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ENVIRONMENTAL LABELLING LCA ADEME database Technical Committee: « Wood and Glass » April 24th 2012 Olivier Réthoré ADEME Service Eco-conception & Consommation.

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Presentation on theme: "ENVIRONMENTAL LABELLING LCA ADEME database Technical Committee: « Wood and Glass » April 24th 2012 Olivier Réthoré ADEME Service Eco-conception & Consommation."— Presentation transcript:

1 ENVIRONMENTAL LABELLING LCA ADEME database Technical Committee: « Wood and Glass » April 24th 2012 Olivier Réthoré ADEME Service Eco-conception & Consommation Durable (SECCD) With Intertek RDC (Isabelle Descos, Matthieu Gillis)

2 Agenda Goal and scope For wood and glass – Particular methodological choices – Data need – Existing data

3 Goal and scope 3 Goal: to establish short term and long term needs in terms of LCI data to give specifications to Ecoinvent and PE in order to feed ADEME’s DB Scope: for furniture and beds because the PCR have been validated for packaging because transverse issue

4 Meeting approach For each type of wood or glass : Analyze the inventory data need from: –The preliminary study conclusions: « Elaboration d’un plan de développement d’une base publique de données d’ACV comme support à l’affichage » –PCR for furniture and bed –Knowledge about packaging Determine the appropriate granulometry –Regarding  Technological representativeness  Geographical representativeness  Temporal representativeness –Considering for each differentiation  The relative environmental impact  The information accessibility for the industrial (specific data)  The short term data availability in existing databases (generic data) Propose a list of inventories to be integrated into ADEME database 4

5 5 ADEME database content Processes Metadata Sources, contacts, external documents Unit Reference flow, Unitgroups Characterization factors* LCIA Method Result for each impact category X *Common data for all suppliers (to be given by the JRC) LCI Flows*, flow property*,Unitgr oups

6 6 Data sources: 3 feeding modes Purchasing existing or adapted data –From databases suppliers with which the ADEME has a framework contract –For both lots (7/wood and 8/glass): PE, ecoinvent Data co-production –In order to fill missing data in specific sectors –Projects co-funded by ADEME with research and technical partners –Ex.: AgriBalyse for agriculture products, ACYVIA for food industry, etc. Third party –In order to allow integrating data not yet available in existing databases –In order to promote assessment by the industry

7 Wood (mainly for furniture) 7

8 Wood in GT Wood is mainly needed in GT7 (furniture); some PCR are validated: “Proposition de projet de référentiel d’évaluation environnementale de produits d’ameublement”: – Meubles en bois – Literie – Siège rembourré GT2, in hi-fi speakers GT5, in shoe’s soles GT11: non electrical tools

9 Impact categories For all GT –Climate change – IPCC 2007 –Resource depletion – EDIP 97 (2004) (may change) Furniture –Air acidification – Recipe 2008 –Photochemical oxidant formation – Recipe 2008 GT2 (EEE) – Ecotoxicity (not validated) GT5 (shoes) – Eutrophication – Recipe 2008 GT11 –Aquatic ecotoxicity - Usetox 9

10 French Furniture Market In 2008, the France market was structured as (data from IPEA): – 35% : Furnishing furniture; – 27% : Stuffed seats; – 23% : Kitchen furniture; – 11% : Bedding; – 3% : Bathroom furniture; – 1% : garden furniture. 3 mai 2015Nom du service

11 Furniture PCR requirements PCR – Specific data  Quantity of each wood type (in mass or volume): see the list in next slides  Sustainable management of forests (to be defined by the methodological platform)  Wood machining (usinage) from sawn timber (sciage) – Electricity consumption – Quantity of finishing products – Semi-specific data – Generic data  Impacts of materials

12 Sustainable wood How is it taken into account in databases? The platform distinguishes two concepts – Renewability of resources: carbon withdrawal is taken into account for renewable resources (e.g. wood) whatever the origin – Sustainable management: impact on biodiversity.  There is no recognized indicator for biodiversity.  Discussion is in progress within GT8 (paper) 3 mai 2015Nom du service

13 Sustainable wood 3 mai 2015Nom du service How to take into account sustainable wood or not? PCR first draft for furniture required wood to be differentiated regarding (primary data) – Certified forest and control chain (yes/no) – Certified wood (yes/no) What difference between eco-certified wood and certified forest and control chain? What does it imply? Shouldn’t percentage be proposed? – Origin country What does the country imply? (only electricity mix?) Does the furniture manufacturer always know these characteristics? 13

