Presentation on theme: "The Effects of Urbanization on Developing Countries"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Effects of Urbanization on Developing Countries How does urbanization affect pollution, deforestation and biodiversity loss on natural ecosystems in developing countries – such as Brazil and China?Elyse BoelensLeonardo Caion-DemaestriKatherine Carlton
2 MethodsLooked at the effects of urbanization on different stages of developing countries (Brazil and China).Arc GIS maps, Scientific Journals, Group discussions, and Personal Experience were used to display the impacts of urbanization on:PollutionDeforestationBiodiversity Loss
3 What are we modeling? Cumulative Carbon Dioxide emissions. Cumulative Sulfur Dioxide emissions.Protected Land.Percent of Deforestation and Total Forest Area.Number of Threatened Species – Birds and Mammals.Gross Domestic Income and Percentage Use by Sector.Gross Domestic Income per Capita.Urban Population and its Percentage Growth by 2030.
11 China Pollution Issues Heavy reliance on coal74% of China’s energy consumptionSulfur dioxide pollution2/3 of all Asia’s emmissionsAcid Rain in 40% of countryMore nitrogen dioxideIncrease in amount of carsPolluted drinking waterHuman and animal waste
12 Brazil Pollution Issues Loss of RainforestReleases sequestered carbon dioxideTransportation PollutionSao Paulo increasePetroleum Consumption51% of energy consumptionHydroelectricityFlooded ecosystemsDisplaced Indigenous people
13 China vs. Brazil : Pollution IndustryReliance on coalTransportationIncrease in cars, nitrogen dioxideAcid RainSulfur DioxideWater PollutionUnfit for drinkingTransportationDramatic Increase in cars, nitrogen dioxideDeforestationPetroleum ConsumptionHydroelectricityFloodingDisplacement
15 China Deforestation Issues One of the most environmentally unsound nations in the world.Major deforestation due to production of commercial lumber.Slash-and-burn agriculture.Lack of government action.
16 Brazil Deforestation Issues Nearly 750,000 km2 of forest have been destroyed.1/3 of deforestation can be linked to “shifted” cultivators.Deforestation attributed to land clearing for commercial and speculative interests.
17 China vs. Brazil : Deforestation 125,000ha cut down for railroads, highways, and high voltage lines.47,000ha burned down in forest fires.Lack of effective family planning program.Large cleared areas used for cattle feeding.Deforestation for investment purposes.Use of tax incentives that favor pastureland over natural forest.
19 China Biodiversity Loss Issues Habitat Loss affects 86% of threatened mammals and 86% of threatened birds.Panda’s only source of food – bamboo - is only growing within 500 and 3100 meters.Area of great biodiversity are the areas where people are taking over.Has over 10% of world’s plant and terrestrial vertebrate species, but 1/5 are now endangered.
20 Brazil Biodiversity Loss Issues Study shows that only 18% of vegetation survive when 12 km away from a road or city and only 5.9% survive when within 1 km of road or city.Alien species are greatly affecting the native species.
21 China vs. Brazil : Biodiversity Loss Half of China is uninhabited so the population lives within 7% of world’s arable land.Loss of habitat is greatly affected by:TimberAgricultureFuel woodInfrastructureHydropower developmentBrazil is home to precious Amazon basin.Invasive alien species take overIn central Brazil there is a dry forest home to many bird species.Taken over for coal production
23 Societal Implications of China’s Pollution 40% of China grapples with issues of acid rain.700 million Chinese drink contaminated water.
24 Societal Implications of Brazil’s Pollution Growth in the amount of nitrogen dioxideWorld Health Organization believes it to be the cause of the 30% increase in the amount of deaths from respiratory illness in children under the age of fiveIncrease in amount of hydroelectric plants1980’s: Created the Brazilian Movement of Dam Affected People to demand fair compensation and active involvement in the decision making process
26 Societal Implications of China’s Deforestation Tree clearing as an outgrowth of poverty. Farmers gradually intruded nearby forests to gather fuel wood and “shake off poverty.”Focus on profit-making while overstepping villager’s rights and interests.Bare hillsides will worsen natural disasters and engender a new form of poverty.
27 Societal Implications of Brazil’s Deforestation Risk of quality of life.Gamble with stability of climate and local weather (Lack of humidity and rainfall).Threaten the existence of species.Undermine valuable services provided by biological diversity.Increase erosion, floods, drought, water pollution.Lack of fisheries protection and pollination.
