Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10. America’s “crown jewel” Parks are diverse and come in many different sizes Purchases have been made by government or private individuals/companies."— Presentation transcript:
America’s “crown jewel” Parks are diverse and come in many different sizes Purchases have been made by government or private individuals/companies Yellowstone NP was the first (1872)
John Muir – S16 & S17 Henry David Thoreau Aldo Leopold President Teddy Roosevelt
Sierra Club (1892) Audubon Society The Nature Conservancy (1951) – has created the world’s largest system of private natural areas and wildlife sanctuaries in 30 countries.
National Park Service (1916) – manages the National Parks System; falls under the Dept. of Interior US Forest Service (1905) – manages and protects the forest reserves. US Fish and Wildlife Service (1940) – ◦ responsible for identification and listing of, ◦ and monitoring the import of threatened and endangered species. ◦ Responsible for administering the Endangered Species Act National Wildlife Refuges – areas that have been set aside for the protection of threatened or endangered species.
1. Air, noise and water pollution 2. Invasion of non-native species 3. Tourism – high number of park visitors can degrade natural areas 4. LACK OF FUNDING 5. Pressure from developers, lumber and mining companies
Parks can be viewed as habitat islands surrounded by: 1.Logging 2.Industrial activity 3.Energy extraction (minerals, oil, coal) 4.Agriculture 5.Dissected by roads (very detrimental)
Forest Reserve Act (1891) Lacey Act (1900) National Parks and Services Act (1916) Migratory Bird Act (1918) Taylor Grazing Act (1934) Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act (1937) Wilderness Act (1964) Smokey Bear Campaign (1970s) Healthy Forests Restoration Act (2003)
Allows activities such as camping, kayaking, canoeing and fishing; NOT motor boating Offers protection to rivers or segments of rivers with ◦ Cultural and historical value ◦ Wildlife and scenic value ◦ Recreational value
Around 1800 – healthy population 1850– decline due to human activity U.S. Endangered Species Act (1973) 1995– relocation of gray wolves to Yellowstone Park Gray wolf removed from Endangered Species list
Environmentalists Farmers, Hunters, Loggers and Miners Keystone species Cull herds of bison, elk and caribou Keep the coyote population down Provide meat for scavengers Leave the park and attack cattle and sheep Kill big-game animals Mining and logging companies feared having to halt operations on wolf- populated federal land
Forest ecosystems provide ecological services far greater in value than the value of raw materials obtained from forests. Unsustainable cutting and burning of forests, along with diseases and insects, are the chief threats to forest ecosystems. Tropical deforestation is a potentially catastrophic problem because of the vital ecological services at risk, the high rate of tropical deforestation, and its growing contribution to global warming.
WildernessForests About 5% of Earth’s remaining areas are protected either strictly or partially by law. About 20% of Earth’s land area is needed to adequately preserve biodiversity. Forests cover about 30% of the United States. About 40% of the forests in the US are protected.
Old-growth or primary forest ◦ An uncut or regenerated forest that has not been disturbed by human activities or natural disaster for several hundred years ◦ 36% of world’s forests Second-growth forest ◦ A stand of trees resulting from natural secondary ecological succession; once cleared for timber or for conversion for cropland, or by natural forces (fires, hurricanes, volcanic eruption). ◦ 60% of world’s forests Tree plantation, tree farm or commercial forest ◦ 4% of world’s forests Uniformly aged Genetically uniform Harvested by clear-cutting May supply most of the industrial wood in the future Have decreased the need for timber production in the US
Short rotation cycle of cutting and re growth of a monoculture tree plantation
Support energy flow and chemical cycling Reduce soil erosion Absorb and release water Purify water and air Influence local and regional climate Store atmospheric carbon Habitats
Forests valued for ecological services ◦ Nutrient cycling ◦ Climate regulation ◦ Erosion control ◦ Waste treatment ◦ Recreation ◦ Raw materials $4.7 Trillion per year
Increased erosion Sediment runoff into waterways Habitat fragmentation Loss of biodiversity Invasion by ◦ Nonnative pests ◦ Disease ◦ Wildlife species
Clear cutting ◦ Removal of all trees from an area ◦ Allows for maximum profit in shortest amount of time ◦ Results in Erosion and water pollution Increased flooding Habitat fragmentation Loss of biodiversity
Selective cutting mature trees cut singly or in groups Cutting trees of different sizes, ages and species Allows for uneven age; higher diversity
Major Tree Harvesting Methods (cont.) Strip-cutting A variation clear- cutting Involves clear-cutting a narrow corridor of land, allowing a few years for regeneration, then logging another strip above the previous strip(s).
