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Canada Geography SS6G5: The student will locate select features of Canada: Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Hudson Bay, St. Lawrence River, the Great Lakes,

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Presentation on theme: "Canada Geography SS6G5: The student will locate select features of Canada: Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Hudson Bay, St. Lawrence River, the Great Lakes,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Canada Geography SS6G5: The student will locate select features of Canada: Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Hudson Bay, St. Lawrence River, the Great Lakes, the Canadian Shield, and the Rocky Mountains

2 Canada is located in the Northern and Western Hemispheres of the globe

3 Canada is surrounded on three sides by 3 of the Earth’s major oceans:
Canada is bordered in the South by the United States: They share a 3,000 mile long border. It is the longest unguarded border in the world NORTH: Arctic Ocean CANADA EAST: Atlantic Ocean WEST: Pacific Ocean UNITED STATES

4 Having coastlines along each of these 3 major oceans, along with a southern border with the United States, makes trade / travel with the rest of the world easy for Canadians Pacific Canada Asia Arctic Russia Europe Atlantic

5 Canada’s Waterways Hudson Bay St. Lawrence River The Great Lakes:
Superior Huron Ontario Michigan Erie

6 St. Lawrence River The St. Lawrence River is located in Eastern Canada; stretching from Lake Ontario to the Atlantic Ocean

7 The St. Lawrence River played an important role in Canada’s history: Allowed European explorers to easily travel farther into North America The French explorer Jacques Cartier explored much of the St. Lawrence river system. In 1541 he led an expedition back to Canada, along with a few hundred colonists, to found New France.

8 Today, the St. Lawrence still plays an important role in Canada: Source of fresh water, fish, & is still a valuable trade/travel route

9 The Great Lakes The Great Lakes are located in southern Canada, four of which form part of the border between Canada and the U.S. Only Lake Michigan is unshared, lying in and completely controlled by the U.S.

10 The four Great Lakes that do form part of the U. S
The four Great Lakes that do form part of the U.S./Canada border (Superior, Huron, Ontario, & Erie), also provide fresh water, fish and hydroelectricity for the people of Canada.

11 Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield (also called the Boreal Shield), covers a large portion of Eastern & Southern Canada, wrapping around the Hudson Bay

12 The Canadian Shield: Rough, rolling landscape with thin, rocky soil
Many lakes and rivers provide water & fish MOST important resource (in abundance) throughout the Canadian shield are minerals (from iron ore, to nickel, to silver & gold)

13 The Rocky Mountains Located in the Western portion of Canada, the Rocky Mountains stretch over 3,000 miles (from British Columbia in Canada to New Mexico in the U.S.

14 SS6G6 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, distribution of natural resources, and population distribution on Canada. (A) Impact on where people live (B) Impact on trade

15 Canada is the largest country (in area), in the Western Hemisphere
But, only about 33 million people live in Canada. Canada’s population is much smaller than both Mexico’s and the United States’ Mexico’s population is 3 times Canada’s population The United States population is 9 times Canada’s population

16 The reason that Canada’s population is so
much smaller, (while Canada is very large in size), is that much of Canada’s land lies in a part of the Northern hemisphere where the climate is harsh and living conditions are difficult

17 Climate of Canada Most of the southeastern part of Canada has a humid continental climate. It has warm to hot summers & cold winters There can be up to 60 inches of precipitation per year

18 The climate in the southern and central parts of Canada allow for a long growing season
Canada’s central plains are an important source of canola, wheat, and other grains

19 The area in Canada along the Pacific coast has a temperate climate
The ocean cools the region in the summer and keeps it warmer in the winter It can receive up to 100 inches of rain in a year (mostly in the winter)

20 Northern Canada has a subarctic climate
It is much colder in this region of the country Here they have long, cold winters and short, cool summers It is possible to have temperatures below freezing even during the summer


22 This is a ‘Permafrost’ Map of Canada: (Permafrost is when the soil in an area stays permanently frozen).

23 90% of Canadians live in the Southern region of Canada (within 100 miles of the Canada / U.S. border) Most of these people live toward the east and central parts of the country Most Canadians live in towns or cities, only about 20% live in rural areas


25 Canada’s Political Boundaries/Divisions
Because so many people in Canada live such a small portion of the country I (within 100 miles of the Canada / United States border) And Because so few people in Canada live in such a large portion of the country: (in the northern regions) Canada has chosen to divide its land into two different types of political divisions (we divide our country’s land into states here in the U.S.) Provinces Territories

