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The Wall In Stick Form You Know It As Rough Framing 1.

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Presentation on theme: "The Wall In Stick Form You Know It As Rough Framing 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Wall In Stick Form You Know It As Rough Framing 1

2 HISTORY Of Wall Framing

3 Includes the vertical and horizontal members of exterior walls and interior partitions. both of bearing walls and non-bearing walls.bearing walls These stick members, referred to as studs, wall plates and lintels (headers), serve as a nailing base for all covering material and support the upper floor platforms, which provide the lateral strength along a wall.studswall plateslintels Includes the vertical and horizontal members of exterior walls and interior partitions. both of bearing walls and non-bearing walls.bearing walls These stick members, referred to as studs, wall plates and lintels (headers), serve as a nailing base for all covering material and support the upper floor platforms, which provide the lateral strength along a wall.studswall plateslintels Wall framing in house construction

4 Throughout history, Americans have used four basic methods of framing their homes. Some of these methods were brought from Europe by America’s early immigrants, the others were developed right here at home. They are: Log Construction Timber Framing Balloon Framing Platform Framing

5 The platforms may be the boxed structure of a ceiling and roof, or the ceiling and floor joists of the story above.ceilingfloorjoists The technique is variously referred to colloquially in the building trades as stick and frame, stick and platform, or stick and box as the sticks (studs) give the structure its vertical support, and the box shaped floor sections with joists contained within length-long post and lintels (more commonly called headers), supports the weight of whatever is above, including the next wall up and the roof above the top story. post and lintels The platform, also provides the lateral support against wind and holds the stick walls true and square. Any lower platform supports the weight of the platforms and walls above the level of its component headers and joists. The platforms may be the boxed structure of a ceiling and roof, or the ceiling and floor joists of the story above.ceilingfloorjoists The technique is variously referred to colloquially in the building trades as stick and frame, stick and platform, or stick and box as the sticks (studs) give the structure its vertical support, and the box shaped floor sections with joists contained within length-long post and lintels (more commonly called headers), supports the weight of whatever is above, including the next wall up and the roof above the top story. post and lintels The platform, also provides the lateral support against wind and holds the stick walls true and square. Any lower platform supports the weight of the platforms and walls above the level of its component headers and joists.

6 It is believed that approximately 5500 years ago the first structures using hand-hewn logs for walls were built. (Bronze Age) It is believed that approximately 5500 years ago the first structures using hand-hewn logs for walls were built. (Bronze Age) Log construction arrived in the New World with the Finns and Swedes in These are hand-hewn logs stacked one on top of the other with their corners inter-locked by a series of notches.

7 Hand Hewn Logs (Logs Cut By Hand With Axes)

8 Some famous people from American history were born, raised and lived in log homes. Soldiers built this one in 1775 (Valley Forge)

9 Davy Crockett’s

10 Abraham Lincoln’s

11 The inside of a typical log cabin (1800’s)

12 Other Log Structures (The Early Years) Hotel Outhouse (Rest Room)

13 Today’s Log Home Construction

14 Wall Framing

15 Ridge and Rafter Framed Roof Interlocking Logs

16 Finished Product Composite Roof Shingles

17 The inside of a typical log cabin (20 th Century)

18 Modern restroom inside a typical log cabin (20 th Century)

19 Modern kitchen inside a typical log cabin (20 th Century)

20 Timber Framing

21 Modern Timber Framing Archeological evidence from the British Isles suggests that Roman carpenters may have built timber-frame structures as far back as 43 AD!

22 Modern Timber Framing

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24 Modern Interior Timber Framing Note Drywall and Glass Windows/Doors

25 Timber Frame construction is known for it’s intricate joinery that is held together by nothing more than hardwood pegs. This method of construction requires highly skilled and experienced carpenters.

26 Plank-frame construction used both log construction and timber- frame construction. It was used from the earliest European settlements to as recently as the 1930’s.

27 Inside of a Plank-framed home Note the glass framed window

28 One of the most famous plank-houses in the U.S. can be found in Marcus Hook Pennsylvania. Built in the late 1600’s, legend has it that it was at one-time occupied by a mistresses of Black- Beard the pirate.

29 Black Beard’s plank house today

30 The Hammock House, known as the “White House” when originally built in 1698, was a favorite “haunt” of Black Beard the pirate and his officers while in port in Beaufort North Carolina.

31 Balloon Framing

32 Balloon framing is a style of wood-house building that uses long, vertical 2" x 4"s for the exterior walls. These long "studs" extend uninterrupted, from the sill on top of the foundation, all the way up to the roof.

33 The earlier style timber framing used large timbers interlocked with chiseled joints (mostly mortise and tenons) secured with wood pegs. The balloon frame relies solely on nails to secure each piece. The only chiseling is for the horizontal boards that support upper level floor joists, the diagonal boards, or for corner braces that are "let in" to the studs so as to be flush with the wall surface. balloon framing When it first came into use, well before the mid-nineteenth century, it was a radically different type of construction from the "timber frame" or "braced frame" that preceded it for centuries.

34 It is widely held that Balloon Framing as we know it was most likely developed in Chicago around However, recent archeological findings along the Mississippi river suggest that French settlers may have developed this method of construction up to three decades earlier.

35 120-plus year-old balloon framed home of James and Martha Cain, located in the ghost town of Bodie, California. Balloon framing didn’t require a great deal of experience or skill to construct a building. This greatly aided Americas push west after the civil war, as average folk could build themselves relatively inexpensive, yet sturdy accommodations.

36 Platform/Western Framing A two-story wooden-frame house under construction—the location of the upper floor platform is readily discerned by the wide joists between the floors, and the upper structure rests on this platform.

37 Platform framing originated sometime in the late 1800’s/early 1900’s. Like balloon framing, it uses lightweight framing members known as dimension lumber. Where it differs is that the studs only run from one floor, or “platform” at a time. Platform Framing Disadvantages Since the subfloor interrupts the headers and joists more vertical shrinkage can occur as the wood dries, potentially leading to problems with brick or siding materials. Platform framing (also known as western framing) is the most common framing method for residential construction where each floor of a conventional building is framed independently by nailing the horizontal framing member to the top of the wall studs.

38 WESTERN PLATFORM FRAMING

39 Sole Plate: Bottom horizontal framing member of the wall section. Header: Beam placed perpendicular to wall studs above windows and doors to carry structural loads. Jack Stud: Fits under each end of the header & transfers load to bottom plate. King Stud: Nailed to the jack stud and supports assembly between plates. Rough Sill: Bottom of window opening. Platform Framing Details

40 Rim joist: Vertical board that caps the ends of the floor joists boxing in sub flooring. Floor joist: Horizontal framing member that supports the floor load. Ridge board: Upper most horizontal framing member on roof that attaches tops of rafters. Rafter: Series of beams that form the slope of a pitched roof (from ridge to eave). Eave: The overhanging edge of a roof. Ridge: Beam laid along the edge where two sloping sides meet at the top (upper end of rafters).

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42 Cripples Header Top Plate Double Top Plate Pay attention to detail Color Coated Wall Framing Picture (Answer Key) Header Trimmer King Stud Common Studs Sub Floor Rough Sill Door Opening Sole Plate Window Opening Cripples Note: You pick the colors you want to use. I use shades of blue for horizontal members. (The ocean is horizontal) I use shades of green, brown or yellow for vertical members. (A tree grows vertical)

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