Presentation on theme: "Sustainable Management of Forest Resources. S.P.Vasudeva."— Presentation transcript:
Sustainable Management of Forest Resources. S.P.Vasudeva.
Environment. Living organisms. Physical surroundings. Meterological factors.
Living Organisms Plants, Animals and Human beings. Plants and Animals also include Micro-organisms (Scavengers; Symbiotic creatures; Pathogens). Human beings control the resources including management of Plants and Animals. Primary function of forests and trees had been and should be considered as giving us fresh air and clean water. Balance between Plants and Animals – Photosynthesis and Respiration.
Physical surroundings. The physical surroundings of these living beings such as Air used for breathing, Water that is used for drinking including other consumptive and non-consumptive purposes and Land on which they live and perform various activities are essential for leading a just healthy life.
Metererological factors There is another part of the environment, which is made up of metererological factors, such as the rainfall, temperature, humidity and wind speed.
Natural Resources The Environment thus consists of five basic natural resources on earth - Air, - Water, - Land, - Flora and - Fauna (the rest of the natural resources have their origin from these basic resources).
Natural Resources These resources are inter-related, inter- connected and inter-dependent with disturbance in the appropriate management of any one effects the other four resources. Integration facilitates, maximizing sustainable productivity and use. Solar energy another natural resource plays important synergistic and other roles but come from a source outside the Earth- Sun.
Sustainable Mode of Development. One of the prerequisites for moving towards sustainable mode of development leading to healthy environment is the management and conservation of natural resources. Conservation is defined as management of human use of the natural resources in the biosphere so that they may yield the greatest sustainable benefits to the present generation while maintaining the potential to meet the needs and aspirations of the future generations (World Conservation Strategy, 1980).
Sustainable Mode of Development. Sustainable Development (SD) – a multi-dimentional concept with three inter-acting angles. - Ecological security. - Economic efficiency. - Social equity. SD is not just sustainability of environment and resource system but requires sustainability of economic and social system.
Sustainable Mode of Development. - Agenda – 21 an outcome of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) at Rio-di-jenario in 1992. - Agenda – 21 also contemplate that without economics, ethics and equity environment and ecology would be a causality.
Sustainable Mode of Development. Conflict. Environmentalists – - Conservation of Natural Resources. Governments – Sustainable management and use of Natural Resources with- - Improvement in Economic potential through Infrastructure development. - Introduction of improved technologies. - Increased cash flow through market economy. - Equitable distribution.
Factors Effecting Sustainable Development. - Population Pressure. - Indiscriminate deforestation, Mineral exploitation, Industrialization and Urbanization, - Rising temperature, - Pollution. - Utilization and development of Resources rather than their management. leads to Unhealthy and Unsustainable Environment and decrease in per unit consumption of Natural Resources.
Factors Effecting Sustainable Development. S.No.Natural ResourceCauses 1.Aira)Air Pollution. b)Green house effect. 2.Landa)Soil Erosion. b)Un-controlled grazing. c)Land degradation. d)Intensive Agriculture. e)Road construction. 3.Flora.a)Indiscriminate Deforestation. b)Forest fires. c)Loss of Bio-diversity. d)Excessive grazing. 4.Fauna.a)Elimination of a level in Food chain. 5.Watera)Floods. b)Water Pollution. c)Low pricing of Water. d)Displacement of people due to construction of Hydro-electric projects.
Forest Resources. TangibleNon-tangible. TimberFresh Air Fuel wood.Clean water. Fodder/pastures.Carbon Sequestration. Minor Forest Produce.Bio-diversity. Medicinal and Aromatic plants.Eco-tourism. Bamboo and Canes.Rights and Concessions. Employment Generation.Watershed functions.
Forest Dwellers. Right Holders : The land holders are the Right holders. Forest Dwelling Schedule Tribes: The members or community of Scheduled Tribes who primarily reside in and who depend on forests or forest lands for bona fide livelihood needs and includes the Scheduled Tribe pastoral communities. Other Traditional Forest Dwellers : Any member or community who has for at least three generations prior to 13 th day of Dec. 2005 primarily resided in or who depend on the forest or forests land for bona fide livelihood needs. Definition amended that these may not necessarily residing inside the forest but are depending on forest land for their bona fide livelihood needs.
Rights of Forest Dwellers. Forest Settlements: Timber Distribution. Minor Forest Produce. Grazing. Collection of Fuel wood. Collection of Fodder. Consumptive and Non–consumptive use of Water.
Rights of Forest Dwellers. Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers Act, 2006. Right to live in forest land. Right to ownership, access to collect, use, and dispose of minor forest produce traditionally collected with in or outside village boundaries. Other community rights of uses or entitlements such as fish and other products of water bodies, grazing. Rights including community tenures of habitat and habituation for primitive tribal groups and pre-agricultural communities. Rights in or over disputed lands under any nomenclature in any state where claims are disputed.
Rights of Forest Dwellers. Rights for conversion of Pattas or leases or grants issued by any local authority or any state Govt. on forest lands to titles. Rights to settlement and conversion of all forest villages, old habituations, un-surveyed villages and other villages in the forests, whether recorded, notified or not into revenue villages. Right to protect, regenerate or conserve or manage any community forest resource which they have been traditionally protecting and conserving for sustainable use.