26 Canada has 10 provinces (These are similar in their structure and purpose to our own States. British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, & New Brunswick) Canada has 3 territories (These are all located in the northern regions of Canada where there are far fewer people and thus less reason to formalize these areas into provinces)


28 Natural Resources of Canada
Canada is rich in natural resources Some of their most important of these resources (found primarily in the Canadian Shield), are iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, diamonds, and silver

29 Canada’s large number of lakes and rivers are an excellent source of fish, fresh water, and hydroelectricity


31 Good soil in Canada allows farmers to grow crops for the people of Canada with enough left over to trade with other countries About 5% of Canada’s land is arable (farmable) While this may seem like only a small amount of land, 5% of Canada is actually quite large (remember that Canada is the largest country in the Western Hemisphere)


33 Forests in Canada are a major natural resource with an abundance of timber, which is harvested in Canada to be used by its own people as well as traded with other countries around the world. The forests are also home to abundant wildlife


35 Canada also has a large supply of natural energy resources, such as coal, oil, and natural gas
They have enough to supply their own needs and sell the rest to other countries

36 Review of Canada’s Natural Resources:
Minerals found in the Canadian Shield (iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, diamonds, & silver) Fish, fresh water, hydroelectricity from lakes & rivers Many crops due to good soil Timber & wildlife from the forests of Canada Coal, oil, & natural gas

37 Because many of the natural resources of Canada are located in remote areas of the country, small communities are found spread across the country where mining, logging, and farming are important Goods from these areas are shipped by rail or highway to larger cities for trade with other parts of Canada and the world An excellent system of highways, railroads, and air transportation have been built throughout Canada and adapt to the colder climate


39 Environmental Issues in Canada
SS6G7: The student will discuss environmental issues in Canada A. Explain the major environmental concerns of Canada regarding acid rain, pollution of the Great Lakes, the extraction & use of natural resources from the Canadian Shield, and timber resources

40 Canada faces a number of environmental issues
It has many natural resources that it can use both for its own people and for trade with other countries Some of these natural resources are renewable and some are not

41 Canada must find ways to carefully manage both types (renewable & nonrenewable), of resources so that the environment isn’t damaged Industries help Canada have a good economy with a high standard of living However, factories are a source of pollution, and Canada must find ways to keep its industries alive without destroying its environment

42 Acid Rain Factories produce many pollutants
Coal burning power plants, cars, and trucks are also polluters of the air Sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxides are especially dangerous When these pollutants are put into the air, they mix with the water molecules and turn the water acidic The clouds or rain droplets that are acidic = acid rain


44 Acid rain causes many problems in the environment
It can kill plants, damage or kill trees, and pollute lakes & rivers enough to kill the fish Property can also be damaged In some cities acid rain has dissolved the stone used in statues, disfiguring the original artwork

45 Canada has passed laws to limit the pollution
Government has worked with the factory owners to build factories that don’t pollute the air New laws passed require automobiles to produce less pollution Government also encourages Canadians to walk, ride bikes, or take the bus instead of driving their cars

46 However, Canada cannot solve the problem of air pollution & the resulting acid rain on their own
In parts of southern Canada 50% - 75% of the air pollution that causes the acid rain in Canada comes from the United States Wind patterns tend to move the pollution from the U.S. north into Canada

47 Pollution of the Great Lakes
Industries and people in Canada depend upon water from the Great Lakes Use the water to drink and in the processes of their factories Because the Great Lakes are shared between the United States and Canada, its important for them to work together to keep the lakes’ environment clean and healthy


49 By the 1970s, the Great Lakes were becoming known for their pollution
In some places, fishing was unsafe; in other places there were no fish left alive The factories around the Great Lakes had been using the lakes as a cheap dumping ground

50 In 1972, governments of both the United States and Canada signed an agreement to begin reduction of phosphorus This is a chemical used in fertilizer, pesticides, toothpaste, detergent, and explosives It’s bad for the lakes because in large quantities it can cause a rapid increase in algae, called algal bloom One result of algal bloom is the eventual death of plant and animal life in the area of the bloom

51 The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the United States and Canada was signed in 1971 and renewed in 2002 The goal of the agreement is to restore the lakes’ environment and prevent any future damage They are working together to make sure that chemicals that could poison animals and people are not put into the lakes and to reduce the amount of human waste dumped into the lakes

52 Extraction and Use of Natural Resources of the Canadian Shield
The Canadian Shield is a large area of uplands surrounding the Hudson Bay, covering most of the eastern half of Canada The soil in the Canadian shield is thin & rocky; beneath that soil is one of Canada’s most valuable resources: minerals (gold, silver, copper, zinc, lead, iron ore, uranium, and nickel


