1 Classification: Chapter 17 Taxonomy 6 Kingdoms Dissection notes References: Holt Biology & sources as noted by page.
2 TaxonomyTaxonomy is the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms.The branch of biology that names & groups organisms -according to their characteristics & evolutionary history.A Universal System was designed to Eliminate the use of Common Names and Confusion in the Scientific World.
3 Use of long Latin names Use of Common Names COMMON NAMES, such as “robin” or “fir tree”, for organisms created some problemscommon names varied from one locale to next & did not describe species accurately.Use of long Latin namesUsed by scientists before 1700’s,- did not show relationships between species & were inconvenient, hard to understand.
4 Describe a problem with each of these common names : -Starfish -Seahorse -Jelly fish-Peanut -Catfish -Tiger sharkHow are their names misleading?Discuss problems when 1 organism has 2 common names:Example- firefly & lightening bug
5 Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) “Father of Modern Taxonomy” He used morphology(which is the organism’sstructure & form)Grouped organismsinto hierarchical categories
6 Carl LinnaeusFormed “Taxa” (groups of organisms)(Used Latin for the Names because it was the language of educated people)Morphology -the STRUCTURAL SIMILARITIES BETWEEN ORGANISMSSeries of hierarchical categories used to show relationshipsHe had 2 KINGDOMS: PLANTAE & ANIMALIA.
7 B. Modern classification system is based on morphological similarities. Hierarchy of eight groups (Taxa)Domains- include all six kingdomsKingdom – a taxon of similar phyla or divisionsPhylum – (phyla-plural)- taxon of similar classesClass – taxon of similar ordersOrder – taxon of similar familiesFamily – group of similar generaGenus – group of similar speciesspecies – most exclusive, specific group. Members of this grouping can mate, produce viable offspring(varieties) – same species but with slight differences(subspecies) – same species, different location
8 8 Modern Levels of Classification (From the most general to the most specific) DomainKingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesSpecies- is the smallest, most specific group- contains only 1 kind of organism.You needtoknowthese!
9 Pneumonic Devices pick one to help you remember the taxa Keep Penguins Cool Or Find Good ShelterorKennywood Park Can Open For Good Summers.King Phillip Comes Over For Good Spaghetti
11 Binomial Nomenclature means Two Name Naming Uses the last 2 categories (the most specific) to name things. uses the Genus & Species for the 2 parts of the nameAlways Capitalize the Genus but Not the Species Identifier.Both are either underlined or italicized.
12 Using Binomial Nomenclature Acer rubrum - RED MAPLE TREE Acer is the Latin name for Maple (genus) rubrum is the Latin word for Red(species) Can be Abreviated: A.rubrum.Homo sapiens - HUMANSHomo -large brain & upright posture. sapiens for our intelligence & abilityto speak Abbreviated H. sapiens
13 Additional Categories Zoologistsuse term “SUBSPECIES” for variations that may occur in species from different geographical locations- ie, timber wolf and the northern timber wolf- ex Canis Lupus ssp occidentalisBotanistsMay use the term “division” instead of phylumsometimes split species into Subsets known as VARIETIES. Example: peaches & nectarines are varieties of Prunus persica var.
14 Additional Categories Microbiologists- Bacteria are also broken into subsets called STRAINS. Example: Escherichia Coli – some strains are harmless, even helpful;- live in our intestines, but strain E. coli is responsible for food poisoning deaths.According to the CDC there are an estimated 73,000 cases of E. Coli infection every year in the United States. The typical symptoms are bloody diarrhea and (if severe) kidney failure. These symptoms most commonly appear when a person has eaten undercooked or contaminated ground beef.
15 Phylogenyorganizes the diversity of living organisms in the context of evolution.are based on several types of evidence:Fossil RecordMorphologyEmbryologyChromosomes & Macromolecules
16 Phylogenetic TreesA family tree that shows evolutionary relationships thought to exist among organisms.Is a hypothesis about the relationships.Is subject to change - as more evidence is learned.
17 Which organisms are mostly closely related Which organisms are mostly closely related? Which ones are most distantly related?
19 Taxonomic Groups 3 domains, 6 kingdoms 1. Domain Archaeaaligns with Kingdom Archaebacteria, are single-celled prokaryotic cells that have distinctive cell walls & are “ancient bacteria”2. Domain Bacteriaaligns with Kingdom Eubacteria, are single-celled prokaryotic cells that are “true bacteria”.3. Domain EukaryaDomain Eukarya includes the kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, & Animalia.All members of this domain have eukaryotic cells.
20 SIX KINGDOMS GROUP ORGANISMS TOGETHER THAT HAVE SIMILARITIES SUCH AS MAJOR CELLULAR STRUCTURE, METHODS OF OBTAINING NUTRIENTS, AND METABOLISM.
23 Domain: Archaea, kingdom Archaea vs Domain: Archaea, kingdom Archaea vs. Domain: Bacteria, Kingdom EubacteriaOrganisms in the Kingdoms Eubacteria & Archaea are very different from each other, both genetically & biochemically!Archaea have been found in temperatures above the boiling point and in cold that would freeze your blood.Eubacteria are the “regular” bacteria.
24 Methanogens Themoacidophiles Extreme Halophiles 1. Archaea Domain: Archaea, Kingdom Archaea1. Archaea“archae”- from the Greek for "ANCIENT".Scientists think these are similar to Earth’s First Organisms“Extremophiles” – Many types of Archaeans live in HARSH ENVIRONMENTSSome types areMethanogensThemoacidophilesExtreme Halophiles
25 Methanogens Live in ANAEROBIC Environments, Produce Methane Gas, a byproduct ofmetabolism in conditions of very low oxygenIncludes Chemosynthetic Bacteria.Lives in the Intestines of Mammals.Methanobrevibacter smithii is the prominent methanogen in the human gut, where it helps digest polysaccharides (sugars).
