2 Five Old IdiomsYou need eyes in the back of your head now that the twins are walking.To know everything that is happening around you.He must have had second thoughts, because he didn’t turn up in class.to change your opinion or have doubts about an earlier decisionI’ll be more careful next time – once bitten, twice shy.when you have had an unpleasant experience you are much more careful to avoid similar experiences in the futureFirst come, first served.The first people to arrive will be able to get the best choices.John has gone AWOL; nobody has seen him in class for the last three weeks.to be absent without reason
3 Five New Idioms: Horses Grafton's a real one-horse town with only one grocery store and nothing to do in the evening.a small town where very little happensHe never got off his high horse long enough to consider how insulting his words were to many immigrants.To stop acting as if you are better or more intelligent than other peopleI know it's true! I heard it straight from the horse's mouth!From someone who has the factsOkay, it's not the job of your dreams but it pays good money. I'd be inclined not to look a gift horse in the mouth if I were you.you should not criticize or feel doubt about something good that has been offered to youI've had nothing but a sandwich all day - I could eat a horse.something that you say when you are very hungry
4 Five New Idioms: Horses Grafton's a real one-horse town with only one grocery store and nothing to do in the evening.a small town where very little happensHe never got off his high horse long enough to consider how insulting his words were to many immigrants.To stop acting as if you are better or more intelligent than other peopleI know it's true! I heard it straight from the horse's mouth!From someone who has the factsOkay, it's not the job of your dreams but it pays good money. I'd be inclined not to look a gift horse in the mouth if I were you.you should not criticize or feel doubt about something good that has been offered to youI've had nothing but a sandwich all day - I could eat a horse.something that you say when you are very hungry
5 Warming up: Giving advice Agony aunt (uncle)an advice columnist (people sent her/him an in which they present a problem, the aunt/uncle suggests a solution)
6 Warming up: Giving advice In groups of three:Write down a problem or dilemma you have (technical, philosophical, personal...)‘Send’ your problem to a different groupTry to find a solution for the other group’s problem
7 Warming up: Giving advice Should is used for advice in the present:Subject + Should + VerbYou should eat less chocolate.You should exercise every day.You should stop calling him.Should + have is used for advice in the past:Should + Have + Past ParticipleYou should have studied more often.You should have married the rich boy.
8 Warming up: Giving advice Shouldn’t is used for negative adviceYou shouldn’t eat too much chocolate.You shouldn’t have married him.
9 Warming up: Giving advice Would is used to give advice. In this situation, the speaker is giving hypothetical advice as if he/she were the listener:If I were you, I would get a divorce.If I were you, I would not wear that jacket.It is not always necessary to include If I were youI wouldn't eat that much chocolate.I would choose the red shoes.
10 Warming up: Giving advice It is also common to ask for advice using these modal verbs: What should I do?What would you do?
11 Warming up: Giving advice In groups of three:Write down a problem or dilemma you have (technical, philosophical, personal...)‘Send’ your problem to a different groupTry to find a solution for the other group’s problem
12 Linking wordsI bought a dog ___________I really wanted a pet. __________, now I wish I hadn't!
14 Linking words and, but, because, first of all, also, however... They link different sentences (and ideas)They create coherence and guide the readerBut: don’t use too many linking words!When the meaning is obvious: He didn’t go to work that morning. He felt ill and couldn’t get out of bed.For literary effect: “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness...” (Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities)
15 Linking words List of linking words: ..\Materiaal\Linking words.pdf
16 Linking words: Punctuation At the beginning of a sentence: linking word is followed by a commaThe economy is strong. Therefore, interest rates tend to be high.Everybody at the party saw the stranger. However, no one asked who he was.You could finish your degree next year. On the other hand, you could choose to work instead.Agriculture contributes to greenhouse gases. For example, farm animals and rice fields add a great deal of methane gas to the atmosphere.
17 Linking words: Punctuation In the middle of a sentence: non-essential linking words such as however, for instance, for example, on the one hand/other hand... are preceded and followed by a comma (non-essential : if you delete them, the sentence still makes sense)Freddy loves chocolate. Robert, however, prefers chips.Freddy loves chocolate. Robert, on the other hand, prefer chips.Sarah has never been a good student. When she was six, for instance, she fell asleep during PE (Physical Education).But: She fell asleep because she was tired. (essential linking word).