Fig. 10-6a, p. 219 Stepped Art (b) Clear-cutting Muddy stream Uncut Cut 1 year ago Dirt road Cut 3–10 years ago Uncut Clear stream (a) Selective cutting (c) Strip cutting Clear stream
Burn fast and quick; kill seedlings and small trees but spare most large trees Ecological Benefits : burn away flammable ground material, free valuable mineral nutrients tied up in decomposing litter and undergrowth, release seeds from pine cones, stimulate germination of certain tree seeds, help control tree diseases and insects
Crown Fires Extremely hot fire that leaps from tree top to tree top burning whole trees. Occur in forests that have not experiences surface fires for decades Can destroy vegetation, kill wild life, increase soil erosion, sterilize the soil, and burn or damage human structures
The Smokey Bear educational campaign Prescribed fires Allow fires on public lands to burn Protect structures in fire-prone areas Thin forests in fire-prone areas 2003 Healthy Forests Restoration Act ◦ Pros – clear away fire prone trees and underbrush ◦ Cons – cut down economically valuable medium-sized and large trees in 71% of the country’s national forests
Introduction of foreign diseases and insects ◦ Accidental ◦ Deliberate Global warming ◦ Rising temperatures ◦ Trees more susceptible to diseases and pests ◦ Drier forests: more fires ◦ More greenhouse gases
Cover about 6% of Earth’s area More than ½ of the world’s tropical forests are located in Brazil, Indonesia, Zaire and Peru More than ½ have already been cleared or degraded
Deforestation ◦ Tropical forests Especially in Latin America (Brazil), Indonesia, and Africa ◦ Boreal forests Especially in Alaska, Canada, Scandinavia, and Russia Deforestation in Thailand
Forests of the eastern United States decimated between 1620 and 1920 Grown back naturally through secondary ecological succession Biologically simplified tree plantations reduce biodiversity
Majority of loss since 1950 Brazil and Indonesia tropical forest loss Role of deforestation in species’ extinction
Fig , p. 225 NATURAL CAPITAL DEGRADATION Major Causes of the Destruction and Degradation of Tropical Forests Basic CausesSecondary Causes Not valuing ecological services Roads Cattle ranching Crop and timber exports Fires Logging Government policies Settler farming Tree plantations Poverty Cash crops Population growth Cattle ranching Tree plantations Logging Cash crops Settler farming Fires Roads
We can sustain forests by emphasizing the economic value of their ecological services, protecting old-growth forests, harvesting trees no faster than they are replenished, and using sustainable substitute resources.
Collins Pine ◦ Owns and manages protective timberland Forest Stewardship Council ◦ Nonprofit ◦ Developed list of environmentally sound practices ◦ Certifies timber and products
Improve the efficiency of wood use ◦ Reduce construction waste ◦ Reduce the amount of junk mail ◦ Use laminated boards Make tree-free paper ◦ Kenaf ◦ Hemp
Fuelwood – most common use of trees worldwide Possible solutions ◦ Establish small plantations of fast-growing fuelwood trees and shrubs ◦ Burn wood more efficiently ◦ Solar or wind-generated electricity Haiti: ecological disaster South Korea: model for successful reforestation
Reduce fuelwood demand Practice small-scale sustainable agriculture and forestry in tropical forest Debt-for-nature swaps Conservation concessions Use gentler logging methods Buy certified lumber and wood products
Green Belt Movement: 1977 ◦ Self-help group of women in Kenya ◦ Success of tree planting Nobel Peace Prize: 2004
Fig , p. 231 SOLUTIONS Sustaining Tropical Forests PreventionRestoration Protect the most diverse and endangered areas Encourage regrowth through secondary succession Educate settlers about sustainable agriculture and forestry Protect forests with debt-for-nature swaps and conservation concessions Rehabilitate degraded areas Subsidize only sustainable forest use Certify sustainably grown timber Reduce poverty Concentrate farming and ranching in already-cleared areas Slow population growth
We can sustain the productivity of grasslands by controlling the number and distribution of grazing livestock and restoring degraded grasslands.
Important ecological services of grasslands ◦ Soil formation ◦ Erosion control ◦ Nutrient cycling ◦ Storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide in biomass ◦ Maintenance of diversity
Overgrazing of rangelands ◦ Reduces grass cover ◦ Leads to erosion of soil by water and wind ◦ Soil becomes compacted ◦ Enhances invasion of plant species that cattle won’t eat Malapi Borderlands ◦ Management success story
The most widely used method for sustainable management of rangeland is controlling the number of grazing animals and the duration of their grazing. Rotational grazing at water holes and feeding areas Suppress growth of invasive species ◦ Herbicides ◦ Mechanical removal ◦ Controlled burning ◦ Controlled short-term trampling Replant barren areas with native grass seeds and fertilizer Protect riparian areas from overgrazing Reduce soil erosion
American southwest: population surge since 1980 Land trust groups: limit land development Reduce the harmful environmental impact of herds ◦ Rotate cattle away from riparian areas ◦ Use less fertilizers and pesticides ◦ Operate ranch more economically
Sustaining biodiversity will require protecting much more of the earth’s remaining undisturbed land area as parks and nature reserves.
