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Research Supporting a True Energy-from- Waste Industry in Australia CSIRO ENERGY TECHNOLOGY Daniel Roberts Research Group Leader, Gasification and Combustion.

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Presentation on theme: "Research Supporting a True Energy-from- Waste Industry in Australia CSIRO ENERGY TECHNOLOGY Daniel Roberts Research Group Leader, Gasification and Combustion."— Presentation transcript:

1 Research Supporting a True Energy-from- Waste Industry in Australia CSIRO ENERGY TECHNOLOGY Daniel Roberts Research Group Leader, Gasification and Combustion CSIRO Waste to Energy Workshop, 23 June 2014

2 Waste and Biomass Gasification Research in CSIRO | Daniel Roberts | Page 2 Gasification  Distinct from pyrolysis, char making, or incineration CSIRO’s gasification research  Conversion, mineral matter, modelling, research scale gasification, pilot scale testing.  Matching feedstocks to gasifiers, troubleshooting, design, optimisation The science of gasification  And why its important in the context of enabling waste-to-energy Some R&D challenges in the waste gasification area  Feedstock properties and behaviour, our understanding of the wide range of behaviours, successful demonstration Where to from here? Overview

3 Waste and Biomass Gasification Research in CSIRO | Daniel Roberts | Page 3 Conversion of hydrocarbon feedstocks to syngas, with a mineral matter residue. Pyrolysis is effectively incomplete gasification  Produces oils and tars for upgrading and refining, and char.  Less flexible products than syngas Gasification Distinct from pyrolysis and incineration Feedstock and oxidant Gasifier Gas Cleanup Syngas Mineral Matter Residue

4 Waste and Biomass Gasification Research in CSIRO | Daniel Roberts | Page 4 Gasification Brown EOR and CO 2 storage opportunities Gasification: a flexible enabling technology Source: Shell 2007

5 CSIRO Gasification Research

6 Waste and Biomass Gasification Research in CSIRO | Daniel Roberts | Page 6 Fundamentals of the gasification process applied to industrial scale systems  Developed strong capability studying coal gasification for power and products  Are also addressing barriers to waste gasification (urban and agricultural) in Australia Science of gasifying coal is consistent with the science of gasifying biomass and waste  Some new and interesting issues and challenges, which require RD&D in conjunction with industry and government stakeholders CSIRO Gasification Research

7 Waste and Biomass Gasification Research in CSIRO | Daniel Roberts | Page 7 Interrogating the Gasification Process Laboratory investigations to understand the important processes that combine to gasify feedstocks under practical conditions. Larger-scale testing to ‘recombine’ process steps under process conditions Predictive capability of gasification behaviour Assess feedstocks for specific gasification technologies Develop operating strategies Troubleshooting gasification processes Support technology development flux O2O2 CO/CO 2 slag CO 2 and H 2 O CO + H 2 Its not all about simulating the industrial process!

8 Waste and Biomass Gasification Research in CSIRO | Daniel Roberts | Page 8 Conversion behaviour dictates gasifier design parameters and operating strategies, and influences feedstock preparation and management processes.  Devolatilisation  Char formation  Char gasification Fundamental data applied to industrial systems through models accounting for technology-specific conditions. Fundamentals of feedstock gasification Conversion Behaviour

9 Waste and Biomass Gasification Research in CSIRO | Daniel Roberts | Page 9 Mineral matter behaviour is important for selecting the appropriate gasifier technology for the feedstock of interest, and in designing operating strategies.  Slag formation and flow  Fouling, deposition, corrosion  Trace element and heavy metal speciation and behaviour  Phase chemistry and impacts on thermochemical processes Fundamentals of feedstock gasification Mineral Matter Behaviour

10 Waste and Biomass Gasification Research in CSIRO | Daniel Roberts | Page 10 Investigations at larger-scale allowing technology-specific issues related to feedstock gasification behaviour to be explored. Interrogation of the complex gasification process – difficult using pilot or full-scale systems Validation of fundamental and modelling studies. Research Scale Gasification Studies

11 Waste and Biomass Gasification Research in CSIRO | Daniel Roberts | Page 11 Entrained-flow reactor – Application of transportable fundamental kinetics and structure data Pilot and full scale modelling – Integration of feedstock performance data into process flow sheets Gasification models Gas T Particle flow θ (D_burner) (L_WSR) Conical PFR 1 PFR_width PFR_length (i) Conical PFR 2 WSR 2 WSR1

