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Thinking differently about Social Presence in Online Courses Patrick R. Lowenthal Boise State patricklowenthal.com.

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Presentation on theme: "Thinking differently about Social Presence in Online Courses Patrick R. Lowenthal Boise State patricklowenthal.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thinking differently about Social Presence in Online Courses Patrick R. Lowenthal Boise State patricklowenthal.com

2 A Bit about Me patricklowenthal.com Assistant Boise State educator researcher designer developer

3 Agenda History of Social Presence Evolution of Social Presence Social Presence Strategies Recent Work & Challenges patricklowenthal.com

4 HISTORY OF SOCIAL PRESENCE patricklowenthal.com

5 Social Presence Theory Social presence is the degree of salience (i.e., quality or state of being there) between two communicators using a communication medium.

6 It’s a quality of a communication medium. Some media (e.g., video) have higher social presence than other media (e.g., audio) Media w/ high social presence are sociable, warm, & personal; media w/ low social presence are as less personal. What does this mean?

7 It’s a quality of a communication medium. Some media (e.g., video) have higher social presence than other media (e.g., audio) Media w/ high social presence are sociable, warm, & personal; media w/ low social presence are as less personal. What does this mean?

8 It’s a quality of a communication medium. Some media (e.g., video) have higher social presence than other media (e.g., audio) Media w/ high social presence are sociable, warm, & personal; media w/ low social presence are as less personal. What does this mean?

9 patricklowenthal.com Less Social PresenceMore Social Presence

10 Focused on 1-on-1 patricklowenthal.com

11 1980’s & CMC Cuelessness Theory developed by Rutter (1984, 1987) Media Richness Theory developed by Daft & Lengel (1984, 1986; Daft, Lengel, & Trevino, 1987) patricklowenthal.com

12 EVOLUTION OF SOCIAL PRESENCE patricklowenthal.com

13 Timeline patricklowenthal.com Social Presence Short et al. Cuelessness Rutter Media Richness Daft & Lengel Social Information Processing Walther Social Presence Gunawardena Community of Inquiry Garrison et al.

14 PhasePeriodKey FiguresFocus of Research sShort et al.Focused on Telecommunications s to early 1990s Rutter Daft & Lengel Kiesler Walther Focused on CMC 3.Early 1990s to early 2000s Gunarwardena Garrison et al. Tu Swan Richardson Focused on Online Learning 4.Mid 2000s to present Garrison Shea Cleveland-Innes Akyol Swan Richardson Focused on Online Learning & the CoI patricklowenthal.com

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16 Affective Communication Expression of emotions Use of humor Self-disclosure Cohesive Communication Continuing a thread Quoting from others’ messages Referring explicitly to other’s messages Asking questions Complimenting, expressing appreciation Expressing agreement Interactive Communication Vocatives Refers to group using inclusive pronouns Phatics, salutations Affective Communication Expression of emotions Use of humor Self-disclosure Cohesive Communication Continuing a thread Quoting from others’ messages Referring explicitly to other’s messages Asking questions Complimenting, expressing appreciation Expressing agreement Interactive Communication Vocatives Refers to group using inclusive pronouns Phatics, salutations +

17 Focused on Many-to-Many patricklowenthal.com

18 Various Definitions “the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person’ in mediated communication” (Gunawardena, 1995, p. 151) the ability of learners to project themselves socially and affectively into a community of inquiry (Rourke et al., 1999) “as the ability of participants in a community of inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally, as ‘real’ people (i.e., their full personality), through the medium of communication being used” (p. 94) “…the degree of feeling, perception, and reaction of being connected by CMC” (Tu & McIsaac, 2002) “…a student’s sense of being in and belonging in a course and the ability to interact with other students and an instructor” (Picciano, 2002, p. 22) the degree to which another in communication appears to be a “real ‟ person (Kreijns et al., 2011) patricklowenthal.com

19 Various Definitions “the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person’ in mediated communication” (Gunawardena, 1995, p. 151) the ability of learners to project themselves socially and affectively into a community of inquiry (Rourke et al., 1999) “as the ability of participants in a community of inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally, as ‘real’ people (i.e., their full personality), through the medium of communication being used” (p. 94) “…the degree of feeling, perception, and reaction of being connected by CMC” (Tu & McIsaac, 2002) “…a student’s sense of being in and belonging in a course and the ability to interact with other students and an instructor” (Picciano, 2002, p. 22) the degree to which another in communication appears to be a “real ‟ person (Kreijns et al., 2011) patricklowenthal.com

