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© Boardworks Ltd of 22 The bark retains moisture in the body of the tree. It also protects the tree from the weather and prevents insect infestation. Under the bark, the tree grows. Sapwood cells are young, living cells. As these age, heartwood is formed. The heartwood is the wood we use to make products in design and technology. bark sapwood heartwood Inside a tree
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 There are two main groups of timbers: natural and manufactured. Natural timbers are produced from trees. There are two main groups of natural timbers: hardwoods and softwoods. Manufactured boards are produced using wood and glue. Timbers Hardwoods are obtained from short, fat trees which grow slowly in rainy climates. Softwoods are produced from tall, thin trees which grow quickly in cold, dry climates.
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 Where does wood come from?
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 Categories of timber
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 usually grow in colder climates and are mainly grown in Scandinavia and Northern Europe grow thin, needle-like leaves grow relatively quickly (30 years) are easier to sustain than hardwood trees are easy to cut and shape are usually cheaper than hardwoods. Softwoods Softwoods are usually obtained from coniferous trees, which keep their leaves in winter. Softwoods:
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 Hardwoods Hardwoods are usually obtained from deciduous trees, which lose their leaves in autumn. Hardwoods: usually grow in warmer more humid climates, mainly in South America and Asia grow slowly (80+ years) are more difficult to sustain than softwoods are more expensive than softwoods are strong and hardwearing.
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 Tropical hardwoods grow in the tropical rainforests of Central and South America, Asia and Africa. They grow very slowly, taking about one hundred years to mature. There are ecological issues regarding the harvesting of tropical hardwoods, as this can cause soil erosion, river pollution and problems with the atmosphere. If they are not sustained by replanting, they will be lost forever. Tropical hardwoods Tropical hardwoods include mahogany and teak. These woods have a strong colour and are hard to shape.
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 Timbers and their properties
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 Pine is a plentiful, native, sustainable softwood. It has a natural beauty which designers and users like. It is easy to work, which manufacturers find useful. Its availability and low cost has made it popular for the construction of domestic furniture over the years. Use of softwoods
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 Hardwoods like teak can be used for outdoor furniture. Alternatives to teak are being exploited. These alternatives are carefully harvested. They do not cause environmental damage or loss of natural resources in tropical rainforests. Uses of hardwoods
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 British hardwoods like oak are native, sustainable timbers. They have been used to produce attractive, high quality, durable furniture for hundreds of years in this country. Uses of hardwoods
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 Stock forms of timber
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 Wood is a natural material. Natural timber is widely used because it: is readily available is easy to cut and shape is relatively inexpensive looks good – it is aesthetic feels good – it is tactile. The advantages of natural timbers Knots can be a problem when you are working with natural timbers. However, it is possible to make a real feature of the interesting effects of knots.
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 Using wood outdoors The good weatherproof qualities of some timbers make them ideal for use in garden fence panels.
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 As a natural material, timber has some problems: it has irregular properties its grain varies it is stronger in some places than others knots can be a real problem because the wood is so hard wood is hygroscopic – it absorbs and releases water (this makes it shrink, swell and warp) woodworm may be a problem (not a problem for metals and plastics!). The disadvantages of natural timbers
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 Manufactured boards are made from the waste sections of felled trees. The wood is reduced to pulp, particles or thin strips and bonded together using special adhesives or resins. Manufactured boards come in sheet form (usually 1.2 x 2.4m) are extremely stable and of uniform thickness are less expensive than laminating planks of timber can be covered with veneers are available in a variety of thicknesses (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 22mm etc). Manufactured boards These flat-pack drawers are made from MDF covered with a veneer.
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 Manufactured timbers do not warp like natural timbers, and can be produced as large flat sheets. A simple example of this is blockboard. Blocks of wood are cut and glued together with the grain running in different directions. The blocks are then covered with a large, flat sheet of veneer. Blockboard natural timber blockboard
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 Plywood is a manufactured timber that has been used since the 19 th century for large, flat panels. A sharp blade cuts very thin layers (veneers) of wood as the timber is rotated. One layer of ply is called a veneer, and can be glued onto less expensive timber to produce a more attractive finish. 3 (or 5 or 7) layers or plies are glued together to make plywood. Plywood
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 A closer look at manufactured boards
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 Key points © Boardworks Ltd of 22 Key points Timbers can be broken down into three categories: hardwoods, softwoods and manufactured boards. Hardwoods include oak and beech. Hardwoods are usually tougher and more expensive than softwoods, such as pine and spruce. Timbers come in a variety of forms, for different uses. Natural timbers are readily available and aesthetically pleasing. However, they can suffer from warping, knots and woodworm. Manufactured boards, such as plywood and MDF, come in large sheets. They are less expensive than planks of timber and can be covered with a veneer to improve their appearance.
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 Resistant Materials Woods These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page.
Softwoods, Hardwoods and Manufactured Boards Objective: To understand the differences between the 3 categories of wood. To Know a ranges of examples of.
Timber Derivatives- Manufactured Boards Product design.
Woods and Processes Theory. Knowledge and Understanding.
Learning Intentions To identify different types of wood and their properties.
Wood Key Skills: - Thinking, Communication, Literacy Numeracy, ICT, Working with others, Problem Solving. Objectives: To understand, recognise and communicate.