Rights of Forest Dwellers. Right to access to bio-diversity and community right to intellectual property and traditional knowledge related to bio-diversity and cultural diversity. Any other traditional right customarily enjoyed but excluding the traditional right of hunting or trapping or extracting a part of a body of any species of wild animal. Right to in situ rehabilitation including alternative land in cases where ST&OTFDs have been illegally evicted or displaced from forest land of any description without receiving their legal entitlement or rehabilitation prior to the 13 th day of December, 2005.
Organization and work Relating to Environment and Sustainable Development. 1. Forest Department. - Conservation and Management of Forests. - Maintain and perpetuate the forest area as per National Forest Policy/State Forest Policy norms. - Maintain the density of forests at appropriate level. - Manage the Rights and Concessions bestowed to Right holders. - People’s participation in Forest Management. - Manage the watershed functions of forests through the implementation of CAT Plans on River basin approach. - Market eco-tourism based on forests and environment.
Organization and work Relating to Environment and Sustainable Development. Management and marketing of NTFPs and medicinal plants. Conserve and manage forests scientifically, to increase their value – historical, cultural, religious, economic and aesthetic - for communities and environment on sustainable basis. Strive towards an appropriate land use in the state especially in the context of sustainable forest management, focusing on other primary land use sectors such as agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry and those related to infrastructure development.
Critical Issues. 1. Programme Intervention: - Protection and Sustainable Management of Forests and Environment from various pressures. - Cater to Rights and Concessions in the Forests so that it leads to Sustainable Management of forests. - Creating Forests/Resources outside forests to reduce pressure on forest resources. - Modernization of forest protection. - Conserve and manage forests by incorporating best practices from within and outside the state. - Establish and support integrated governance system that effectively involves all stakeholders in protecting, conserving, managing and restoring forests.
Critical Issues. 3. Economic Issues: - Strive for livelihood security of forest dependent communities. - Serious implementation of SCP and TSP for equitable and appropriate distribution of economic benefits. - Value addition of Forest Resource products and their marketing. - Rise in income of people through facilitation, intervention and assessment.
Intervention of Govt./ Civil Society. Appropriate Monitoring and Evaluation. - Involvement of staff, people and NGO if any – Participatory M&E. - Third party assessment. - The nature and rate of change that has occurred or appears to be occurring. - Assessing through input-output and cost benefit analysis. - Socio-economic analysis.
Intervention of Govt./ Civil Society. The effective evaluation of a Environmental policy or project is/can be carried out on following stages. - Planning stage. - Mid-term stage. - Completion stage. - Post Terminal Evaluation. - Integration in new Policy/Project.
Intervention by C&AG. Sustainable Development of Forest Resources is a process which must consider - - Management leading to rejuvenation of forest resources. - Both tangible and non-tangible benefits. - Direction of investment? - Orientation of technological innovation. - Institutional change. are made consistent with present as well as future needs based on principles of sustainable management.
Best Practices. Right of Timber distribution in H.P. - All season affair effecting other forestry operations. - Rate of timber very low hence more demand. - Marking of green trees, deodar first priority. - Influential the beneficiaries. - Marking more than the prescriptions. - Unsustainable Forest Management.
Best Practices. Legal Position: The various settlement reports mention that ‘if the exercise of rights as admitted in any forest, would endanger the existence of forest, the extent to which the rights will be exercisable can be re- determined and should the exercise of rights become detrimental to the exercise of the forests over which these are exercised, the extent to which the rights will be exercisable can be re-determined’. Yet this option has seldom been exercised in the past for conservation of forests.
Best Practices. H.P. Forest Settlement Rules, 1965 have been framed under Section 76 of IFA, 1927. The guiding principle laid down for determining the rights and concessions under these rules are as under: “All these rights and concessions are meant for the satisfaction of personal bonafide requirements and subject to condition that forests are to be maintained in perpetuity. The right of user of easement is always a limited one; it can never extend so as to destroy the servient estate. The right exists so long as the (servient) property is safe or continues to exist, because if the (servient) estate ceases to exist, the right ceases with it. So while dealing with the claims, the Forest Settlement Officer should see that the forests are not unduly burdened”.
Best Practices. H.P. Forest (Timber Distribution) Rules, 2010. - Rules framed under Section 32 (L) of IFA, 1927. - Rationalization Process: i) TD only in rural areas. ii) No TD if trees available on land holding of the applicant. iii) If applicant has land holding at more than one place TD only at one place. iv) TD only to head of the family as per revenue record. v) TD to original inhabitants only. vi) Only for domestic purpose.
Best Practices. - Quantity fixed. New house : 3 Cubic mts. Maintenance: 1 Cubic mts. - Periodicity: New : Once in life time or 30 years which ever is later. Maintenance: Once in 15 years. - Priority for grant: BPL to be followed by APL on first come first serve basis. - Rates: 30% of weighted average sale rates to APL and 10% to BPL. Free to sufferers of Natural calamities.
Best Practices. - Procedure: People/Forest centric. - Penalty: If misuse action. - Monitoring and Evaluation:
Best Practices. The rules framed on the principle of Sustainable Management. - Objective. - Transparent. - Without discretion. Will lead to - Ecological security. - Social equity. - Economic efficiency.
Best Practices. Management of NTFP and Medicinal Plants. - Rights to local people to collect and dispose. - Through Traders every year and or - Markets in Delhi/Amritsar. - Many species have vanished. Sustainable Management of NTFP/Medicinal Plants. - Four year cycle. - Rate fixed per Kg for permit fee – Reviewed. - Power to issue permit for selected species given to Panchayat Pardhan and for others to DFO’s. - Revenue to Panchayat/not Govt. for permits issued by Pardhans. - Review of species management.