14 Data need – Raw material 14 Solid wood – What are the differences between wood species from a LCA point of view? (e.g. more energy consumption, soil nutrient…) – Is the approach hardwood/softwood enough for short term? – Does it make sense to have a “wood, unspecified” – Are there types of wood missing? Derived wood – Are the suggested categories differentiated enough? (e.g. different densities for fiberboard) – Are there types of wood missing? – Does a furniture manufacturer always know the wood species used in derived wood? NB: list established from preliminary study and PCR TypeDifferentiation Solid wood Softwood Pine (sapin) North Coastal Spruce (epicea) Parana Unspecified Douglas fir (sciage Douglas) Larch (Mélèze) Hardwood Beech (hêtre) Poplar (peuplier) Oak (chêne) Mahogany (Acajou) Alder (Aulne) Ash (Frêne) Birch (Bouleau) Chestnut (Châtaigner) Walnut (Noyer) Elm (Orme) Palissander (Palissandre) Teak (Teck) Linden (Tilleul) Wenge (Wengué) Maple (érable) Cherry wood (Merisier) Cork (Liège) Derived wood Particle wood For humid environment For dry environment Plywood (contreplaqué)Pine, beech, poplar, birch MDF (Medium-density fibreboard) For humid environment For dry environment

15 Existing data – Softwood 3 mai 2015Nom du service 15 TypeSpeciesRepresentativityecoinventGaBiFCBA Softwood Spurce, or unspecified ecoinvent: is spruce used as most representative softwood? Form Bark chips, Chips, logs (for heating systems) Residue wood (from insutrial processes) Industrial wood (at forest road) Round wood (at forest road) Sawn timber (at plant) Sawn timber- Drying technology Air dried Kiln dried -- Humidity20%, 40 %, 140% -- GeographyCH, RER, NORDELDEFrance PineForm, geography Sawn timber, DECoastal, France Douglas firForm, geography Sawn timber, DEFrance CedarForm, geography Sawn timber, DE Larch (mélèze)Form, geography Sawn timber, DE Parana pineForm, geographySawn timber, GLO

16 Existing data – Hardwood 3 mai 2015Nom du service 16 TypeecoinventGaBiFCBAIdemat (1998) Solid wood Hardwood Beech (hêtre) Bark chips, Chips, logs (for heating systems) Residue wood (from insutrial processes) Industrial wood (at forest road) Round wood (at forest road) Sawn timber (at plant) RER Sawn timber, DE Poplar (peuplier) France Oak (chêne) Sawn timber, DEFrance Mahogany (Acajou) Congo/Ghana/Gabon Alder (Aulne) Europe/Afrique du Nord Birch (Bouleau) Pays nordiques Chestnut (Châtaigner) France/Italie Walnut (Noyer) France/Italie Elm (Orme) Pays Bas Palissander (Palissandre) Brésil Teak (Teck) Sawn timber, DE Brésil/Thailande/Cambo dje/Togo/Nigeria/Tanzan ie Linden (Tilleul) Belgique/Luxembourg/Al lemagne Wenge (Wengué) Congo/ Ghana/ Gabon Maple (érable) Cherry wood (Merisier) Cork (Liège)Sawn timber, RER

17 Existing data – Derived wood 17 TypeRepresentativityecoinventGaBiINIES Fibreboard Origin Softwood, or Hardwood Production mix Cellulose DHF, DFF Adhesive Latex Without adhesive ? GeographyCH, RERDE MDF (Medium- density fibreboard) GeographyRERDEFrance, 2009 HDF (High-density fibreboard) Geography DE Particle board TechnoCement bounded Pgleiderer, egger, average, P2, P4, P5, P6P7 - Use Indoor Outdoor - For humid and dry environment GeographyRERDEFrance, 2009 Laminated timber Origin?Pine, softwood FormGlued, or not Three, Five layers Glued, or not Use Indoor Outdoor - GeographyRERDE Plywood Use Indoor Outdoor Production mix - GeographyRERDEFrance, 2004

18 Existing data One will use data on wood for building products Might there be major differences on some of these data with wood and wood processing for furniture ?

19 Data need vs. existing data Data available in GaBi and ecoinvent Data available in one database or unknown information Unavailable data 19 TypeDifferentiation Solid wood Softwood Pine (sapin) North Coastal Spruce (epicea) Parana Unspecified Douglas fir (sciage Douglas) Larch (mélèze) Hardwood Beech (hêtre) Poplar (peuplier) Oak (chêne) Mahogany (Acajou) Alder (Aulne) Ash (Frêne) Birch (Bouleau) Chestnut (Châtaigner) Walnut (Noyer) Elm (Orme) Palissander (Palissandre) Teak (Teck) Linden (Tilleul) Wenge (Wengué) Maple (érable) Cherry wood (Merisier) Cork (Liège) Derived wood Particle wood For humid environment For dry environment Plywood (contreplaqué)Pine, beech, poplar, birch MDF (Medium-density fibreboard) For humid environment For dry environment

