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Classification: Chapter 17 Taxonomy 6 Kingdoms Dissection notes

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1 Classification: Chapter 17 Taxonomy 6 Kingdoms Dissection notes
References: Holt Biology & sources as noted by page.

2 Taxonomy Taxonomy is the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms. The branch of biology that names & groups organisms -according to their characteristics & evolutionary history. A Universal System was designed to Eliminate the use of Common Names and Confusion in the Scientific World.

3 Use of long Latin names Use of Common Names
COMMON NAMES, such as “robin” or “fir tree”, for organisms created some problems common names varied from one locale to next & did not describe species accurately. Use of long Latin names Used by scientists before 1700’s,- did not show relationships between species & were inconvenient, hard to understand.

4 Describe a problem with each of these common names :
-Starfish -Seahorse -Jelly fish -Peanut -Catfish -Tiger shark How are their names misleading? Discuss problems when 1 organism has 2 common names: Example- firefly & lightening bug

5 Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) “Father of Modern Taxonomy”
He used morphology (which is the organism’s structure & form) Grouped organisms into hierarchical categories

6 Carl Linnaeus Formed “Taxa” (groups of organisms) (Used Latin for the Names because it was the language of educated people) Morphology -the STRUCTURAL SIMILARITIES BETWEEN ORGANISMS Series of hierarchical categories used to show relationships He had 2 KINGDOMS: PLANTAE & ANIMALIA.

7 B. Modern classification system is based on morphological similarities.
Hierarchy of eight groups (Taxa) Domains- include all six kingdoms Kingdom – a taxon of similar phyla or divisions Phylum – (phyla-plural)- taxon of similar classes Class – taxon of similar orders Order – taxon of similar families Family – group of similar genera Genus – group of similar species species – most exclusive, specific group. Members of this grouping can mate, produce viable offspring (varieties) – same species but with slight differences (subspecies) – same species, different location

8 8 Modern Levels of Classification (From the most general to the most specific)
Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Species- is the smallest, most specific group- contains only 1 kind of organism. You need to know these!

9 Pneumonic Devices pick one to help you remember the taxa
Keep Penguins Cool Or Find Good Shelter or Kennywood Park Can Open For Good Summers. King Phillip Comes Over For Good Spaghetti


11 Binomial Nomenclature means Two Name Naming
Uses the last 2 categories (the most specific) to name things. uses the Genus & Species for the 2 parts of the name Always Capitalize the Genus but Not the Species Identifier. Both are either underlined or italicized.

12 Using Binomial Nomenclature
Acer rubrum - RED MAPLE TREE   Acer is the Latin name for Maple (genus)   rubrum is the Latin word for Red(species)   Can be Abreviated: A.rubrum. Homo sapiens - HUMANS Homo -large brain & upright posture. sapiens for our intelligence & ability to speak Abbreviated H. sapiens

13 Additional Categories
Zoologists use term “SUBSPECIES” for variations that may occur in species from different geographical locations- ie, timber wolf and the northern timber wolf- ex Canis Lupus ssp occidentalis Botanists May use the term “division” instead of phylum sometimes split species into Subsets known as VARIETIES. Example: peaches & nectarines are varieties of Prunus persica var.

14 Additional Categories
Microbiologists- Bacteria are also broken into subsets called STRAINS. Example: Escherichia Coli – some strains are harmless, even helpful;- live in our intestines, but strain E. coli is responsible for food poisoning deaths. According to the CDC there are an estimated 73,000 cases of E. Coli infection every year in the United States. The typical symptoms are bloody diarrhea and (if severe) kidney failure. These symptoms most commonly appear when a person has eaten undercooked or contaminated ground beef.

15 Phylogeny organizes the diversity of living organisms in the context of evolution. are based on several types of evidence: Fossil Record Morphology Embryology Chromosomes & Macromolecules

16 Phylogenetic Trees A family tree that shows evolutionary relationships thought to exist among organisms. Is a hypothesis about the relationships. Is subject to change - as more evidence is learned.

17 Which organisms are mostly closely related
Which organisms are mostly closely related? Which ones are most distantly related?