20 Various Definitions “the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person’ in mediated communication” (Gunawardena, 1995, p. 151) the ability of learners to project themselves socially and affectively into a community of inquiry (Rourke et al., 1999) “as the ability of participants in a community of inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally, as ‘real’ people (i.e., their full personality), through the medium of communication being used” (p. 94) “…the degree of feeling, perception, and reaction of being connected by CMC” (Tu & McIsaac, 2002) “…a student’s sense of being in and belonging in a course and the ability to interact with other students and an instructor” (Picciano, 2002, p. 22) the degree to which another in communication appears to be a “real ‟ person (Kreijns et al., 2011) patricklowenthal.com

21 Various Definitions “the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person’ in mediated communication” (Gunawardena, 1995, p. 151) the ability of learners to project themselves socially and affectively into a community of inquiry (Rourke et al., 1999) “as the ability of participants in a community of inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally, as ‘real’ people (i.e., their full personality), through the medium of communication being used” (p. 94) “…the degree of feeling, perception, and reaction of being connected by CMC” (Tu & McIsaac, 2002) “…a student’s sense of being in and belonging in a course and the ability to interact with other students and an instructor” (Picciano, 2002, p. 22) the degree to which another in communication appears to be a “real ‟ person (Kreijns et al., 2011) patricklowenthal.com

22 Various Definitions “the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person’ in mediated communication” (Gunawardena, 1995, p. 151) the ability of learners to project themselves socially and affectively into a community of inquiry (Rourke et al., 1999) “as the ability of participants in a community of inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally, as ‘real’ people (i.e., their full personality), through the medium of communication being used” (p. 94) “…the degree of feeling, perception, and reaction of being connected by CMC” (Tu & McIsaac, 2002) “…a student’s sense of being in and belonging in a course and the ability to interact with other students and an instructor” (Picciano, 2002, p. 22) the degree to which another in communication appears to be a “real ‟ person (Kreijns et al., 2011) patricklowenthal.com

23 Various Definitions “the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person’ in mediated communication” (Gunawardena, 1995, p. 151) the ability of learners to project themselves socially and affectively into a community of inquiry (Rourke et al., 1999) “as the ability of participants in a community of inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally, as ‘real’ people (i.e., their full personality), through the medium of communication being used” (p. 94) “…the degree of feeling, perception, and reaction of being connected by CMC” (Tu & McIsaac, 2002) “…a student’s sense of being in and belonging in a course and the ability to interact with other students and an instructor” (Picciano, 2002, p. 22) the degree to which another in communication appears to be a “real ‟ person (Kreijns et al., 2011) patricklowenthal.com

24 Varied Understandings patricklowenthal.com Emotional Nonemotional Connection Nonconnection Community Noncommunity

25 Social Presence patricklowenthal.com LearningCommunity =

26 InteractionInteraction Bounded Learning Community Social Presence Professional Learning Community

27 SOCIAL PRESENCE STRATEGIES patricklowenthal.com

28 Social Presence Strategies Bio strategiesOrientation strategiesReconnecting strategiesFeedback strategiesDiscussion strategiesSmall group strategiesOrganic interaction strategies

29 Teacher Bios Digital StoriesScholarship & Philosophy

30 Student Bios Aladdin’s Lamp Superhero Powers Digital Stories

31 Student Bios Photo Roster5 minute phone call

32 Orientation Strategies patricklowenthal.com Orientation Videos Detailed Announcements & s

33 Reconnecting Strategies Soundtrack of your lifeVirtual Paper Bag

34 Feedback Strategies Video Feedback

35 Discussion Strategies Non-threatening discussionsDiscussion ProtocolsSynchronous Discussions

36 Small Group Strategies Peer ReviewGroup WorkDocument Co-Creation

37 Organic Interaction Strategies Social Media

38 RECENT WORK ON SOCIAL PRESENCE patricklowenthal.com

39 Instructor Social Presence patricklowenthal.com

40 Situated/location-based Presence patricklowenthal.com

41 Video Is Not Always King patricklowenthal.com

42 @ CONTACT ME Patrick Lowenthal Patrick Lowenthal


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