Presentation on theme: "Design assistance by Thara Thomas"— Presentation transcript:
1Design assistance by Thara Thomas Wetlands of IndiaPresentation by Maneka Mirchandaney, Std XII, Mallya Aditi International School, BangaloreDesign assistance by Thara Thomas1
2What is a wetland?Wetlands are interface betweenTerrestrial and aquatic ecosystems .It is an area of land whose soil isSaturated with moisture eitherpermanently or for a long enoughseason every year to support aquatic plants.Wetlands are ecosystems whose formation, processes and characteristics are determined by water.Wetlands are not necessarily "wet"all year roundThey have been called the'nature's kidneys' because they cleanse our environment.14 percent of the world's wetlands are located in Canada
3Facts About Wetlands Wetlands are typically low-lying areas They can be natural or man-madeThey can be coastal or inlandFloodplains, swamps, marshes, mangroves deltas and lakes are some types of wetlands.A paddy farm is also a wetlandWetlands can contain fresh water, salt water, or brackish (a combination of the two)
4Some important wetlands in India Ashtamudi (Wetland)Bhitarkanika (Mangroves)Bhoj (Wetland)Chandertal (Wetland)Chilika (Lake)Deepor BeelEast Calcutta (Wetlands)Harike (Lake)Hokera (Wetland)KanjliKeoladeo (National Park)Kolleru (Lake)Loktak (Lake)Point Calimere (Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary)Pong Dam (Lake)Renuka (Lake)RoparRudrasagar (Lake)Sambhar (Lake)Sasthamkotta (Lake)Surinsar – Mansar (Lakes)TsomoririVembanad-Kol (Wetland)Wular (Lake)Upper Ganga River (Narora to Brijghat stretch)Some important wetlands in India
5Importance of wetlands Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, comparable to rain forests and coral reefs.They provide rich habitat for an immense variety of species of microbes, plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish, and mammals.Many species of birds and mammals rely on wetlands for food, water, and shelter, especially during migration and breeding.Wetland vegetation is specially adapted to remaining stable in wet muddy soils. They can resist water flow and can also manage to survive when water quantity reduces. They can survive even if there is little or no oxygen present in the underlying soil. These conditions are typically very stressful to plants, but this is an adaptive feature of wetland plants.
6Uses of wetlands water management They are also important to the Think of a wetland as a huge spongeWetlands store water when it is in excess and release it to the ground during dry periodsThis helps in recharge and discharge of groundwaterThey assist in flood controlWetlands protect us against floods. They reduce the velocity of floodwaters and store some of the excess water.They reduce the momentum of water as it flows to a river or a stream, thereby reducing soil erosionThey are also important to thenutrient cycle.
7Uses of wetlands environmental Wetlands plants and soil store carbon instead of releasing it to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. Thus they help moderate global climateWetlands help retain sediments and increase soil fertilityMany wetlands remove pollutants from surface runoff and small streams. Plants that grow in wetlands are very effective in filtering out water pollutionMangroves can protect shorelines from strong winds and can reduce the impact of hurricanes and tsunamisWetlands reduce the flow of water. Water traveling with lower velocity moves around plants and vegetation slowly. As a result, suspended sediments drop down and settle on the soil. Hence wetlands act as natural filters.Bacteria in the water attack the pollutants and excessive nutrients, cleansing the water and so the outflow of water from a wetland is typically very clear.Coastal wetlands help in buffering storms and strong winds.
8Uses of wetlands – economic Wetlands provide livelihoods by being a source of (Consumptive use )Agricultural produceCraft materialstimber productionMedicinal plantsFishingHuntingThey can also be recreation spaces (non-consumptive uses )Wetlands provide opportunities for humans to enjoy outdoor activities,such as canoeing, fishing, and bird watching.
9How wetlands work Contaminants and sediments are filtered. Provides critical wildlife habitatCleaner water outflow
10Threats to wetlands Natural Natural disasters like hurricanes and floodsOver grazing by wildlifeWetlands do hold water for a fairly long period of time, but prolonged drought can dry them up.Overgrazing can leave wetlands open to soil erosionEven though wetlands protect us from severe weather events such as hurricanes and floods, these can erode the wetlands and cause their destructionDrought
11Threats to wetlands Anthropogenic 1.Development 2.Pollution Draining out wetlands for constructionDamming them to form lakes or pondsDiverting water flow2.Pollution3. Sand and gravel miningWetlands do hold water for a fairly long period of time, but prolonged drought can dry them up.Overgrazing can leave wetlands open to soil erosionEven though wetlands protect us from severe weather events such as hurricanes and floods, these can erode the wetlands and cause their destructionThough wetlands act as a natural filter for polluted water, they can only absorb so much. Increased discharge of water that contains pesticide and fertilizer run-off as well as wastewater from homes and industry can pollute a wetland, sometimes to a point where it’s impossible to clean it up.Warmer waters are more productive and this may increase algal growth in wetlands. Algal blooms can degrade water quality and kill aquatic life that otherwise thrives in this ecosystem.Emissions of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen dissolve in rain and the resulting weak acids that are formed reduce the pH of rain. When this rainwater mixes with the water in wetlands over an extended period of time, the pH of the water in the wetland can reduce and this has an impact on the biodiversity that the wetland supports.4. Global warming5. Acid rain
12Ramsar conventionThe Convention on Wetlands -- called the "Ramsar Convention" – was signedin Ramsar, Iran, in 1971.An intergovernmental treaty - embodies the commitments of its membercountries to plan for the "wise use", or sustainable use, of all of the wetlandsin their territories.