26 Thermoacidophiles - living in Sulfurous Hot Springs & Volcanic Vents They “love”“acid” & “heat”
27 Extreme Halophiles Live in Very Salty Places (like the great Salt lake & the Dead Sea) (Halite is the mineral name for NaCl)
28 Domain: Bacteria, Kingdom Eubacteria 2. “true” or EubacteriaThe first thing you probably think of when you say this word is “disease”- something like strep. throat or maybe an infection in a cut.Most of the bacteria that are disease causing are Eubacteria.NOTE: Only about 1% of bacteria are disease causing.
29 Many bacteria are very helpful organisms. Domain: Bacteria, Kingdom EubacteriaMany bacteria are very helpful organisms.Actinomycetes, produce antibiotics such as streptomycin and nocardicin;others live symbiotically in the guts of animals (including humans) or elsewhere in their bodies, or on the roots of certain plants, converting nitrogen into a usable form.Bacteria put the tang in yogurt and the sour in sourdough bread;help to break down dead organic matter; & make up the base of the food web in many environments.
30 “True” Bacteria: Benign (benign = good, friendly, kind) Domain: Bacteria, Kingdom Eubacteria“True” Bacteria:So remember- Most bacteria are beneficialBenign (benign = good, friendly, kind)Pathogens (means disease causing -only a few are “bad guys”)Bacteria occur in 3 basic shapes: cocci, bacilli & spiral. Many are named by their shape.biology.clc.uc.edu
31 Examples of common bacteria LactobacillusacidophilusStreptococcuspneumoniaeEscherichiacolianswersingenesis.orggenome.microbio.uab.edu
32 3. Protists EUKARYOTIC (has a true nucleus) Domain: Eukarya, Kingdom Protista3. ProtistsMade of a variety of organisms that don’t “fit” anywhere else. (Some are not very much like the others in this group.)EUKARYOTIC (has a true nucleus)50,000 species- many unicellular, some are like fungi, some like plants or animals.Includes protozoans, unicellular algae, slime molds & water molds
33 Examples of Protists includes slime molds & protozoans like Euglena, Paramecium, Ameoba
34 4. Fungi Can be Unicellular or multicellular Domain: Eukarya, Kingdom Fungi4. FungiCan be Unicellular or multicellularHETEROTROPHIC (eats something else)NOT like plants (photosyntheic) (this is why they were kicked out of the plant kingdom)100,000 species of mushrooms, puffballs, rusts, mildew & molds
35 Fungi Examples: Stink horn Agaricus bisporus: Candida albicans- The Button MushroomStink hornCandida albicans-can cause yeastInfections- like thismouth thrushfcps.edureference.medscape.com
36 5. Plantae Multicellular & Domain: Eukarya, Kingdom Plantae5. PlantaeMulticellular &Photosynthetic (Autotrophs) (They make their own food & are the chief food producers of the world.)Found in all the types of environments: aquatic algae, amphibian mosses, and terrestrial ferns and seed-bearing plants.350,000 species identified.
38 6. Animalia Eukaryotic, Multicellular Heterotrophic Domain: Eukarya, Kingdom Animalia6. AnimaliaEukaryotic,MulticellularHeterotrophicMost animals are symmetricalMovement at some time in their life cycle.
43 NEXT: Dissection Notes: SquidEarthwormFrogWhich are invertebrates?
44 Animal Kingdom, Invertebrate Phylum Annelida, Class Oligochaeta Most familiar is the earthworm.Structure and MovementSegmented body has over 100 nearly-identical segments.Circular and longitudinal muscles line the interior body wall.
45 Earthworms Feeding /Digestion Ingest soil as they burrow through it.Soil is moved through these structures:mouthpharynxesophaguscropgizzardintestineanusEarthworms play an important role in the condition of soil.
46 Respiration and Excretion Closed circulatory system.“Heart” is 5 aortic archesAlso- have large dorsal blood vesselpump blood through the vessels of the bodyRespiration and ExcretionOxygen & CO2 diffuse through moist skin,Cellular wastes and excess water are excreted through nephridia.Neural ControlConsists of a chain of ganglia connected by a ventral nerve cord.
47 ReproductionEarthworms are hermaphrodites, but an individual worm cannot fertilize its own eggs.During mating, earthworms press their ventral surfaces together.Held together by their setae and by a film of mucus secreted by each worm’s clitellum.Fertilization occurs inside the tube, which forms a protective case for the young worms.
53 Animal Kingdom, Vertebrate Class: Amphibians The name amphibian means "double life”-adults live on land, but their soft eggs must be laid in the water.
54 Characteristics of Amphibians: 1. Metamorphosis (larval to adult)2. Webbed Feet (if they have feet)-no claws3. Thin, moist skin with no scalesUse gills, lungs & skin for respiration- Aquatic young use gills & skin- Terrestrial adults lose gills, use lungs & skin5. Eggs- lack multi cellular membranes or shells (laid in water or moist place)
55 Differences: amphibian eggs (left) & reptile or bird eggs (right- in waterproof shell)
57 American Toad Very common in North America & Pennsylvania Warty skin has a poisonousmilky fluid, =protectionfrom predators.Females lay their eggs in freshwater.Hatching occurs 3 to 12 days after,depending on the temperature of the water.The sexes can be distinguished in two waysMales dark colored throats, of black or brown, while females have white throats and are lighter overall.female American toads are larger than males.
58 Breeding Frog and toad species distinctive call to attract females.fertilized eggs hatch into tadpoles & metamorphose into young frogsEXTERNAL FERTILIZATION occurs after amplexus (pseudocopulation )Click here to see & hear common northern USA frogs & toads(remember not to go thru firefox)