Source Natural Origin Europe, Scandinavia Properties and features: Easy to work, relatively cheap, readily available. May contain knots, which weaken.
TIMBER (WOOD) Types, Properties, Joints and Finishes.
Wood Wood is one of the most adaptable and versatile of materials. It has been used in manufacture for thousands of years. Examples of wooden products.
1 Woods (RWTRM pages 46 – 54) Types of Materials Wood is a hard, tough substance that forms the trunks of trees. It has been used for thousands of years.
There is an enormous selection of different timbers available. This range can be split into two groups: Softwoods Hardwoods.
Chapter 8 Types of Tree. Trees – 2 groups Deciduous Hardwood Broad leaves Coniferous Softwood Needle-like leaves.
Hardwoods & Softwoods Beech Oak Ash Mahogany Teak Walnut Balsa Parana Pine Scots Pine Red Cedar Spruce.
Processes Used to Form Wood Materials Chapter 16.
Benefits of Forests. Enjoyable forest walks and woodland trails. Woodland and Forests provide habitats for insects and animals. Renewable source of fuel.
CRAFT & DESIGN SOLID TIMBER Woods are classified into two main groups, softwoods and hardwoods. You should try to understand the main differences between.
The lumber industry is able to provide a larger quantity and a greater variety of wood species because of: Research Conservation Technology.
What are Manufactured boards? Manufactured boards are “man-made” boards they do not grow naturally. Manufactured board are simply strips or pieces of.
Materials. Mahogany Hardwood Easy to work with Straight grain Looks good when a finish is applied Can be expensive Not environmentally friendly Indoor.
Task – name 10 objects made of wood that is in close proximity to you. Wood.
© Boardworks Ltd of 6 Resistant Materials Woods These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page.
Man Made Board. PLYWOOD - This is made from wood veneers with each grain layer being at right angles to the previous and bonded together by resin and.
WOOD! What is wood? An organic, natural composite of cellulose fibres A living structure combining strength & flexibility Contains WATER, even when dried,
-To identify different types of wood and their structure - To understand different types of defects in wood timber - To identify specific uses for different.
Chapter 15 Manufactured boards. Manufactured boards Making boards and sheets from wood or wood products – Veneers – Sawdust – Wood fibres – Wood strips.
Timber - the Material Timber grows on Trees Properties of Timber Grading sawn timber Durability of timber Specifying and handling timber Application of.
UNIT 3 TECHNICAL MATERIALS WOODS. CLASSIFICATION WOODS NATURAL SOFTWOODS They come from coniferous trees. They are ever green, and have got NEEDLE shaped.
Woods There are two categories of wood Softwood and Hardwood Hardwood comes from deciduous trees which loose their leaves in winter Softwood comes from.
Introduction to World Agriculture. Define terms related to forestry. Describe the forest regions of the US. Discuss important relationships among forests,
Design and Nightingale Academy Wood and Joining Wood.
Furniture Materials Chapter 15. Materials Wood Plastic Metal Glass.
Furniture Construction and Selection. Qualities of Hardwoods Greater dimensional stability Less pitch More durability Harder Holds nails and screws better.
Learning Intentions: Understand the stages of the Design Cycle Understand how timber is classified into softwoods, hardwoods and manufactured boards Be.
Selecting Lumber. Interest Approach Look at the piece of wood you are given. Write down as many observations as possible. Look at the piece of wood you.
WOODWORKING Technology Education Dept. Bellwood-Antis Middle School Mr. Mackereth.
ASH BEECH TEAK SCOTS PINE YELLOW PINE OAK IROKO BAMBOO POPLAR HARDWOOD MAPLE SOFTWOOD.
Product Design Lesson 1 – Lamination. Lamination Sometimes it is not economical or suitable to use a solid wood in the production of a product. This is.
WOOD WORK Yeh Yeh Yeh. Wood Wood is one of our most abundant natural resources. It is also a renewable resource. By planting new trees and caring for.
Chapter 13 Manufactured Panel Products. Wildly used to create large surfaces for case goods – Reduces the need for edge gluing – More stable than Warp.
Materials used for the roof structure and joinery components.
Sirodgze2010. HARDWOOD – ‘deciduous’ broad leaves ex: narra, yakal, kamagong oak, walnut, maple, etc. SOFTWOOD – ‘coniferous’ needle-like leaves ex:
Building materials-- WOOD Wood grows on trees. But the kind of trees determines the kind of wood. There are two basic types- hard wood and soft wood.
WOODS Woods are generally classified for construction purposes as either hardwood or softwood. Hardwoods are woods produced from the broadleaf or deciduous.
WOOD ACS-206 WEEK 6 UNIT 17 CE-ME-MECE-MSE. Categories of Wood There are mainly two categories of wood: 1. Hardwood 2. Softwood.
WOOD TECHNOLOGY. Harvesting Trees There are 2 methods for harvesting trees Clear Cutting and Selective Cutting Harvesting trees is the process of.
LO - To be able to identify a range of different timber and manufactured board and their applications - To understand the different timber properties and.
Selecting Wood and Lumber Mr. Rodriguez Ag Mechanics.
timber in internal applications Material Basics Timber and Wood Products Basic material properties and characteristics.
Unit 1004 Produce basic woodworking joints © Pearson Education 2010 Printing and photocopying permitted Learning Outcome 4 Know about selecting materials.
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