Warm-up 2/4- Make two conclusions based on the map below.
Landforms and Resources Russia is the largest country in the world Major landforms Northern European Plain The West Siberian Plain The Central Siberian Plateau The Russian Far East
Landforms and Resources The Northern European Plain Lowland area Stretches over 1,000 miles from the western border of Russia and the Republics to the Ural Mountains Chernozem- black earth- this is one of the worlds most fertile soils Many of the regions agricultural areas are located here Three of the region’s largest cities are located here: Moscow (capital of Russia), St. Petersburg, and Kiev (capital of Ukraine)
Landforms and Resources West Siberian Plain The Ural Mountains- they separate the Northern European and West Siberian plains The West Siberian Plain lies between the Urals and the Yenisey River and between the shores of the Arctic Ocean and the foothills of the Altay Mountains
Landforms and Resources Central Siberian Plateau and Russia Far East Uplands and mountains are the dominant landforms Far East- volcanic ranges The Sakhalin and Kuril islands lie towards the south Russia seized the islands from Japan after WWII, but Japan still claims ownership of the Kuril Islands
Landforms and Resources Southern Landforms The Caucasus Mountains- stretch across the land and separate the Black and Caspian seas Transcaucasia- republics or Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia Central Asia- Kazakhastan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan Turan Plain- lowland between the Caspian Sea and the mountains and uplands of Central Asia Two major rivers- Syr Darya and Amu Darya Deserts- Kara Kum and Kyzyl Kum
Landforms and Resources Rivers and Lakes Ob, Yenisey, Lena, and the Volga Rivers Caspian Sea Aral Sea- also a saltwater lake Lake Baikal- The deepest lake in the world It holds 20% of the world’s fresh water Drainage basins- an area drained by a major river and its tributaries Arctic Ocean, Caspian Sea, Pacific Ocean, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, and Aral Sea basins
Landforms and Resources Russia and the Republics have a great wealth of natural resources Managing of the resources is difficult One challenge- transporting the resources from harsh and distant regions Another challenge- how to use the resources without damaging the environment in the process
Landforms and Resources Natural resources Huge reserves of coal, deposits of iron ore, and other metals Also the leading producer of oil and natural gas Petroleum deposits around the Caspian Sea Huge forests are home to 1/5 of the worlds timber resources Powerful rivers make it a large producer of hydroelectric power
Landforms and Resources Resource management Harsh climates Rugged terrain Huge distances These all make it difficult to transport resources Arctic and Subarctic region- Siberia- businesses find it difficult to attract workers to this region Damage to environment- mining, gas, and oil operations have caused significant damage Russia’s hydroelectric plants have also caused damage to plant and animal habitats
Climate and Vegetation Major climate regions Humid continental Subarctic Semiarid desert
Climate and Vegetation Tundra Forest Steppe Desert
Warm-up 2/5 Name three physical features that impact settlement in Russia and the Republics.
Vocabulary- Term, definition, and picture Chernozem Ural Mountains Eurasia Transcaucasia Siberia Continentally Taiga Runoff Trans-Siberian Road Baltic Republics Czar Russia Revolution USSR Command Economy Collective Farm Red Army Supra Silk Road Great Game Nomad Yurt Caucasus Chechnya Nagorno-Karabakh Privatization Distance Decay
1.What is the name of the region's westernmost lowland? 2.What mountain range separates Russia from Transcaucasia? 3.Why might a large part of the region's population live on the Northern European Plain? 4.What factor contributes to the dry conditions on the Turan Plain? 5.Why is the Volga one of the region’s most important rivers? 6.Why has resource management been a problem for the leaders in Russia and the Republics? 7.How can climate affect transportation? 8.To what depths can permafrost extend in Russia and the Republics? 9.How does distance from the sea affect the region’s climate? 10.In what way is the climate of Transcaucasia unique? 11.What are the major vegetation regions in Russia and the Republics? 12.How are climate and vegetation related?
