Presentation on theme: "Amazon Deforestation. The Amazon Region Concern about Amazon Deforestation Loss of biodiversity Impact on climate –Moderating impact on climate –Carbon."— Presentation transcript:
Concern about Amazon Deforestation Loss of biodiversity Impact on climate –Moderating impact on climate –Carbon sink –Global forest destruction by burning second largest contribution to GHG emission. Rights of indigenous populations
Causes of Deforestation Cattle ranching: @ 70% of deforestation in Brazil Land tenure: –5% of landowners occupy 70% of arable land; 70% of small landowners occupy 5% of land; –In Amazon land granted to those who clear it; –Cattle ranching subsidized; Demand for cheap beef in international markets Servicing debt, tackling poverty Logging Mining of copper and other minerals Oil exploration (Ecuador) Palm, rubber, oil plantations Highway projects – Poloroneste project ( BR-364 )
Weak International Regimes International Tropical Timber Agreement (1983; 1994) –To regularize trade in tropical timber –1994 goal of producers of tropical timber to export only sustainably harvested timber by 2000. –The Bali Partnership Fund to assist investment to meet the sustainability objective Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, 1992) –Asserts states’ “sovereign rights over their own biodiversity” –Identification, monitoring and assessment of biodiversity –Preparation of national plans, strategies, and programs (voluntary approach to conservation and sustainable use)
Why Do We Have Weak Regimes Related to Tropical Deforestation?
NGO Action NGOs organize in transnational advocacy networks (glued by principles, values, information, resources). “Principle networks?” Strategies: information; symbolic politics; leverage politics (links issue to money, goods, trade); accountability politics
Boomerang Strategy If channels of influence blocked domestically: NGOs bypass their government and ally across borders; NGOs in North lobby governments, companies, IGOs Governmental and monetary pressure on Condition for success: issues involving bodily harm, legal inequality, symbolic resources; dense networks (legitimacy); vulnerability of target government; availability of leverage.
The Polonoroeste Campaign Main Actors: –Brazilian government –World Bank –US Congress/Department of Treasury –US NGOs –Rubber Tapers (Chico Medes) –Indigenous Population –Land owners/cattle ranchers –Rondonia state government
Outcomes World Bank: –temporary suspends loan disbursement for Poloronoeste; –internal reform; Planaforo –Institutionalize environmental protection –Local NGO access to decision making but little influence Chico Mendes shot
Effective Campaign against Deforestation? Yes: pressure on WB policies and procedures; voice to local population; procedural access to decision making; No: did not address major imbalances (power between ranchers and indigenous groups, interests in exports of beef/timber; land tenure, etc.)
Annual Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon 1988-1996 Deforestation 2001-2002: 25,500 square km (base on satellite data) Source: WRI, World Resources 1998-1999, based on Brazilian Institute for Space Research (INPE)
Amazon Regional Protected Areas (ARPA) President Fernando Henrique Cardoso's: 1998 pledge to protect at least 10% of Brazil's Amazon forests ARPA: Launched at Johannesburg Summit 2002 Brazil-World Bank agreement signed April 2003 Partners: –Brazilian government: US$18.1m. –WWF-Brazil: US$11.5m –WB and GEF: US$30m. Over 4 years
ARPA Scope Triple the amount of Amazon forest under protection to 500,000 sq. km. Equivalent of 12% of total forest Includes sample of all 23 Amazonian eco-regions Will include both ecological reserves and extractive reserves Design management plans, surveillance, research