Canada and the U.S…growing! Trees were eliminated on the eastern side of the continent. Second growth trees are abundant.
Developing nations, developing deforestation! Faster results No restrictions Gives short term benefits
Fear of “Timber Famine” spurred establishment of national forests Today, the National Forest System consists of 191 million acres. The US Forest Service was established in 1905 to manage the National Forest System and make sure trees are planted when they are harvested.
Timber is taken from both private and public lands at first. By 2001, though, almost all timber was being extracted from private lands, and tree regrowth “outpaced tree removal on these lands by nearly 12 to 1”
Plantation forestry has grown. EVEN-AGED VS UNEVEN-AGED
Various Approaches… Clear cutting Sets in motion an artificially driven process of succession Seed-tree Small number of vigorous seed-producing are left standing so that they can reseed the area Shelterwood Produces even aged forest Selection System/High Grading Allows un-even aged stand management Strip-cutting A linear clear-cut created to encourage regeneration of trees along the edge of the cut
Recreation/Ecosystem Multiples use Recreation, wildlife habitat, mineral extraction National Forest Management Act Passed by Congress in 1976 Mandated that plans for renewable resource management be drawn up for every national forest Consider both economic and environmental factors, permit increases in harvest levels only if sustainable, provide for diversity “New Forestry” Approach that calls for timber cuts that come closer to mimicking natural disturbances
Forest Fires Surface Fires Burn rapidly through an area, burning branches on or near the ground Crown Fires Occur in forests during periods of drought when surface or ground fires ignite lower branches of standing trees and tree crowns become engulfed in flames and fire spreads to nearby trees. Ground Fires Like Crown Fires, Occur during periods of drought when fire creeps slowly through layers of organic matter
Fire Policy Prevention Prescribed/Controlled burns—Burning areas of forest under carefully controlled conditions Presuppression and Suppression—Act of preventing/diminishing the spread of future or present fires through natural forests
Healthy Forests Restoration Act Salvage Logging—Removal of dead trees, or snags, following a natural disturbance Criticism Many environmental advocates argue that the act increases commercial logging in national forests while doing little to reduce catastrophic fires near populated areas
Sustainable Forestry is Gaining Ground Sustainable forestry certification - A form of ecolabeling that identifies timber products that have been produced using sustainable methods. Several organizations issue such certification. Inernational Organization for Strandardization (ISO), The Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI) program, the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
Alternative to cutting trees for paper “Tree-Free Fibers” Kenaf – Native to southern Asia is a form of cannabis that is extremely moldable therefore is used to make textiles and paper without using the wood from the tree. Hemp – Another form of cannabis that is usually used to make textiles, paper, biodegradable plastics, construction, health food, and fuel. Only the sativa hemp is suitable for industrial paper making.
Resource Management Managers have tried to achieve maximum sustainable yield, as opposed to trying to reach optimum sustainable yield. Today many managers seek to have ecosystem-based management, so that when they do cut down trees they don’t completely destroy the environment they’re cutting the trees from Adaptive management evolves and improves – Involves systematically testing different management approaches to make forestry more sustainable by improving the methods they harvest the trees.