18 Animal kingdom phylogenetic tree

19 Taxonomic Groups 3 domains, 6 kingdoms
1. Domain Archaea aligns with Kingdom Archaebacteria, are single-celled prokaryotic cells that have distinctive cell walls & are “ancient bacteria” 2. Domain Bacteria aligns with Kingdom Eubacteria, are single-celled prokaryotic cells that are “true bacteria”. 3. Domain Eukarya Domain Eukarya includes the kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, & Animalia. All members of this domain have eukaryotic cells.



22 A closer look at each of the 6 kingdoms:

23 Domain: Archaea, kingdom Archaea vs
Domain: Archaea, kingdom Archaea vs. Domain: Bacteria, Kingdom Eubacteria Organisms in the Kingdoms Eubacteria & Archaea are very different from each other, both genetically & biochemically! Archaea have been found in temperatures above the boiling point and in cold that would freeze your blood. Eubacteria are the “regular” bacteria.

24 Methanogens Themoacidophiles Extreme Halophiles 1. Archaea
Domain: Archaea, Kingdom Archaea 1. Archaea “archae”- from the Greek for "ANCIENT".Scientists think these are similar to Earth’s First Organisms “Extremophiles” – Many types of Archaeans live in HARSH ENVIRONMENTS Some types are Methanogens Themoacidophiles Extreme Halophiles

25 Methanogens Live in ANAEROBIC Environments, Produce Methane
Gas, a byproduct of metabolism in conditions of very low oxygen Includes Chemosynthetic Bacteria. Lives in the Intestines of Mammals. Methanobrevibacter smithii is the prominent methanogen in the human gut, where it helps digest polysaccharides (sugars).

26 Thermoacidophiles - living in Sulfurous Hot Springs & Volcanic Vents They “love”“acid” & “heat”

27 Extreme Halophiles Live in Very Salty Places (like the great Salt lake & the Dead Sea) (Halite is the mineral name for NaCl)

28 Domain: Bacteria, Kingdom Eubacteria
2. “true” or Eubacteria The first thing you probably think of when you say this word is “disease”- something like strep. throat or maybe an infection in a cut. Most of the bacteria that are disease causing are Eubacteria. NOTE: Only about 1% of bacteria are disease causing.

29 Many bacteria are very helpful organisms.
Domain: Bacteria, Kingdom Eubacteria Many bacteria are very helpful organisms. Actinomycetes, produce antibiotics such as streptomycin and nocardicin; others live symbiotically in the guts of animals (including humans) or elsewhere in their bodies, or on the roots of certain plants, converting nitrogen into a usable form. Bacteria put the tang in yogurt and the sour in sourdough bread; help to break down dead organic matter; & make up the base of the food web in many environments.

30 “True” Bacteria: Benign (benign = good, friendly, kind)
Domain: Bacteria, Kingdom Eubacteria “True” Bacteria: So remember- Most bacteria are beneficial Benign (benign = good, friendly, kind) Pathogens (means disease causing -only a few are “bad guys”) Bacteria occur in 3 basic shapes: cocci, bacilli & spiral. Many are named by their shape.

31 Examples of common bacteria
Lactobacillus acidophilus Streptococcus pneumoniae Escherichia coli

32 3. Protists EUKARYOTIC (has a true nucleus)
Domain: Eukarya, Kingdom Protista 3. Protists Made of a variety of organisms that don’t “fit” anywhere else. (Some are not very much like the others in this group.) EUKARYOTIC (has a true nucleus) 50,000 species- many unicellular, some are like fungi, some like plants or animals. Includes protozoans, unicellular algae, slime molds & water molds

33 Examples of Protists includes slime molds & protozoans like Euglena, Paramecium, Ameoba

34 4. Fungi Can be Unicellular or multicellular
Domain: Eukarya, Kingdom Fungi 4. Fungi Can be Unicellular or multicellular HETEROTROPHIC (eats something else) NOT like plants (photosyntheic) (this is why they were kicked out of the plant kingdom) 100,000 species of mushrooms, puffballs, rusts, mildew & molds

35 Fungi Examples: Stink horn Agaricus bisporus: Candida albicans-
The Button Mushroom Stink horn Candida albicans- can cause yeast Infections- like this mouth thrush

36 5. Plantae Multicellular &
Domain: Eukarya, Kingdom Plantae 5. Plantae Multicellular & Photosynthetic (Autotrophs) (They make their own food & are the chief food producers of the world.) Found in all the types of environments: aquatic algae, amphibian mosses, and terrestrial ferns and seed-bearing plants. 350,000 species identified.

