Assessing conservation costs Examples of spatial distribution of acquisition costs, management costs, opportunity costs No examples of transaction costs or damage costs

10 Acquisition costs United States: county-level data on agricultural land values

11 Acquisition costs Denmark: county-level data on agricultural land values Strange et al. Biol. Conserv. 2007

12 Acquisition costs South Africa: modelled farm-level sale prices Osano et al. Unpublished data

13 Acquisition costs Bahia, Brazil: modelled farm-level sale prices Chomitz et al. Env. Dev. Econ. (2005)

14 Management costs Global surveys of protected area managers (terrestrial & marine) Modelled cost of Pa management based on GNP, PPP, and PA area A.Balmford and colleagues, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 2003,2005

15 Management costs Used in a variety of conservation planning applications, eg. Africa-wide Moore et al. Biol. Cons. (2004)

16 Opportunity costs Global: Opp. costs based on returns to agriculture (crops and livestock) Naidoo & Iwamura Biol. Cons. (in press)

17 Opportunity costs Mbaracayu, Paraguay: for forests, based on agricultural net rents integrated with conversion probabilities Naidoo & Adamowicz Cons. Biol. (2006)

18 Opportunity costs Marine examples: –Foregone sales value of fish and shellfish off Welsh coast (Richardson et al. Cons. Biol. 2006) –Foregone revenue from harvest of rock lobster in South Australia (Stewart and Possingham Env. Model. Ass. 2005)

19 III. Including costs in planning General result that including spatial distribution of costs up- front in conservation planning can greatly increase efficiency of resulting plans

20 III. Including costs in planning General result that including spatial distribution of costs up-front in conservation planning can greatly increase efficiency of resulting plans

21 Costs in planning Global: Plans that consider costs represent endemic species at 10 to 33 % of the opportunity cost of plans that do not (ecoregion-level) Naidoo & Iwamura Biol. Cons. (in press)

22 Continental: Plans that consider costs represent 2/3rds more vertebrate species for the same opportunity cost compared to plans that do not (ecoregion-level) in Africa Costs in planning Moore et al. Biol. Cons. (2004)

23 Sub-national: Plans that consider costs represent the same # of vertebrate species at roughly 10% of the opportunity costs of plans that do not in Oregon, USA Costs in planning Polasky et al. Land Econ. (2001)

24 Landscape: Plans that consider costs have provide environmental benefits for 16-67% of total cost compared to plans that focus only on benefits (New York state, USA) Costs in planning Ferraro J. Pol. Analy. Man. (2003)

25 $11,384,552 = remaining forests Value (U.S. $) cost benefit Naidoo & Ricketts PLoS 2006

26 $11,384,552 $4,670,904 Value (U.S. $) cost benefit = wild meat > land value + timber Naidoo & Ricketts PLoS 2006

27 $11,384,552 Value (U.S. $) cost benefit = wild meat + timber > land value + pharm. $8,806,601 Naidoo & Ricketts PLoS 2006

28 $11,384,552 Value (U.S. $) cost benefit = wild meat + timber > land value + pharm. + existence $13,506,473 Naidoo & Ricketts PLoS 2006

29 Value (U.S. $) cost benefit = wild meat + timber + pharm. > land value + existence + carbon ( 5$/T ) $11,384,552 $207,143,557 Naidoo & Ricketts PLoS 2006

30 IV. Conclusions Just as biodiversity is unevenly distributed in space, so are costs Plans that consider spatial distr. of costs at the outset deliver more biodiversity for less cost

31 Questions?


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