1.) A population explosion 2.) A thriving timber trade 3.) End of competition in the fur trade
Lower Canada Population Increase 1806 250,000 1841 717,000 Largely population increased from the high birth rate amongst the French speaking of Lower Canada A small influx of British and Americans also helped with the population boom
Upper Canada Population Increase 1806 71,000 1841 432,000 Settled by Loyalists Americans until the War of 1812 Settlers from Great Britain Ireland Scotland England Wales
The Great Migration To start, most came from the Highlands of Scotland After 1815 they came from all parts of the British Isles but particularly Ireland Reason Changing circumstances in Great Britain Population was increasing Less land for agriculture Technological improvements e.g. Spinning and weaving
Great Britain’s Perspective on Emigration Positive British goods to be consumed Raw materials for British factories
Hardships in Crossing the Atlantic Poorly maintained ships The passage was often stormy 11-12 weeks till arrival People were crowded into dark unsanitary conditions below deck
Cholera Outbreak 1832 Emigrant ships were stopped at Grosse Isle Quarantine Regulations went into effect Disease still reached both Quebec and Montreal Quarantine sheds were established along the St. Lawrence The epidemic ended in September 3500 victims in Quebec 2000 in Montreal Several Hundred in Upper Canada
Thriving Timber Trade Trees now came to be used for more than just housing 1839, wood made up 80% of all goods exported from Upper and Lower Canada Most went to Great Britain Some went to the United States While the ships building industry of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick used the remains
The Ship Building Industry Nova Scotia built ships for local use New Brunswick built ships to export British North America supplied more ships to Britain than any other country
Square timber, a bulky commodity, had to be shipped in relatively large vessels, and as Britain could not meet the need for such ships during wartime, so the shipbuilding industry in British North America expanded Maritime timber merchants found they could keep transportation costs low if they owned their own vessels. When the prices for the vessels rose they made additional profits by selling the vessel as well as the timber cargo.
End of Competition in the Fur Trade 1821 the HBC and the NWC merged This ended the NWC trade route via Montreal The majority of all furs were now shipped through Hudson Bay
George Simpson Became the governor of the newly-restructured Hudson’s Bay company Held this position for 40 years, until his death in 1860 He had jurisdiction over an area that included Hudson Bay, the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, and the Missouri River Introduced strict conservation measures in areas that had been over trapped, laid off hundreds of redundant employees, kept salaries down, and closed unnecessary posts.