Map Monday What is the purpose of a railway system? How would this type of connection be beneficial to Russia?
Modification: changing of environment to make life easier for the people Adaptation: changing of people’s lives to better fit the environment Dependency: relying on the environment for survival Often interactions that take place now lead to negative effects later on. Human Environment Interaction
Railway system developed to connect ports to interior of Russia Built across Siberian tundra to allow access to resources Oil, coal, and metals Tran-Siberian Railroad
Nuclear power plant explosion took place in 1986 Radiation poisoning is still affecting the area today Chernobyl
Used to be world’s 4 th largest land-locked body of water. Due to irrigation needs of the Soviet Union Aral Sea Depletion
During the Cold War and WWII many new weapons were developed In order to guarantee their effectiveness, they needed to be tested Many repercussions are occurring still today from the testing of biological, nuclear, and chemical warfare. WWII/Cold War Test Sites
Read about Anthrax Island and respond to the reflection questions. Learning Task
Answer the questions on your warm-up paper based on the quote below. We owe it to ourselves and to the next generation to conserve the environment so that we can bequeath our children a sustainable world that benefits all.
Warm-up 2/17 How does permafrost affect natural resources and HEI in Russia and the Republics? Answer in 5 COMPLETE SENTENCES!
Early History Controlled by Vikings in 9 th Century Taken by Mongolians in 13 th Century 17 th Century – Russian Empire one of the greatest and largest in known world
Early 20 th Century WWI (1914-1918) Russia fights on side of Allies (GB, France, US) Russian Revolution (1917) Forced Czar Nicholas II to give up throne Russian Communist Party rises led by Vladimir Lenin Strict government control of government and society- based on ideas of Karl Marx
Soviet Era Russia becomes the USSR 1922 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Joseph Stalin takes over after Lenin WWII (1939-1945) fought Nazi Germany on side of Allies Conditions in Soviet Union were increasingly worse Gulag Labor Camps Falling economy
Soviet Era Cold War (1945-1991) Soviet Union set up communism in Eastern European neighbors Fear of democratic governments that communism would spread world wide called Cold War because both sides competed for world influence with very little violence
Fall of Communism Fall of the Soviet Union occurred in 1991 15 different republics created 12 joined the Commonwealth of Independent States
St. Basil’s Cathedral Moscow, Russia Built in 1588 after Russia conquered European lands. Modeled to look like flames rising from the center of Moscow Taken from the Russian Orthodox church under the rule of Communism
Origins of the Cold War U.S.-Soviet Relations to 1945 Allies in World War II Postwar Cooperation – the U.N Satellite States in Eastern Europe Occupation Zones in Germany Iron Curtain
Uneasy peace between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Competition for world dominance and global power. Fought on political and economic fronts rather than on military battlefields---------Even though the threat of war was always present. Defined America’s foreign policy from 1946 to 1989. It affected domestic politics and how Americans viewed the world and themselves. Constant state of military preparedness and arms race Propaganda war----Democracy vs Communism US policy: Support nations threatened by Communism coldwar
The Bi-Polarization of Europe: The Beginning of the Cold War map/cold war Soviet Union/China and Allies…….. Democracy vs. Communism Bi-Polarization of the World US, Allied Nations and Allied colonies. 1950’s
The Cold War: Roots of the Conflict Soviet Expansion: · The Soviet Union occupied most of Eastern Europe by the end of World War II.
Satellite State When a nation is under the control of another. Ex. Part of Germany was under the control of the Soviet Union. Other examples: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria
The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
Truman Doctrine  1.Civil War in Greece. 2.Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles. 3.The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. 4.The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.
Marshall Plan  1.“European Recovery Program.” 2.Secretary of State, George Marshall 3.The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. 4.$12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].
