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The Effects of Urbanization on Developing Countries

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Presentation on theme: "The Effects of Urbanization on Developing Countries"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Effects of Urbanization on Developing Countries
How does urbanization affect pollution, deforestation and biodiversity loss on natural ecosystems in developing countries – such as Brazil and China? Elyse Boelens Leonardo Caion-Demaestri Katherine Carlton

2 Methods Looked at the effects of urbanization on different stages of developing countries (Brazil and China). Arc GIS maps, Scientific Journals, Group discussions, and Personal Experience were used to display the impacts of urbanization on: Pollution Deforestation Biodiversity Loss

3 What are we modeling? Cumulative Carbon Dioxide emissions.
Cumulative Sulfur Dioxide emissions. Protected Land. Percent of Deforestation and Total Forest Area. Number of Threatened Species – Birds and Mammals. Gross Domestic Income and Percentage Use by Sector. Gross Domestic Income per Capita. Urban Population and its Percentage Growth by 2030.

4 Arc GIS Graphs

5 Arc GIS Graphs Percent Deforestation Rate Percent Land Protected

6 Arc GIS Graphs

7 Arc GIS Graphs

8 Arc GIS Graphs

9 Arc GIS Graphs

10 Current Problems : Pollution

11 China Pollution Issues
Heavy reliance on coal 74% of China’s energy consumption Sulfur dioxide pollution 2/3 of all Asia’s emmissions Acid Rain in 40% of country More nitrogen dioxide Increase in amount of cars Polluted drinking water Human and animal waste

12 Brazil Pollution Issues
Loss of Rainforest Releases sequestered carbon dioxide Transportation Pollution Sao Paulo increase Petroleum Consumption 51% of energy consumption Hydroelectricity Flooded ecosystems Displaced Indigenous people

13 China vs. Brazil : Pollution
Industry Reliance on coal Transportation Increase in cars, nitrogen dioxide Acid Rain Sulfur Dioxide Water Pollution Unfit for drinking Transportation Dramatic Increase in cars, nitrogen dioxide Deforestation Petroleum Consumption Hydroelectricity Flooding Displacement

14 Current Problems : Deforestation

15 China Deforestation Issues
One of the most environmentally unsound nations in the world. Major deforestation due to production of commercial lumber. Slash-and-burn agriculture. Lack of government action.

16 Brazil Deforestation Issues
Nearly 750,000 km2 of forest have been destroyed. 1/3 of deforestation can be linked to “shifted” cultivators. Deforestation attributed to land clearing for commercial and speculative interests.

17 China vs. Brazil : Deforestation
125,000ha cut down for railroads, highways, and high voltage lines. 47,000ha burned down in forest fires. Lack of effective family planning program. Large cleared areas used for cattle feeding. Deforestation for investment purposes. Use of tax incentives that favor pastureland over natural forest.

18 Current Problems : Biodiversity Loss

19 China Biodiversity Loss Issues
Habitat Loss affects 86% of threatened mammals and 86% of threatened birds. Panda’s only source of food – bamboo - is only growing within 500 and 3100 meters. Area of great biodiversity are the areas where people are taking over. Has over 10% of world’s plant and terrestrial vertebrate species, but 1/5 are now endangered.

20 Brazil Biodiversity Loss Issues
Study shows that only 18% of vegetation survive when 12 km away from a road or city and only 5.9% survive when within 1 km of road or city. Alien species are greatly affecting the native species.

21 China vs. Brazil : Biodiversity Loss
Half of China is uninhabited so the population lives within 7% of world’s arable land. Loss of habitat is greatly affected by: Timber Agriculture Fuel wood Infrastructure Hydropower development Brazil is home to precious Amazon basin. Invasive alien species take over In central Brazil there is a dry forest home to many bird species. Taken over for coal production

22 Societal Implications : Pollution

23 Societal Implications of China’s Pollution
40% of China grapples with issues of acid rain. 700 million Chinese drink contaminated water.

24 Societal Implications of Brazil’s Pollution
Growth in the amount of nitrogen dioxide World Health Organization believes it to be the cause of the 30% increase in the amount of deaths from respiratory illness in children under the age of five Increase in amount of hydroelectric plants 1980’s: Created the Brazilian Movement of Dam Affected People to demand fair compensation and active involvement in the decision making process

25 Societal Implications : Deforestation

26 Societal Implications of China’s Deforestation
Tree clearing as an outgrowth of poverty. Farmers gradually intruded nearby forests to gather fuel wood and “shake off poverty.” Focus on profit-making while overstepping villager’s rights and interests. Bare hillsides will worsen natural disasters and engender a new form of poverty.

