3Galveston in 1900Chapter 16, Section 1The city of Galveston is on Galveston Island. This island is a barrier island that protects the coast from the tides of the Gulf of Mexico.Galveston was a leading port around It was also a major entry port for immigrants in the late 1800s.
4Galveston in 1900 Galveston’s Firsts First electric lighting in Texas Chapter 16, Section 1Galveston’s FirstsFirst electric lighting in TexasFirst published newspaper in Texas, The Galveston NewsFirst telephone call made in TexasFirst baseball game played in TexasFirst medical school in TexasOver the years, Galveston has faced the threat of hurricanes. A hurricane is a tropical storm with sustained winds of at least 74 miles per hour.
5The Storm Floods, Winds, and Flying Timbers Chapter 16, Section 1Floods, Winds, and Flying TimbersThe massive storm hit Galveston on September 8, 1900.The winds reached 120 miles per hour.By midafternoon, water from the Gulf covered half of the city streets.People were killed and injured by flying timber, bricks, and slate.A tidal wave lifted homes from their foundations.DestructionBetween 6,000 and 8,000 people died.Thousands more were injured.Telephone and telegraph wires fell, cutting off contact with the mainland.Nearly 4,000 homes were destroyed.Goods and supplies in stores were ruined.More than $30 million worth of property suffered damage.
6The Wake of the FloodChapter 16, Section 1City leaders made two major decisions to protect Galveston from future storms:To build a seawall to prevent future floodsThe wall they built was six miles long, 16 feet high, 17 feet wide.To raise the city itselfParts of Galveston gained as much as 17 feet in elevation.As part of the rebuilding, Galveston established a new plan for governing the city. Commissioners, appointed by the governor of Texas, were responsible for the various city functions. Many other cities adopted this system.
8A. An Industry Takes Shape Chapter 16, Section 21. Early Uses of OilSpanish explorers used oil to patch their boats.Native Americans used tar to waterproof baskets.Sailors used pitch and tar to seal boats.Workers used oil to grease machinery, axles, and wheels.Tanners used oil to keep leather supple.People used kerosene for lighting during the 1800s.
9A. An Industry Takes Shape Chapter 16, Section 22. The First Oil FieldsMelrose Petroleum Oil Company set up the first oil well in Texas.This well, located in Oil Springs, produced about 10 barrels of oil per day.The Corsicana Oil Field in Navarro County produced large quantities of oil in the 1890s.By 1900, Corsicana was producing 60,000 barrels of oil per year.
10B. A Gusher Starts a Boom 1. Lucas Gusher Chapter 16, Section 21. Lucas GusherOil workers struck oil at the Lucas Gusher, located on Spindletop Hill, south of Beaumont, on January 10, 1901.The Lucas Gusher shot out 100,000 barrels of oil per day. This was more oil than all the other oil wells in the United States combined.Within 2 years, Spindletop had produced 17,500,000 barrels of oil.As the number of wells grew, production declined.Production fell to less than 4 million barrels by 1904.
11B. A Gusher Starts a Boom 2. Wildcatters Chapter 16, Section 22. WildcattersThe oil boom brought wildcatters and roughnecks to Texas.wildcatters – oil seekers who take great risk by drilling in areas not known to have oilroughnecks – field hands who work the oil fields
12C. The Impact of the Spindletop Gusher Chapter 16, Section 2Spindletop GusherPopulation of Beaumont explodes.Land prices in Beaumont rise.Oil companies form.Cities grow around new oil refineries.Auto industry grows.New jobs are created.
13D. More Discoveries Across the State Chapter 16, Section 2Wildcatters made many more oil discoveries in the Gulf Coast region, north and central Texas, the Panhandle, and the Permian Basin in West Texas.Money from the sale and leasing of oil fields funded the University of Texas, Texas A & M, and other colleges.Today, taxes on oil companies are a prime source of revenue for Texas.
15A. National Demands for Reform Chapter 16, Section 31. The National OutlookSome people, called progressives, wanted to improve society by establishing reforms.Much of the Progressive Era was a reaction against industrialization.As cities grew, levels of poverty, crime, and disease increased.Labor unions tried to protect workers by pushing for improved safety and higher wages.
16A. National Demands for Reform Chapter 16, Section 32. The Texas OutlookFew Texas cities had populations greater than 25,000.Therefore, Texas was able to escape many of the problems that progressives battled elsewhere—at least for awhile.
17B. Progressive Programs Area of ReformIndustry and laborFarm tenancyProhibitionVotingReformers worked to regulate gas utilities, improve working conditions for timber workers, regulate the state’s forests, and seek an eight-hour day and equal pay for equal work for workers.By 1900, half of Texas farmers worked as tenant farmers. Most had to borrow food and money from their landlords. If the crops failed, they could not repay the debt.Women’s suffrage organizations fought for women’s right to vote. Texas became the first southern state to give women the right to vote in national elections.The Terrell Election Law required a direct primary for all local offices.Many women’s groups worked for Prohibition, a federal ban on the sale of alcohol. Prohibition became the law all across the United States in 1920.Issues and Efforts
18C. The Mexican Revolution Chapter 16, Section 3While progressives sought reforms in the United States, Mexico exploded into revolution.In Mexico, only the wealthy owned land.Many Mexicans wanted more people to become landowners.They also wanted better wages for workers.Disorder in Mexico spilled over into Texas: the Mexican Revolution led to years of conflict in Texas between white Texans and Hispanic Americans.LoS3
20A. World War IChapter 16, Section 4The United States remained neutral (did not take sides) in the early stages of World War I.In 1917 the United States intercepted the Zimmerman Note from Germany to Mexico.This note asked Mexico to support Germany in World War I.In exchange, Germany would help Mexico regain New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona.Americans prepared for war.
21A. World War I 3. Texans in the War Chapter 16, Section 43. Texans in the WarNearly 200,000 Texans served in World War I – more than 5,000 died.Edward House of Houston served as an advisor to President Wilson during the war.Thomas Watt Gregory served as the United States Attorney General.Albert Burleson was a member of U.S. Congress.
22B. The Home Front in World War I Chapter 16, Section 4Texans supported the war in many ways. They bought Liberty and Victory Bonds.They supported the Red Cross.Foods and other goods were rationed, so that more would be available for the war effort.People practiced patriotism both at home and in the schools.Many people questioned the loyalty of German Texans.
23B. The Home Front in World War I Chapter 16, Section 4War-related tensions sparked the Camp Logan Riot near Houston in 1917.The Ku Klux Klan gained strength during the early 1900s.The Klan believed white Protestants were superior to all others.When World War I ended in 1918, the United States entered an era of prosperity.Cars, electricity, and radios were luxuries enjoyed by many.
24C. Texas Politics 1. James E. Ferguson Chapter 16, Section 41. James E. FergusonJames “Pa” Ferguson was elected governor in 1914.His farming and education reforms made him popular with the voters.He withheld legislative funds from the University of Texas.He was then impeached and removed from office.In 1924, his wife Miriam, “Ma”, was elected governor.Impeachment – charging of a public official with wrongdoing or a crime.
25C. Texas Politics 2. More Education Reforms Chapter 16, Section 42. More Education ReformsFerguson’s successor, William P. Hobby, signed a law offering schools free textbooks.Annie Webb Blanton became state superintendent of public instruction in 1918.She worked to increase school funding and teachers’ pay.She later founded Delta Kappa Gamma, an international society for female teachers.