20 Data need – Geographical representativity PCR does not require any geographical differentiation – What geographical level shall one consider: global ? Regional (temperate, tropical…)? National? – What are relevant parameters to differentiate a region from another? The preliminary study does not give any statistics data for wood use regarding the production country – What are available statistical data regarding the origin of wood in products bought in France? – A study run by the methodological GT will complete these needs (in progress) 20

21 Data need – Forming processes Forming processes are separated in two parts: – Preforming processes: before sawn timber purchased by furniture manufacturer ⇨ generic data included in raw material production – Machining processes: at furniture manufacturing plant ⇨ specific data:  Electricity consumption  Finishing products (see next slide)

22 Data need and Existing data – Finishing products What are the data needed only for machining and assembling? MatériauBase de donnéeReprésentativitéAnnée Colle vinylique (1 ou 2 composants)INIES/BostikFrance2008 Colle mélamine formaldhéyde (urée ou phénol) EIME GaBiUSA1997 FCBA (données d'industriels) GaBiUSA1997 Colle urée formolEcoinventEurope2000 Colle phénol formolGaBiUSA1997 FCBA (données d'industriels) Colle PU (1 ou 2 composants)EIMEFrance2002 Colle époxy/polyépoxyde (1 ou 2 composants)voir analyse transversale (résine époxy) Colle polychloroprène (néoprène) Colle latex, base solvant Colle latex, base eau Colle acrylique, base eauEcoinventEurope2000 Colle polyester, base solvant (styrène) GaBiAllemagne2005 EcoinventEurope2000 EIME 1990 Colle PVA (1 composant) Colle hotmelt (polyolefine, résine thermoplastique, ethylene vinyl acetate) Vernis acrylique EIME 1995 EcoinventEurope2000 Laque PU - vernis PUEn cours dans PROPILAE Peinture PUEIME 2003 Finition cellulosique Finition aminoplaste Finition polyestervoir colle polyester Finition acryliquevoir colle et vernis acrylique Finition PUvoir colle et peinture PU

23 Data need – Packaging Pallets Wood boxes Do we need more than two average inventories? Are there other needs? 23

24 Production losses 24 PCR – requires 50/50 recycling allocation for production losses E M = E V - (0,5R 1 +0,5R 2 ) E V ’ + (0,5R 1 +0,5R 2 )E R + V e (E chaudière - r 3n *PCI*E chaleur - r 4n *PCI*E élec ) + I*(1-0,5R 1 -0,5R 2 -V e )* ( E iOM - r 1n *PCI OM *E chaleur - r 2n *PCI OM *E élec ) + (1-I)*(1-0,5R 1 -0,5R 2 -V e ) E d – Are production losses always considered recycled? Credits – What is (are) the recycling outlet(s)? (energy from wood, process panel…) – Must one inventory be used or an average? Recycling process – Must the recycling process be differentiated by type of wood, type of outlet?

25 End of life PCR: Recycling is not considered for furniture end-of- life in short term French statistics for the end of life (source: “Dimensionnement de la filière pour la gestion des mobiliers ménagers et professionels”, november 2010) – Material recycling: 25 % – Incineration: 33 % – Landfilling: 38 % – Other: 4 % GaBi, ecoinvent and ELCD have data for treated and untreated wood landfilling and incineration

26 Emissions delay BPX – Taking into account with following formulas:  If (100 – Dvp) > Dvx : PRG (X ; 100)  If (100 – Dvp) < Dvx : PRG (X ; 100) * (100 – Dvp)/100 – With  Dvx = lifetime of GHG X.  PRG (X ; 100) = GWP of GHG X over 100 years  Dvp = lifetime of product In the database, – The elementary flows will include their lifetime – The tools will calculate the delay for regarded PCR with an updatable table 3 mai 2015Nom du service

27 Glass 27

28 Glass needed in PCR Nom du service28 GT 1 : Food –Packaging one way, refillable and colored GT 2 : Electrical and electronical equipment : – Screens – Bulbs GT7 : furniture –Flat glass GT10 : sport articles (glassfiber)

29 Impact categories Nom du service29 GT 1 : Food –Greenhouse effet –Water consumption –Eutrophication –Aquatic ecotoxicity GT 2 : Electrical and electronical equipment : – Greenhouse effect – Resource depletion GT7 : furniture –Greenhouse effect –Acidification –Eutrophication –Resource depletion –Photochemical oxydants production GT10 : sport articles (glasfiber) –Greenhouse effect –Acidification –Eutrophication Impacts the most present : Greenhouse effect Eutrophication Acidification/resource depletion

