Galveston in The city of Galveston is on Galveston Island. This island is a barrier island that protects the coast from the tides of the Gulf of Mexico. 2.Galveston was a leading port around It was also a major entry port for immigrants in the late 1800s. Chapter 16, Section 1
Galveston in 1900 A.Galveston’s Firsts 1)First electric lighting in Texas 2)First published newspaper in Texas, The Galveston News 3)First telephone call made in Texas 4)First baseball game played in Texas 5)First medical school in Texas B.Over the years, Galveston has faced the threat of hurricanes. A hurricane is a tropical storm with sustained winds of at least 74 miles per hour. Chapter 16, Section 1
The Storm Floods, Winds, and Flying Timbers The massive storm hit Galveston on September 8, The winds reached 120 miles per hour. By midafternoon, water from the Gulf covered half of the city streets. People were killed and injured by flying timber, bricks, and slate. A tidal wave lifted homes from their foundations. Destruction Between 6,000 and 8,000 people died. Thousands more were injured. Telephone and telegraph wires fell, cutting off contact with the mainland. Nearly 4,000 homes were destroyed. Goods and supplies in stores were ruined. More than $30 million worth of property suffered damage. Chapter 16, Section 1
The Wake of the Flood City leaders made two major decisions to protect Galveston from future storms: To build a seawall to prevent future floods The wall they built was six miles long, 16 feet high, 17 feet wide. To raise the city itself Parts of Galveston gained as much as 17 feet in elevation. As part of the rebuilding, Galveston established a new plan for governing the city. Commissioners, appointed by the governor of Texas, were responsible for the various city functions. Many other cities adopted this system.
A. An Industry Takes Shape 1. Early Uses of Oil a.Spanish explorers used oil to patch their boats. b.Native Americans used tar to waterproof baskets. c.Sailors used pitch and tar to seal boats. d.Workers used oil to grease machinery, axles, and wheels. e.Tanners used oil to keep leather supple. f.People used kerosene for lighting during the 1800s. Chapter 16, Section 2
A. An Industry Takes Shape 2. The First Oil Fields a.Melrose Petroleum Oil Company set up the first oil well in Texas. b.This well, located in Oil Springs, produced about 10 barrels of oil per day. c.The Corsicana Oil Field in Navarro County produced large quantities of oil in the 1890s. d.By 1900, Corsicana was producing 60,000 barrels of oil per year. Chapter 16, Section 2
B. A Gusher Starts a Boom 1. Lucas Gusher a.Oil workers struck oil at the Lucas Gusher, located on Spindletop Hill, south of Beaumont, on January 10, b.The Lucas Gusher shot out 100,000 barrels of oil per day. This was more oil than all the other oil wells in the United States combined. c.Within 2 years, Spindletop had produced 17,500,000 barrels of oil. d.As the number of wells grew, production declined. e.Production fell to less than 4 million barrels by Chapter 16, Section 2
B. A Gusher Starts a Boom 2. Wildcatters a.The oil boom brought wildcatters and roughnecks to Texas. b.wildcatters – oil seekers who take great risk by drilling in areas not known to have oil c.roughnecks – field hands who work the oil fields Chapter 16, Section 2
Spindletop Gusher C. The Impact of the Spindletop Gusher Chapter 16, Section 2 Population of Beaumont explodes. Land prices in Beaumont rise. Oil companies form. Cities grow around new oil refineries. Auto industry grows. New jobs are created.
Chapter 16, Section 2 D. More Discoveries Across the State 1.Wildcatters made many more oil discoveries in the Gulf Coast region, north and central Texas, the Panhandle, and the Permian Basin in West Texas. 2.Money from the sale and leasing of oil fields funded the University of Texas, Texas A & M, and other colleges. 3.Today, taxes on oil companies are a prime source of revenue for Texas.
Chapter 16, Section 3 A. National Demands for Reform 1. The National Outlook a.Some people, called progressives, wanted to improve society by establishing reforms. b.Much of the Progressive Era was a reaction against industrialization. c.As cities grew, levels of poverty, crime, and disease increased. d.Labor unions tried to protect workers by pushing for improved safety and higher wages.
Chapter 16, Section 3 A. National Demands for Reform 2. The Texas Outlook a.Few Texas cities had populations greater than 25,000. b.Therefore, Texas was able to escape many of the problems that progressives battled elsewhere—at least for awhile.
Area of Reform Industry and labor Farm tenancy Prohibition Voting Reformers worked to regulate gas utilities, improve working conditions for timber workers, regulate the state’s forests, and seek an eight-hour day and equal pay for equal work for workers. By 1900, half of Texas farmers worked as tenant farmers. Most had to borrow food and money from their landlords. If the crops failed, they could not repay the debt. Women’s suffrage organizations fought for women’s right to vote. Texas became the first southern state to give women the right to vote in national elections. The Terrell Election Law required a direct primary for all local offices. Many women’s groups worked for Prohibition, a federal ban on the sale of alcohol. Prohibition became the law all across the United States in Issues and Efforts B. Progressive Programs
C. The Mexican Revolution 1.While progressives sought reforms in the United States, Mexico exploded into revolution. 2.In Mexico, only the wealthy owned land. a.Many Mexicans wanted more people to become landowners. b.They also wanted better wages for workers. 3.Disorder in Mexico spilled over into Texas: the Mexican Revolution led to years of conflict in Texas between white Texans and Hispanic Americans. Chapter 16, Section 3 LoS3
Chapter 16, Section 4 A. World War I 1.The United States remained neutral (did not take sides) in the early stages of World War I. 2.In 1917 the United States intercepted the Zimmerman Note from Germany to Mexico. a.This note asked Mexico to support Germany in World War I. b.In exchange, Germany would help Mexico regain New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. c.Americans prepared for war.
Chapter 16, Section 4 A. World War I 3. Texans in the War a.Nearly 200,000 Texans served in World War I – more than 5,000 died. b.Edward House of Houston served as an advisor to President Wilson during the war. c.Thomas Watt Gregory served as the United States Attorney General. d.Albert Burleson was a member of U.S. Congress.
Chapter 16, Section 4 B. The Home Front in World War I 1.Texans supported the war in many ways. They bought Liberty and Victory Bonds. 2.They supported the Red Cross. 3.Foods and other goods were rationed, so that more would be available for the war effort. 4.People practiced patriotism both at home and in the schools. 5.Many people questioned the loyalty of German Texans.
Chapter 16, Section 4 B. The Home Front in World War I 6.War-related tensions sparked the Camp Logan Riot near Houston in The Ku Klux Klan gained strength during the early 1900s. 8.The Klan believed white Protestants were superior to all others. 9.When World War I ended in 1918, the United States entered an era of prosperity. 10.Cars, electricity, and radios were luxuries enjoyed by many.
Chapter 16, Section 4 C. Texas Politics 1. James E. Ferguson a.James “Pa” Ferguson was elected governor in b.His farming and education reforms made him popular with the voters. c.He withheld legislative funds from the University of Texas. d.He was then impeached and removed from office. e.In 1924, his wife Miriam, “Ma”, was elected governor. f.Impeachment – charging of a public official with wrongdoing or a crime.
Chapter 16, Section 4 C. Texas Politics 2. More Education Reforms a.Ferguson’s successor, William P. Hobby, signed a law offering schools free textbooks. b.Annie Webb Blanton became state superintendent of public instruction in c.She worked to increase school funding and teachers’ pay. d.She later founded Delta Kappa Gamma, an international society for female teachers.