18 Letters of thanks and of sympathy Hospitalitykindness in welcoming strangers or guestsComfortSolace, consolationTo put someone’s mind at rest (at ease)To make someone stop worryingA speedy recoveryQuickly becoming healthy againCourtesyPolite behaviourConcernedHere: involved
20 Letters of thanks and of sympathy To express our most grateful thanks...As a result of your kindness and generosity...Their hospitality and general support were a great comfort to us......please give our appreciation and thanks to all concerned
22 Famous Thank You Letters Mr. Martel — My daughter and I just finished reading Life of Pi together. Both of us agreed we prefer the story with animals. It is a lovely book — an elegant proof of God, and the power of storytelling. Thank you. Barack Obama
23 Saying thank you: Writing Exercise Write a short, formal thank you letter to, for instance:your bossa doctoryour child’s schoolthis school...
24 Saying thank you: Useful phrases I (really/very much) appreciate your assistance / help / consideration / time / adviceThank you for your help / assistance / consideration / encouragement / timeMany thanks for...Thank you very much for...I don’t know how to thank you for...Please accept my most grateful thanks for...Thank you again for...I want to thank you once more for...
25 Saying thank you: Useful phrases How kind of you to have....I also thank you on behalf of (if you want to thank someone for someone else)
26 Bitter taste for chocolate makers = a pun (to pun)= A play on words, sometimes on different meanings of the same word and sometimes on the similar meaning or sound of different words.Mercutio in Romeo and Juliet: “Ask for me tomorrow, and you shall find me a grave man.”
27 Bitter taste for chocolate makers Here: the taste of chocolate and something tastes bitter (unpleasant experience)
28 Letters of thanks and of sympathy 100 jobs are to be lost future instruction, obligation or arrangementForm: Be + to + infinitiveUse: an action that is to take place in the future. It is used for instructions, obligation and something that is arranged.Examples:You are not to answer any question from any one of the reporters. (instruction)= You mustn’t answer...You are to hand this packet over to him before noon. (obligation)= You have to...The Prime Minister is to meet his successor tomorrow. (arrangement)= He has arranged to meet...
29 Letters of thanks and of sympathy Hyphen (-)When two or more words are combined to form a compound adjective, a hyphen is usually required.The woman is thirty years old.A thirty-year-old woman...There are fifteen pages in the documentA fifteen-page documentHis music was also well known in England. His well-known music
30 Letters of thanks and of sympathy To cut costsTo reduce costsA plantHere: a factoryJobs fairan exhibition intended to inform people about jobsTo secureTo make certain, to protectTo betrayTo deceive, to cheat onTo be upHere: to increaseDevastatedShocked, overwhelmed
31 Writing Exercise: Expressing sympathy Write the first paragraph in which youSay where you heard the newsExpress regret (+ other feelings? Anger, surprise?)Dave’s feeling (“I’m sure you must feel...”; “This must come as a surprise...”)Your feelings about the closurePass the paper on to your neighbourCorrect your neighbour’s paragraph, rewrite if necessary, underline if not sure
32 Writing Exercise: Expressing sympathy Write the second paragraph on your neighbour’s piece of paper:Remember your friendship togetherTalk about positive points in the articleExpress hopes for the futurePass the paper on to your neighbourCorrect your neighbour’s paragraph, rewrite if necessary, underline if not sure
33 Writing Exercise: Expressing sympathy Write the third paragraph on your neighbour’s piece of paper:Offer to help Dave find a jobOffer to look after the children or do something elseTell him that he can contact you (or invite him for something?Pass the paper on to your neighbourCorrect your neighbour’s paragraph, rewrite if necessary, underline if not sure
34 Writing Exercise: Expressing sympathy Round-upCompare the three lettersChoose the best paragraphs and sentencesWrite one letterShow the letter to different groups
35 Writing Exercise: Expressing sympathy AdviceHow to avoid “stupid” mistakes?read your text backwards, sentence by sentence, this will help you focus on spelling and grammar (and prevent that you focus too much on content)
36 Expressing Condolences: A Sympathy Card Please accept my/our sincere condolences.I would like to express my sincere condolences on the death of __________. (name) . He/She was __________. (describe this person)I’m sorry I could not convey my condolences in person.
37 Expressing Condolences You are in my thoughts.Our thoughts and prayers are with you.We are thinking of you.We are thinking of you during this difficult time.We are deeply sorry to hear about the death of ...
38 Expressing Condolences With deepest sympathy,My sincere sympathy,Our warmest condolences,With heartfelt condolences,Please accept my condolences,
39 Expressing Condolences Letter on the death of Virginia WoolfDear LeonardI only learned the news yesterday afternoon when I was in London, having had no previous intimation. For myself and others it is the end of a world. I merely feel quite numb at the moment, and can’t think about this or anything else, but I want you to know that you are as constantly in my mind as in anyone’s.Affectionately, Tom(T.S. Eliot)Book and film suggestionThe Hours