37 Phylogenetic tree of the plant kingdom

38 6. Animalia Eukaryotic, Multicellular Heterotrophic
Domain: Eukarya, Kingdom Animalia 6. Animalia Eukaryotic, Multicellular Heterotrophic Most animals are symmetrical Movement at some time in their life cycle.

39 Examples of animals

40 The Major Animal Phyla Invertebrate: Porifera (sponges)
Cnidaria (jellyfish ,coral) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Nematoda (roundworms) Annelida (segmented worms)- **add this phyla to your sheet!!! (these are the earthworms & leeches) Rotifera (tiny aquatic free-living animals) Mollusca (snails, clams, squid, Octopi) Arthropoda arachnids, Crusteceans myriapoda Insects Echinoderms –starfish, sea stars. Sea urchins

41 Last phylum is Chordata
There are 2 invertebrate chordates: Lancelet Tunicates All the rest of animals in Chordata are vertebrate classes

42 Vertebrate: classes Hagfishes (Myxini) Lampreys (Cephalaspidomorphi)
Sharks (Chondrichthyes) Ray-finned fishes Lobe-Finned Fishes Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals (orders of mammals) -Monotremes -Marsupials -Placental mammals

43 NEXT: Dissection Notes:
Squid Earthworm Frog Which are invertebrates?

44 Animal Kingdom, Invertebrate Phylum Annelida, Class Oligochaeta
Most familiar is the earthworm. Structure and Movement Segmented body has over 100 nearly-identical segments. Circular and longitudinal muscles line the interior body wall.

45 Earthworms Feeding /Digestion
Ingest soil as they burrow through it. Soil is moved through these structures: mouth pharynx esophagus crop gizzard intestine anus Earthworms play an important role in the condition of soil.

46 Respiration and Excretion
Closed circulatory system. “Heart” is 5 aortic arches Also- have large dorsal blood vessel pump blood through the vessels of the body Respiration and Excretion Oxygen & CO2 diffuse through moist skin, Cellular wastes and excess water are excreted through nephridia. Neural Control Consists of a chain of ganglia connected by a ventral nerve cord.

47 Reproduction Earthworms are hermaphrodites, but an individual worm cannot fertilize its own eggs. During mating, earthworms press their ventral surfaces together. Held together by their setae and by a film of mucus secreted by each worm’s clitellum. Fertilization occurs inside the tube, which forms a protective case for the young worms.

48 Earthworms reproducing


50 Earthworm diagrams

51 Earthworm links:

52 Squid dissection

53 Animal Kingdom, Vertebrate Class: Amphibians
The name amphibian means "double life” -adults live on land, but their soft eggs must be laid in the water.

54 Characteristics of Amphibians:
1. Metamorphosis (larval to adult) 2. Webbed Feet (if they have feet)-no claws 3. Thin, moist skin with no scales Use gills, lungs & skin for respiration - Aquatic young use gills & skin - Terrestrial adults lose gills, use lungs & skin 5. Eggs- lack multi cellular membranes or shells (laid in water or moist place)

55 Differences: amphibian eggs (left) & reptile or bird eggs (right- in waterproof shell)

56 Differences/Similarities-Frogs & Toads

57 American Toad Very common in North America & Pennsylvania
Warty skin has a poisonous milky fluid, =protection from predators. Females lay their eggs in freshwater. Hatching occurs 3 to 12 days after, depending on the temperature of the water. The sexes can be distinguished in two ways Males dark colored throats, of black or brown, while females have white throats and are lighter overall. female American toads are larger than males.

58 Breeding Frog and toad species
distinctive call to attract females. fertilized eggs hatch into tadpoles & metamorphose into young frogs EXTERNAL FERTILIZATION occurs after amplexus (pseudocopulation ) Click here to see & hear common northern USA frogs & toads (remember not to go thru firefox)


60 Frog Dissection Sites:
a. Large intestine b. Small intestine 1. Lung lobes 2. Heart 3. Liver lobes 4. Gall bladder 5. Stomach 6. Small intestine 7. Testis 8. Fat body 9. Urinary bladder

61 Frog nervous system

62 Frog Circulatory System

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