12 Waste to Energy Research

13 Waste and Biomass Gasification Research in CSIRO | Daniel Roberts | Page 13 Agricultural Waste  Bagasse  Cotton gin trash Timber and forestry waste  Sawdust, woodchips etc Urban Waste  Municipal solid waste  Green (garden) waste  Biosolids Commercial and Industrial waste  Treated construction timber Priority waste streams

14 Waste and Biomass Gasification Research in CSIRO | Daniel Roberts | Page 14 New facility for studying gasification behaviour of wood-based material  Designed for forestry & green waste  Can be integrated with gas-to-liquid test facilities and a 25kW microturbine CSIRO’s Research Biomass Gasifier Down draft fixed bed

15 Waste and Biomass Gasification Research in CSIRO | Daniel Roberts | Page 15 Project with Brisbane City Council to begin to characterise their waste in the context of utilisation in thermochemical WtE applications Outcomes:  The energy content (LHV wb ) of MSW was found to be 7.9 MJ/kg which is higher than average values of typical MSW ( MJ/kg) reported by several researchers from Taiwan, India and Greece.  A World Bank Report suggests that the LHV of MSW should be ~7 MJ/kg, and must never fall below 6MJ/kg to apply them in thermo-chemical conversion processes. Energy Content of MSW Streams Procedures, techniques, and data

16 Waste and Biomass Gasification Research in CSIRO | Daniel Roberts | Page 16 Food and Kitchen Waste Garden Waste Printing Paper (newspaper, magazines, books) Packaging Paper (cardboard, etc) Packaging Plastic Other Plastic (Polystyrene, foam, film) Clothing, textiles, leather Wood Waste Other Combustibles (e.g tyres, footwear, tubes) Sorted into 9 categories of ~30kg in total This method offers flexibility as waste composition changes with time, seasons and location. Sized, Air dried, oven dried and milled each category individually 1.Chemical analysis 2.Obtain results for individual category 3.Calculate results using current waste composition 1.Mix waste according to current composition 2.Chemical analysis for results on overall waste MSW Sampling and Analysis

17 Waste and Biomass Gasification Research in CSIRO | Daniel Roberts | Page 17 MSW and Green Waste Samples

18 Waste and Biomass Gasification Research in CSIRO | Daniel Roberts | Page 18 Chemical properties of MSW Understanding of Chemical Characteristics and Energy Content of Urban Wastes| San Shwe Hla | Page 18 ANALYSEPARAMETERS 01-FW02-GW 03-PNT PPR 04-PKG PPR 05-PKG PLST 06-O PLST 07-TEX08-WW09-OC Proximate Total M (%wb) VM (%db) F C (%db) Ash (%db) Ultimate C (%db) H (%db) N (%db) O (%db) S (%db) Cl (%db) Energy Content HHV db (MJ/kg) HHV wb (MJ/kg) LHV db (MJ/kg) LHV wb (MJ/kg)

19 Where to from here?

20 Waste and Biomass Gasification Research in CSIRO | Daniel Roberts | Page 20 Feedstock characterisation and assessment for use in different gasification technologies  Technology-agnostic; transportable and flexible  Engage councils, utilities, technology providers Techno-economic modelling of different feedstock-technology- product scenarios  Provide focus for policy drivers and specific R&D needs Research scale and pilot scale activities to demonstrate the viability of waste gasification  Requires some critical mass in this area Research plans Current, ongoing, and planned

21 Waste and Biomass Gasification Research in CSIRO | Daniel Roberts | Page 21 Coordination, momentum, and critical mass Summary  We have an emerging problem with our waste streams  There is a suite of technologies that can solve these (and other!) problems  We have the desire by those with problems to seek solutions  We have the research and technical capability to bring international best practice to Australia We need a coordinated approach that gives us some critical mass and momentum in this area.  Such as a waste to energy centre of excellence?

22 Discussion … Discussion

23 Thank you CSIRO Energy Technology Daniel Roberts Research Group Leader, Gasification and Combustion T wwww.csiro.au/energy ENERGY TECHNOLOGY


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