13What can we do? DO A PROJECT SHOW IT TO YOUR CLASS TALK TO THE OWNER OF A WETLANDTake an initiative, talk to the owners of a wetland on preserving them.ORGANIZE A FIELD TRIPOrganize a class field trip to a wetland (preferably a destroyed one)and explain about the history of the wetland and why it was destroyed.MAKE SURE YOUR HOUSE ISN’T BUILT ON WETLAND
14Hi! I’m the quiz master! Click on the button with the right answer. Good luck!Quiz master
15Q. 1Which of these is NOT a use of wetlands?To clean the environmentSedimentation of rocksSwimming and other sports
16The right answer is “Swimming and other water sports.” Wrong!!!!!!!!!Sorry!The right answer is “Swimming and other water sports.”Quiz master
17Correct!!!!!!!!! Woohoo! That is right! Congratulations! Quiz master
18Q. 2Which fact about a wetland is right?There is always shellfish in a wetlandA wetland is a low area where the land is filled with waterA wetland always has a pH level above 9.5
19Wrong!!!!!!!!! Sorry! The right answer is “A wetland is a low area where the land is filled with water.”Quiz master
20Correct!!!!!!!!! Woohoo! That is right! Congratulations! Quiz master
21Q. 3What is NOT a way to help increase awarenessabout wetlands?Do a project on wetlandsOrganize a field trip to a wetlandPlay games on the computer
22Wrong!!!!!!!!! Sorry! That is wrong! The right answer is “Play games on the computer.”Quiz master
23Correct!!!!!!!!! Woohoo! That is right! Congratulations! Quiz master
24Q. 4What is a good pH level for a wetland?4.07.59.5
25“7.5” Wrong!!!!!!!!! Sorry! That is wrong! The right answer is “7.5” Quiz master
26“7.5” Correct!!!!!!!!! Woohoo! That is right! Congratulations! Quiz master
27Q. 5Which one of these is NOT a type of wetland?MarshReservoirSwimming pool
28Wrong!!!!!!!!!Sorry!That is wrong! The right answer is “Swimming pool”Quiz master
29Correct!!!!!!!!! Woohoo! That is right! Congratulations! Quiz master
30Activities Here is an activity you can do in class Step 1 Divide your class into groups of not more than 5 people each.Step 2Use the facts on the next page (note : some of them are false) and give each group a few facts, equal amounts of true and false.Step 3Each group in turn says one fact. After they say it, someone from another group has to say whether the fact is true or false.If he/she is right, the team gets a point. If he/she is wrong, they lose a point. The team with the most points wins.
31FactsThe water hyacinth is a plantA wetland is always naturalThe water should have a pH level between 6.5 and 8.5Mangroves are groves of mango trees.TrueIf the water is acidic then it is hard for animals to liveWetlands always have salty waterFalseWetlands provide a good habitat for animals4.0 is a good pH level for a wetlandThese are just a few facts that you can use, why not try making some more?Reeds can be found in wetlandsBuilding a house on a wetland is good.These are just a few facts that you can use, why not try making some more?
32A word search on Ramsar sites in India BASIROMTKVULWDEPNGZCXHYJFQFind the following:Ashtamudi, Bhitarkanika, Bhoj, Chilika, Deepor Beel, East Calcutta, Harike,Kanjli, Keoladeo, Kolleru, Loktak, Point Calimere, Pong Dam, Ropar, Sambhar,Sasthamkotta, Tsomoriri, Vembanad-Kol, WularCan you name the states where these wetlands are found?
34Now that you know about wetlands, take a step forward and do something! (See slide 13 for ideas)Watching this slideshow will not only help you, but can help other people, animals and plants. It can help the environment, but you need to start and set the trend.Let other people know about the destruction of wetlands. MAKE A DIFFERENCE!Thank you!