54 The most valuable minerals available in Canada are located within the Canadian Shield
About 1.5 million people make their living in the mining industry (most in the Canadian Shield)

55 Mining can be messy work
The land around mines can be damaged and the environment ruined Blasting & digging with heavy machinery are common parts of mining

56 The mining process can also spew sulfur dioxide into the air, producing acid rain and killing nearby vegetation Chemicals from mines are also dumped directly into lakes and rivers, poisoning the water, killing the plant and animal life

57 The Canadian Shield’s minerals are also located near the most populated areas of Canada, meaning that these environmental issues also impact the people living there The government has made new laws about mining, some reduce the amount of pollution allowed into the waterways

58 Canada’s Timber Industry
Vast (large) forests cover almost 50% of the land in Canada Canadians have made this natural resource very important to their economy

59 Loggers cut tress and then send them onto mills
Mills use timber to make a variety of products including lumber, plywood, wood pulp, & paper

60 Forests play an important role in the environment of Canada
Animals and plants depend on the habitat of the forests to live They provide oxygen to breathe and they filter pollutants out of the air

61 Canadian citizens are worried that logging will destroy forests and the benefits they provide
Major concern is the use of clear cutting, where timber companies cut down all the trees in a given area ~ leaving large treeless gaps in the forest

62 The results of clear cutting include reduced water quality, erosion of the soil, and loss of wildlife habitat Heavy machinery can also leave the forest floor compacted, which makes it difficult for new growth to start

63 Some environmental groups want timber companies to leave small trees and seedlings
They also want to see smaller groups of trees cut down rather than hundreds of acres at a time

64 Canada’s government & the timber industries are working together to manage the use of the forests
Hundreds of millions of seeds and seedlings are planted each year Billions of dollars are spent managing and protecting the forests Over $100 million is spent each year by the logging industry to protect wildlife and their habitat

65 Summary & Review These are the questions located at the end of your notes… You must write the questions and your answers on YOUR OWN sheet of paper. 1. What 3 oceans and 1 country make up Canada’s 4 borders? North – Arctic Ocean East – Atlantic Ocean South – The United States West – The Pacific Ocean

66 Summary & Review 2. How does Canada’s location impact its ability to trade / travel with the rest of the world? Canada’s location, surrounded by three oceans with its Southern border formed by the United States, makes travel / trade with the rest of the world easy for Canadians

67 Summary & Review 3. Why is Canada’s population so small, even though it is a very large country? Because a large part if Canada’s land lies so far north in the northern hemisphere that the climate is harsh and living conditions difficult. Most of Canada is uninhabitable due to its harsh, cold climate

68 Summary & Review 4. Where do most Canadians live?
90% of all Canadians live in southern Canada (within 100 miles of Canada’s border with the United States)

69 Summary & Review 5. Why do most Canadians live in this region?
Because the farther north you travel in Canada, the colder the temperatures become, the harsher the climate is, and the more difficult it is to survive

70 Summary & Review 6. How does the Pacific Ocean impact Canada’s Pacific coast region? The ocean creates a temperate climate in the region, it cools the area in the summer and helps keep it warmer in the winter

71 Summary & Review 7. Describe the climate of Northern Canada?
Northern Canada is much colder than the rest of the country. They have cold winters and cool summers. The climate is harsh, making living conditions difficult

72 Summary & Review 8. List Canada’s major natural resources:
Lakes & Rivers: fresh water, fish, hydroelectricity and routes for trade and travel Good Soil: crops like canola, wheat & other grains Forests: timber Canadian Shield: minerals, like uranium, gold, and silver Natural Energy: coal, oil, & natural gas

73 Summary & Review 9. What causes the acid rain in Canada?
Factories, coal burning power plants, and cars pollute the air with chemicals like sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide which mix with the water molecules, creating acid rain

74 Summary & Review 10. Why cant Canada solve their acid rain problem on their own? Because in certain parts of southern Canada 50% - 75% of the air pollution that causes acid rain comes from the United States

75 Summary & Review 11. How does mining in the Canadian Shield impact its environment? It destroys the land and ruins the environment. Sulfur dioxide put into the air during the mining process causes acid rain & waste from the mining operations is dumped into lakes and rivers, killing the plant and animal life living there

76 Summary & Review 12. Describe the benefits provided by Canada’s many forests - The forests in Canada provide a habitat for many plants and animals. They also provide oxygen to breathe and filter pollutants out of the air

77 Summary & Review 13. How does clear cutting in Canada impact the environment? Clear cutting can lead to reduced water quality, erosion of the soil, and loss of habitat for plants and wildlife

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