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Chapter 10 “The Kingdom of Kush”

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1 Chapter 10 “The Kingdom of Kush”
In what ways did location influence the history of Kush?

2 In what ways did location influence the history of Kush?
Essential Questions In what ways did location influence the history of Kush? How does art (specifically paintings/sculptures) help us better understand the past? How are Egypt and Kush similar and different? Why did the Kingdom of Kush prosper?

3 Why This Matters It Matters Because…The kingdoms of Nubia and Kush were influenced by Egyptian culture, and they continued many Egyptian traditions.

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8 Dynasty: a family or group that rules for several generations
Vocabulary Meroe: a city on the Nile River that became the center of Kushite culture and industry. Dynasty: a family or group that rules for several generations Kandake: a powerful female leader who co-ruled Kush with her husbands or sons.

9 Highlights African Kingdom (Kush), located on Nile River south of Egypt Kush/Egypt had a close relationship How do we know that? Pictures can be found on some of the walls of Egyptian tombs and temples. Example: Hatshepsut’s tomb (Egypt’s 1st female pharaoh), many painted scenes of Egyptian life decorate the walls. On closer examination, not all the people in the paintings are Egyptians. The pictures show a complicated relationship. In some images, the Kushites come bearing gifts and in other images, they are shown holding bow & arrows. -some people look a little different; they have darker skin & curly hair. (These people are called Kushites).

10 Kush was Known for -rich gold mines -also known as Nubia (nub means gold) -fertile banks (Nile River) -Kush’s location/natural resources made it an important trading center

11 Egyptians & Kushites traded:
Egyptians traded grain and linen  Kushites traded gold, ivory, leather, and timber  Trade Formula: grain, linen  gold, ivory, leather, timber *Egypt raided or took control of some of Kush’s lands *During the new kingdom, Egypt was at its height, and it conquered Kush. -Kush was forced to pay tribute to Egypt in the form of gifts -Kushites gave gold, cattle, ivory, ostrich feathers, ebony, and slaves.

12 Egyptianization *Under Egypt’s control Kushite society became more Egyptianized (or more like Egypt). **Is this inevitable? If you are controlled by an outside ruler, do you eventually become more like them? Or can you prevent this from occurring? -Example: Kushites spoke & wrote in Egyptian. They worshipped Egyptian gods and wore Egyptian-style clothes. **DO WE SEE THIS TODAY?

13 Egypt’s New Kingdom collapsed around 1100 BCE.
Egypt Collapses Egypt’s New Kingdom collapsed around 1100 BCE. Kush is able to regain its independence. However, Egyptian culture persisted. The Kushite kings still followed the Egyptian traditions.

14 Egypt became weak and unstable because there was constant infighting.
Kush Conquers Egypt Egypt became weak and unstable because there was constant infighting. Kush took advantage of Egypt’s weakness. Kushite armies invaded Egypt. The kings in northern Egypt surrendered to Piye, king of Kush. (730 BCE). The Kushite pharaohs did not want to destroy Egypt. Instead they wanted to revive Egypt’s glory past. They built new temples and pyramids in both Egypt and Kush. Assyrians had strong iron weapons and they drove the Kushites out of Egypt by 650 BCE.

15 Meroe was a large and wealthy city.
Kush Capital of Meroe Less than 100 years later, Egypt invades Kush and destroys its capital city, Napata. Kushites decide to make Meroe their new capital, since it was safely out of Egypt’s reach. Meroe was a large and wealthy city. It became well known for producing iron. The Kushites were determined to match the Assyrian’s military strength. Meroe had plenty of forests (which provided wood). Ironworkers in Kush made weapons like spears, arrows, and swords.

16 Kush Returns to Its African Roots
After its separation from Egypt, Kush returned to its African roots. Artwork, clothing, and buildings no longer imitated Egyptian styles. Kushites began worshipping an African lion-god rather than Egyptian gods. Kush also revived the African practice of female leadership. Powerful kandakes, or queen mothers, ruled Meroe. One of the greatest kandakes was Queen Amanirena. She defended Kush against the powerful Romans in 24 BCE. Kush survived for nearly 400 more years. In 350 CE, Kush fell to invaders from the African country of Ethiopia.

17 Video Clips https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hoSgZHVocHE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dvek69OZMLw


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