29 Societal Implications of China’s Biodiversity Loss Cities within China will grow to completely take over the biodiversity.Complete reliance on international institutions for money to protect biodiversity.Affect region’s lifestyle.The cost of the effects together with the related problems that can arise (like disease, and other illness, or rebuilding and so on) is much more costly than the maintenance and sustainable development practices that could be used instead.
30 Societal Implications of Brazil’s Biodiversity Loss With urbanization, small villages around the Amazon basin are going to suffer due to lack of food sources and increase of endangered species.External reliance of different organizations to aid with loss of particular species.Exports of soybeans and coffee will exponentially decrease if trends continue.
32 Possible Solution for China’s Pollution Branches in place to monitor pollution.State Environmental Protection CommissionNational People’s CongressEnvironment and Resources Protection CommissionEnvironmental Protection Agency350 Cities conduct routine air quality monitoring.Decline in Sulfur Dioxide.Closure of small, inefficient plantsControlling use of coalNeed to better monitor water quality and create standards.
33 Possible Solutions for Brazil’s Pollution Address transportation issues.Mass transportationAlternative fuels1999, restricted days on which people droveRenewable energy use.31% of energy comes from hydroelectric plants13% from renewable sourcesLargest producer and consumer of ethanol from sugar cane
35 Possible Solutions for China’s Deforestation Law enforcement of only selective logging.Increase large-scale protection forests and nature reserves. Particularly of non-active management land (15% of China’s territory).Redirect economy away from virgin forests.Emphasize the development of institutions to significantly reduce property right protection costs for forest management.Increase taxes on timber production.
36 Possible Solutions for Brazil’s Deforestation Teach others about the importance of the environment.Restore damaged ecosystems by planting trees on land where forests have been cut down.Encourage people to live in a sustainable manner.Increase national parks to protect rainforests and wildlife.Support companies that operate in ways that minimize damage to the environment.Develop new conservation policy built on sustainable development.
38 Possible Solutions for China’s Biodiversity Loss Currently Global Environment Fund and World Bank support creation of 1,551 national reserves.Plans are a start but not enough compared to the high growth rate.Slowing rate of biodiversity loss helps animals adjust and adapt to the earth’s changes because of the urbanization.
39 Possible Solutions for Brazil’s Biodiversity Loss Continue with current plans to make new national parks and expand national forests.Regulate size and materials used for infrastructure.Increase awareness of current problems and future consequences it will have on society.
40 ConclusionOur ArcGIS graphs, along with scientific data show that there is an increase in the negative environmental impacts (pollution, deforestation rates, and biodiversity losses) related to urbanization growth.Although the reasons for such growth differed, the results were similar.If current conditions continue, these countries’ hopes of becoming developed will not be obtainable due to their repercussions on their natural ecosystems.
41 Take Home MessageThere needs to be a clear shift in today’s mindset and economy towards a focus on the long-term effects each decision has on the environment we belong.Create realistic goals that society can put forth and start being the change we want to see in the world.
42 Works Cited PageButler, Rhett. “Deforestation in the Amazon.” Tropical Rainforests “China Says Deforestation Still a Major Environmental Problem.” Terradaily News. 18 Jan http://www.terradaily.com/2005/ tgm9j244.html CIA World Factbook, Brazil. 8 March https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/br.htmlCIA World Factbook, China. 8 March 2007.https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ch.htmlDasgupta, Susmita and Robert E.B. Lucas and David Wheeler. Plant size, industrial airpollution and local incomes: evidence from Mexico and Brazil. Environment andDevelopment Economics. Cambridge University Press,He, Kebin and Hong Huo and Quiang Zhang. URBAN AIR POLLUTION IN CHINA: CurrentStatus, Characteristics, and Progress. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment.Vol. 27: Nov Levine, John. Brazil: Profit and Poverty Fuel Deforestation. World Socialist Web Site Li, Ling. “Rare Dolphin’s Extinction a Red Flag for Biodiversity Loss.” Worldwatch Institute.28. Dec “Urban Air Pollution.” Worldbank. Page 69, Chapter 10. June 2004.Yiming, Li and David S. Wilcove. “Threats to Vertebrate Species in China and the UnitedStates.” Bioscience. Article: pp FebZhang, Yaoqi. Deforestation and Forest Transition: Theory and Evidence in China. WorldForests, Society and Environment. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands. Pp%20forest%20transition%20in%20China.pdf