* The U.S. gave over $12 billion in aid to European countries between 1948 and 1952, helping to improve their economies and lessen the chance of communist revolutions.
map/cold war Soviet Union/China and Allies…….. Containment: Stop the expansion of Communism in Asia and Europe US, Allied Nations and Allied colonies. 1950’s
Communist Expansion Communist Expansion A Chronology of Events China 1949 Soviet Union 1918 Korean War 1950 to 1953 Eastern Europe 1946 CONTAINMENT Marshall Plan Berlin Airlift NATO Korean War Berlin Blockade 1947- 8
Focus on Berlin After World War II, Germany was divided into four zones, occupied by French, British, American, and Soviet troops. Occupation zones after 1945. Berlin is the multinational area within the Soviet zone.
· In June of 1948, the French, British and American zones were joined into the nation of West Germany after the Soviets refused to end their occupation of Germany. Soviet blockade: West Germany East Germany West Berlin East Berlin
· In response, the Soviets cut off West Berlin from the rest of the world with a blockade. Eventual site of the Berlin Wall
· President Truman decided to avoid the blockade by flying in food and other supplies to the needy people of West Berlin. Berlin Airlift · At times, over 5,000 tons of supplies arrived daily.
Warsaw Pact (1955) }U. S. S. R. }Albania }Bulgaria }Czechoslovakia }East Germany }Hungary }Poland }Rumania Soviet Union and satellite states rival alliance to NATO
NATO Mao Tse Tung, defeats Chang Kai Shek in the Chinese Civil War….. China became a communistic country. Chang Kai Shak is exiled to Taiwan. Mao Tse Tung becomes the Communistic leader of China. US believed there was a communistic plot to rule the world Mao Tse Tung, defeats Chang Kai Shek in the Chinese Civil War….. China became a communistic country. Chang Kai Shak is exiled to Taiwan. Mao Tse Tung becomes the Communistic leader of China. US believed there was a communistic plot to rule the world Mao Tse Tung Chang Kai Shek
1950 to 1953, North Korea invades South Korea. North Korea was a communist nation and South Korea was a democracy. “containment”First war of “containment” policy to stop communism “Police Action”“Police Action” not a declared war President Truman leads United Nations. General Douglas MacArthur commands US and UN troops. Called “forgotten war”. 1950 to 1953, North Korea invades South Korea. North Korea was a communist nation and South Korea was a democracy. “containment”First war of “containment” policy to stop communism “Police Action”“Police Action” not a declared war President Truman leads United Nations. General Douglas MacArthur commands US and UN troops. Called “forgotten war”.
Truman vs. MacArthur Truman fires General MacArthur when he advises Truman he would use nuclear weapons against the Chinese. Truman vs. MacArthur Truman fires General MacArthur when he advises Truman he would use nuclear weapons against the Chinese.
Stalemate by 1953. Pres. Eisenhower negotiated an end to war Divided at 38 th parallel Communism contained Remains divided today Stalemate by 1953. Pres. Eisenhower negotiated an end to war Divided at 38 th parallel Communism contained Remains divided today
atomic bomb The world would now live with the threat of nuclear war. Arms race between Soviet Union and U.S. who could build the most nuclear weapons. U.S. would use nuclear weapons as a “ deterrent ” Peace through strength…… “nuclear diplomacy” The world would now live with the threat of nuclear war. Arms race between Soviet Union and U.S. who could build the most nuclear weapons. U.S. would use nuclear weapons as a “ deterrent ” Peace through strength…… “nuclear diplomacy”
The Arms Race: A “Missile Gap?” }The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. }Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
Brinkmanship Belief that only going to the brink of war would protect the U.S. from going to war with the Soviet Union. U.S. would threaten mass retaliation with Soviet Union in order to try to get them to back off.
Suez Crisis Egypt’s president Gamal Abdel Nasser tried to construct a dam on the Nile River. U.S. and Britain offered to pay for project but Nasser began communicating with Soviet Union and Recognized the People’s Republic of China. Eisenhower administration withdrew its offer.