Worldwide: 1100 major national parks Parks in developing countries ◦ Greatest biodiversity ◦ 1% protected against Illegal animal poaching Illegal logging and mining
58 Major national parks in the U.S. Biggest problem may be popularity ◦ Noise ◦ Congestion ◦ Pollution ◦ Damage or destruction to vegetation and wildlife Repairs needed to trails and buildings
Gray wolves prey on elk and push them to a higher elevation ◦ Re growth of aspen, cottonwoods, and willows ◦ Increased population of riparian songbirds Reduced the number of coyotes ◦ Fewer attacks on cattle Wolf pups susceptible to parvovirus carried by dogs
Conservationists’ goal: protect 20% of the earth’s land Cooperation between government and private groups Nature Conservancy Eco-philanthropists Developers and resource extractors opposition
Large versus small reserves The buffer zone concept ◦ United Nations: 529 biosphere reserves in 105 countries Habitat corridors between isolated reserves ◦ Advantages – allows migration by vertebrates that need large ranges, migration of populations when environment deteriorate ◦ Disadvantages – can threaten isolated populations
Fig , p. 237 Biosphere Reserve Core area Research station Visitor education center Buffer zone 1 Human settlements Buffer zone 2
1963–1983: cleared much of the forest 1986–2006: forests grew from 26% to 51% ◦ Goal: to reduce net carbon dioxide emissions to zero by 2021 Eight zoned mega reserves ◦ Designed to sustain around 80% of Costa Rica’s biodiversity
Wilderness Act of 1964 How much of the United States is protected land? Road Less Rule 2005: End of “Road Less areas” within the national forest system
We can help sustain biodiversity by identifying severely threatened areas and protecting those with high plant diversity and those where ecosystem services are being impaired. Sustaining biodiversity will require a global effort to rehabilitate and restore damaged ecosystems. Humans dominate most of the earth’s land, and preserving biodiversity will require sharing as much of it as possible with other species.
Map global ecosystems; identify species Locate and protect most endangered species Restore degraded ecosystems Development must be biodiversity-friendly Are new laws needed?
Areas especially rich in plant and animal species that are found nowhere else and are in great danger of extinction or serious ecological disruption. These areas cover only a little over 2% of the earth’s land surface but contain 52% of the world’s plant species and 36% of all terrestrial vertebrates. These areas are the only homes for more than 1/3 of the planet’s known terrestrial plant and animal species.
1988: Norman Myers ◦ Identify biodiversity hot spots rich in plant species Not sufficient public support and funding Drawbacks of this approach ◦ May not be rich in animal diversity ◦ People may be displaced and/or lose access to important resources
Fig , p. 241 Top Six Hotspots 1 Hawaii 2 San Francisco Bay area 3 Southern Appalachians 4 Death Valley 5 Southern California 6 Florida Panhandle Concentration of rare species Moderate High Low Biodiversity Hotspots in the US Biodiversity Hotspots in the U.S.
Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania, Africa ◦ Highest concentration of endangered species on earth Threatened due to ◦ Killing of forests by farmers and loggers ◦ Hunting ◦ Fires
U.N. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: 2005 ◦ Identify key ecosystem services ◦ Human activities degrade or overuse 62% of the earth’s natural services Identify highly stressed life raft ecosystems
Study how natural ecosystems recover ◦ Restoration ◦ Rehabilitation ◦ Replacement ◦ Creating artificial ecosystems How to carry out most forms of ecological restoration and rehabilitation ◦ Identify what caused the degradation ◦ Stop the abuse ◦ Reintroduce species, if possible ◦ Protect from further degradation
Guanacaste National Park restoration project ◦ Relinked to adjacent rain forest ◦ Bring in cattle and horses – aid in seed dispersal ◦ Local residents – actively involved
Preventing ecosystem damage is cheaper than restoration About 5% of the earth’s land is preserved from the effects of human activities
Win-Win Ecology: How Earth’s Species Can Survive in the Midst of Human Enterprise, by Michael L. Rozenweig, 2003 ◦ Reconciliation or applied ecology ◦ Community-based conservation Belize and the black howler monkeys Protect vital insect pollinators Bluebird protection with special housing boxes Berlin, Germany: rooftop gardens San Francisco: Golden Gate Park
1970s: Blackfoot River Valley in Montana threatened by ◦ Poor mining, logging, and grazing practices ◦ Water and air pollution ◦ Unsustainable commercial and residential development Community meetings led to ◦ Weed-pulling parties ◦ Nesting structures for waterfowl ◦ Developed sustainable grazing systems
Adopt a forest Plant trees and take care of them Recycle paper and but recycled products Buy sustainably produced wood products Choose wood substitutes- bamboo Help to restore a degraded forest or grassland Landscape your yard with a diversity of plants natural to the area