30 PCR requirements No particular need, all GT: – Specific data  Type and quantity of materials  Forming processes (specifically or included in raw material) – Secondary data  Impacts of raw material production and forming 3 mai 2015Nom du service

31 Data need – Technological representativeness TypeProcessDifferentiationApplicationQuestions Flat glass Float flat glass "Classic"Tables, cupboard CoatedTables, cupboard Rolled glass Wired glassSafety windowCan it be used in furniture or other goods? Patterned glassTables, cupboard Other processes Toughened More resistant glassCan it be used in furniture or other goods? Hardened (or semi- toughened) Laminated DecoratedTables, cupboard Container glass White Beverage, food… Green Brown Other glass Based on composition Silicate glassTV screens, ovenware Must we need specific inventories or is it in the materials flow of the application manufacturer? Lithium aluminosilicate glassCeramics for cooking ware Lead glassCrystal Sealing glassElectronic components Based on forming process Glass fiber Textiles, and reinforcement of plastics) Glass optical fiberData transmission (TV, IT…) Glass tubingFluorescent lights Casted glassDomestic glassware Is the process for container glass the same as for glassware? Or is it a good approximation? Electric light bulbDomestic lamps Glass pieces with assembling structure Stained glass (with lead) Can it be used in furniture or other goods? Is it bought or manufactured by the furniture manufacturer? Copper glass Ancklebone (Astragale) (with wood) List established from Preliminary study and complementary research

32 Data need – Technological representativeness Must all those categories have an inventory? (e.g. sealing glass is included in electronic processes) Must those categories be more differentiated? Are there types of glass missing? For product directly coming from glass production site (e.g. glassware), do we need inventories for glass raw materials (soda, sand…)? Since quantities and other parameters may be specific. What is the ideal list of inventories to be integrated into the database? 32

33 Container glass – Refillable glass 33 Should inventories be distinct between refillable bottles and one- way bottles? If refillable glass is distinct, should/may the amount of rotations be a specific parameter in PCR for beverages? We need to have an inventory for washing the bottles

34 Data need – Geographical representativeness What parameters differentiate a region from another? What geography level shall we consider (country, continental, world) Is it possible to estimate glass production in other continent from European data? 34

35 Existing data Nom du service35 TypeRepresentativityecoinventGaBiFEVE Flat glass Technology Coated Uncoated Toughened Float - GeographyREREU-27 - Packaging glass TechnologyBrown, green, whiteTechno mix Techno mix / without refillable Gate-to-gate, cradle to gate and cradle to cradle GeographyCH, DE, REREU-27RER Screen glass Technology LCD, CRT Funnel for CRT - - GeographyRER - - Coated glass TechnologyAnti-reflex coating (solar) - - GeographyDK - - Glass tubeGeographyDE - - Glass fibreGeographyRERDE - Glass woolGeography -DE Included in packaging inventory as recycling Glass bricksGeography -DE -

36 Existing data One will use data on wood for building products – Might there be major differences on some of these data with wood and wood processing for furniture ? FEVE – How deep can FEVE inventory be disaggregated? In particular:  Is it possible to have an inventory « glass, refillable »,  is it possible to have only the impacts of electricity consumption?

37 Data need vs. existing data Data available in GaBi and ecoinvent Data available in one database Unavailable data 37 TypeProcessDifferentiation Flat glass Float flat glass "Classic" Coated Rolled glass Wired glass Patterned glass Other processes Toughened Hardened (or semi-toughened) Laminated Decorated Container glass White Green Brown Other glass Based on composition Silicate glass Lithium aluminosilicate glass Lead glass Sealing glass Copper glass Stained glass Based on forming process Glass fiber Glass optical fiber Glass tubing Casted glass Electric light bulb Glass pieces with assembling structure Stained glass (with lead) Copper glass Ancklebone (Astragale) (with wood)

38 Soda allocation Solvay process (or ammonia process) produces soda and calcium chloride Soda allocation factor – ecoinvent: 33% based on economic allocation, world market – FEVE: 100%, because calcium chloride is a by-product not valued – What about GaBi? Proposition: 100 % allocation to soda 38

39 Recycling allocation BPX requires allocation based on collection rate Two solutions to model recycling credit – Inventories 100 % primary or 100 % secondary allow choosing recycling content and end of life recycling rate but are not representative of any reality This approach is not used nor recommended by FEVE Is it possible/acceptable to have such inventories? Do they represent the reality when combined? – Average inventories represent closed loop systems, and are suitable for collection rate based allocation To databases suppliers: would it be possible to adapt the collection rate to France situation? Should flat glass, packaging glass and other glasses collection rates be differentiated? Should processes of recycling be differentiated ? Is it always closed loop ? 39


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