Suez Crisis In Response, Nasser Nationalized the Suez Canal making it under government control. Before it was managed by the British and French and protected with British armed forces. This threatened the flow of Middle Eastern oil to Europe.
Suez Crisis Britain and France teamed up with Israel to try to get the land back without consulting the U.S. President Eisenhower did not like this and refused to support them. As a result of lack of U.S. support, Britain, France, and Israel were forced to withdraw its troops.
Eisenhower Doctrine Stated that the U.S. would use force to help any Middle Eastern nation threatened by communism.
CIA Central Intelligence Agency- 1947 Intelligence gathering organization. 1953 helped install a new government in Iran and in 1954 same thing in Guatemala Both helped to place anticommunist leaders in power and also created long term resentment toward U.S.
1957 Russians launch SPUTNIK I Facts on Sputnik Aluminum sphere, 23 inches in diameter weighing 184 pounds with four steel antennae emitting radio signals. Launched Oct. 4, 1957 Stayed in orbit 92 days, until Jan. 4, 1958 Facts on Sputnik Aluminum sphere, 23 inches in diameter weighing 184 pounds with four steel antennae emitting radio signals. Launched Oct. 4, 1957 Stayed in orbit 92 days, until Jan. 4, 1958
Effects on the United States Americans fear a Soviet attack with missile technology Effects on the United States Americans fear a Soviet attack with missile technology Americans resolved to regain technological superiority over the Soviet Union In July 1958, President Eisenhower created NASA or National Space and Aeronautics Agency 1958 -->National Defense Education Act1958 --> National Defense Education Act Americans resolved to regain technological superiority over the Soviet Union In July 1958, President Eisenhower created NASA or National Space and Aeronautics Agency 1958 -->National Defense Education Act1958 --> National Defense Education Act 1957 Russians launch SPUTNIK I
Atomic Anxieties: “Duck-and-Cover Generation” Atomic Anxieties: “Duck-and-Cover Generation” Atomic Testing: Between July 16, 1945 and Sept. 23, 1992, the United States conducted 1,054 official nuclear tests, most of them at the Nevada Test Site. Atomic Testing: Between July 16, 1945 and Sept. 23, 1992, the United States conducted 1,054 official nuclear tests, most of them at the Nevada Test Site. Americans began building underground bomb shelters and cities had underground fallout shelters. Effects of Sputnik on United States
Red ScareRed Scare was Americans response to the fear of Communism Joseph McCarthySenator Joseph McCarthy accused 205 US Govt. officials of being Communist. McCarthyismMcCarthyism to destroy or assassinate one’s character without proof and it ruined the careers of many Americans. red scare witch hunt loyalty oath Became a witch hunt that led to Americans pledging a “loyalty oath” to the United States…….
NATO Soviets detonate their first atomic bomb…..Soviets detonate their first atomic bomb….. The question is raised, where did they get the technology the bomb? Ethel and Julius Rosenberg would be accused of giving away atomic bomb secrets. Charged with espionage they would be found guilty and executed in 1953. Soviets detonate their first atomic bomb…..Soviets detonate their first atomic bomb….. The question is raised, where did they get the technology the bomb? Ethel and Julius Rosenberg would be accused of giving away atomic bomb secrets. Charged with espionage they would be found guilty and executed in 1953.
Hollywood Ten.1947 investigation led to prison sentences for contempt known as the Hollywood Ten. Blacklisted:Blacklisted: a list of persons who are under suspicion, disfavor, or censure, or who are not to be hired, served, or otherwise accepted. Hollywood Ten.1947 investigation led to prison sentences for contempt known as the Hollywood Ten. Blacklisted:Blacklisted: a list of persons who are under suspicion, disfavor, or censure, or who are not to be hired, served, or otherwise accepted. red scare3
McCarthyism Claimed 205 communists working for State Department Attacked wealthy & privileged—popular appeal Even Eisenhower wouldn’t challenge him Army hearings in 1954 televised McCarthy exposed as a bully (“reckless cruelty”