Wood Products Two Broad Groups Hardwoods – Broad-leaved trees. White Oak Mahogany Teak Softwoods – Coniferous trees White Cedar (Juniper) Cypress Pines
Softwood Lumber is normally classified in three different ways. 1. Use Classifications Yard Lumber – Less than 5” in thickness, intended for ordinary construction and general building purposes. Select – good appearance and finishing qualities. Common – general construction and utility. Structural Lumber – 2” or more in both thickness and width, used where working stresses are required. Factory and Shop Lumber – Lumber used in different types of millwork and/or in furniture factories.
Wood Products: Softwood Lumber 2. Manufacturing Classifications Rough Lumber – Lumber that has not been dressed (surfaced). Dressed or Surfaced Lumber – Lumber that has been dressed by a planing machine for the purposed of attaining smoothness of surface and uniformity of sizes. Most commonly on all sides and edges. Worked Lumber – Lumber which in addition to being dressed has been matched, shiplapped, or patterned. * Note table of standard sizes of lumber in your handout “Materials & Industrial Standards”.
Wood Products: Softwood Lumber 3. Size Classifications Two basic sizes of softwood lumber. Nominal or rough size – the standard or “nominal” sizes of lumber, such as 1 x 6 or 2 x 4 refer to the nominal thickness and width (in inches) of a board before it is dressed and dried. Actual or dressed size – the finished, actual size of the lumber. Normal or “standard” size softwood lumber are classified as boards, dimension lumber, and timbers. * Note table of standard sizes of lumber in your handout “Materials & Industrial Standards”.
Wood Products: Softwood Lumber Boards – less than 2 inches in nominal thickness and more than 2 inches in nominal width. Dimension Lumber – at least 2 inches in nominal thickness but not more than 5 inches thick and at least 2 or more inches in nominal width. Timbers – Lumber which is 5 or more inches in thickness and width. Timbers may be classified as beams, posts, sills, girders, etc. Standard lengths of lumber are generally 6 feet and longer in multiples of 2 feet. * Note table of standard sizes of lumber in your handout “Materials & Industrial Standards”.
Hardwood grading standards are simpler than those used for softwood. Hardwood is graded by the worst side of the board, whereas softwood is graded by the best side of the board. Hardwood is graded by three basic marketing categories: Factory lumber Dimension parts Finished market products
Wood Products: Hardwood Lumber Factory lumber – grades reflect the proportion of a piece that can be cut into useful smaller pieces. Dimension lumber – grades are based on the entire piece. Finished Market Products – graded for their end use with little or no remanufacture. (molding, flooring, etc.) Hardwood Lumber is sold by random widths and lengths.
Measurements and Pricing Lumber may be priced and sold: By the piece. By the lineal foot. By the square foot (composites and plywood). By the board foot. Generally, when ordering large quantities of softwoods or any marine grade hardwood, you will receive a price per board foot. When calculating board feet always use the nominal size or in the case of hardwoods, the actual rough size.
Measurements and Pricing: Board Feet Board Feet can be calculated in several ways. A board foot represents 144 cubic inches. # of pieces x Thickness (in.) x Width (in.) x Length (in.) # of pieces x Thickness (in.) x Width (in.) x Length (ft.)* Divided by 144 Divided by 12 * This particular formula represents one of the few exceptions to the rule of always using like units when performing calculations.
Measurements and Pricing: Board Foot Calculations A “piece” of mahogany measuring 1 inch thick, 9½ inches wide and 36 inches long would contain how many board feet. # of pieces x T” x W” x L” = 1 x 1” x 9½” x 36” = 342” = 2.375 Board Feet Or # of pieces x T” x W” x L’ = 1 x 1” x 9½” x 3’ = 28.5 = 2.375 Board Feet 144 12
Measurements and Pricing: Board Foot Calculations A “piece” of dressed yellow pine measuring ¾ inch thick, 5½ inches wide and 12 foot long would contain how many board feet. # of pieces x T” x W” x L” = 1 x 1” x 6” x 144” = 864” = 6 Board Feet Or # of pieces x T” x W” x L’ = 1 x 1” x 6” x 12’ = 72 = 6 Board Feet 144 12
Industrial Applications: Lumber Quantity Question – Dock A boat dock your agency uses is in need of repair. The pilings, cross-members and stringers are all in good shape. You are asked to calculate the amount of lumber needed to replace all the existing deck boards with new treated 2 by 6’s. A ½” gap should be left between each deck board to allow water to adequately drain. The dock is 12 foot wide and 60 foot long. What is the total lineal feet of 2 by 6’s needed? What is the total board footage of 2 by 6’s needed?
Industrial Applications: Lumber Quantity Question – Dock 12’ 60’ A treated 2 x 6 measures 1½ inch thick by 5½ inches wide. You would want to order 12 foot long boards. Understanding the standard sizes of lumber will make your calculations much easier. The ½ inch gap is included in the 6” nominal width. 60 feet = 720 inches ----- 720” divided by 6” = 120 boards Therefore you could order 120, 2 x 6 boards, 12’ long. The lineal feet would equal, 120 bds. X 12’ = 1,440 feet.
Industrial Applications: Lumber Quantity Question – Dock 12’ 60’ One linear foot of 2” by 6” board would equal one board foot (144cu.in.). Therefore, the lineal feet and board feet of a 2 by 6 would be equal. (1,440 feet) or # of pieces x T” x W” x L’ = 120 x 2” x 6” x 12’ = 17,280 = 1440 bd.ft. 12 12 12
Industrial Applications: Lumber Quantity Question – Dock 12’ 60’ If you ever need to convert board feet to lineal feet, simply reverse the multiple used to bring lineal feet to board feet. In other words, multiply board feet by 12 and divide by thickness (inches) x width (inches). 1,440 x 12” = 17,280 = 1440 lineal feet 2” x 6” 12