27 Societal Implications of Brazil’s Deforestation
Risk of quality of life. Gamble with stability of climate and local weather (Lack of humidity and rainfall). Threaten the existence of species. Undermine valuable services provided by biological diversity. Increase erosion, floods, drought, water pollution. Lack of fisheries protection and pollination.

28 Societal Implications: Biodiversity

29 Societal Implications of China’s Biodiversity Loss
Cities within China will grow to completely take over the biodiversity. Complete reliance on international institutions for money to protect biodiversity. Affect region’s lifestyle. The cost of the effects together with the related problems that can arise (like disease, and other illness, or rebuilding and so on) is much more costly than the maintenance and sustainable development practices that could be used instead.

30 Societal Implications of Brazil’s Biodiversity Loss
With urbanization, small villages around the Amazon basin are going to suffer due to lack of food sources and increase of endangered species. External reliance of different organizations to aid with loss of particular species. Exports of soybeans and coffee will exponentially decrease if trends continue.

31 Possible Solutions: Pollution

32 Possible Solution for China’s Pollution
Branches in place to monitor pollution. State Environmental Protection Commission National People’s Congress Environment and Resources Protection Commission Environmental Protection Agency 350 Cities conduct routine air quality monitoring. Decline in Sulfur Dioxide. Closure of small, inefficient plants Controlling use of coal Need to better monitor water quality and create standards.

33 Possible Solutions for Brazil’s Pollution
Address transportation issues. Mass transportation Alternative fuels 1999, restricted days on which people drove Renewable energy use. 31% of energy comes from hydroelectric plants 13% from renewable sources Largest producer and consumer of ethanol from sugar cane

34 Possible Solutions: Deforestation

35 Possible Solutions for China’s Deforestation
Law enforcement of only selective logging. Increase large-scale protection forests and nature reserves. Particularly of non-active management land (15% of China’s territory). Redirect economy away from virgin forests. Emphasize the development of institutions to significantly reduce property right protection costs for forest management. Increase taxes on timber production.

36 Possible Solutions for Brazil’s Deforestation
Teach others about the importance of the environment. Restore damaged ecosystems by planting trees on land where forests have been cut down. Encourage people to live in a sustainable manner. Increase national parks to protect rainforests and wildlife. Support companies that operate in ways that minimize damage to the environment. Develop new conservation policy built on sustainable development.

37 Possible Solutions: Biodiversity Loss

38 Possible Solutions for China’s Biodiversity Loss
Currently Global Environment Fund and World Bank support creation of 1,551 national reserves. Plans are a start but not enough compared to the high growth rate. Slowing rate of biodiversity loss helps animals adjust and adapt to the earth’s changes because of the urbanization.

39 Possible Solutions for Brazil’s Biodiversity Loss
Continue with current plans to make new national parks and expand national forests. Regulate size and materials used for infrastructure. Increase awareness of current problems and future consequences it will have on society.

40 Conclusion Our ArcGIS graphs, along with scientific data show that there is an increase in the negative environmental impacts (pollution, deforestation rates, and biodiversity losses) related to urbanization growth. Although the reasons for such growth differed, the results were similar. If current conditions continue, these countries’ hopes of becoming developed will not be obtainable due to their repercussions on their natural ecosystems.

41 Take Home Message There needs to be a clear shift in today’s mindset and economy towards a focus on the long-term effects each decision has on the environment we belong. Create realistic goals that society can put forth and start being the change we want to see in the world.

42 Works Cited Page Butler, Rhett. “Deforestation in the Amazon.” Tropical Rainforests   “China Says Deforestation Still a Major Environmental Problem.” Terradaily News. 18 Jan tgm9j244.html   CIA World Factbook, Brazil. 8 March CIA World Factbook, China. 8 March 2007. Dasgupta, Susmita and Robert E.B. Lucas and David Wheeler. Plant size, industrial air pollution and local incomes: evidence from Mexico and Brazil. Environment and Development Economics. Cambridge University Press, He, Kebin and Hong Huo and Quiang Zhang. URBAN AIR POLLUTION IN CHINA: Current Status, Characteristics, and Progress. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment. Vol. 27: Nov  Levine, John. Brazil: Profit and Poverty Fuel Deforestation. World Socialist Web Site  Li, Ling. “Rare Dolphin’s Extinction a Red Flag for Biodiversity Loss.” Worldwatch Institute. 28. Dec  “Urban Air Pollution.” Worldbank. Page 69, Chapter 10. June 2004. Yiming, Li and David S. Wilcove. “Threats to Vertebrate Species in China and the United States.” Bioscience. Article: pp Feb Zhang, Yaoqi. Deforestation and Forest Transition: Theory and Evidence in China. World Forests, Society and Environment. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands. Pp %20forest%20transition%20in%20China.pdf

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